{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

[Opening remarks missing]

... in order to enlighten you. Gentlemen, this report has not been really understood. There's nothing wrong about it, but I'm afraid there's nothing right about it. It's in the twilight. So pardon me; it's obviously very difficult for you to follow. It's obviously still too far away.

So let me today take another tack. I want to show you the degree of intensity of change that we can undergo, and there seem to be -- seems to be necessary to make five distinctions, gentlemen. We have mechanic change. We have organic change. We have change through work. Change through love. And we have change through politics. It's easiest for you to understand perhaps this and these two changes. The revolution makes you into a different person. Did you think that we could -- would get Communism in this country? Obviously the people who now are highly esteemed, like Mr. Williams of DuPont, would then be a dangerous man politically, because he would be a rich man. And rich men in Communism are enemies of the state. And therefore any revolution changes the man's -- your own status. What was good in you suddenly is considered bad. Think of the Loyalists. Down to 1776, to be a Loyalist was an honor in this country, you see. The president of Columbia University -- they are celebrating now their bicentenary, you know, with tremendous ado. Well, at that time, 1776, the president of Kings College, which is the predecessor of Columbia University, was thrown out of the window and had to run for his life to the harbor of New York and get in a sailing vessel and flee to Canada. That's what a revolution does to you, you see. It changes your self-consciousness. Good becomes bad and bad becomes good. And you have a hard time to understand why the people with whom you thought you were identified as Americans, as New Yorkers, you see, suddenly begin to hate you, after they have worshiped you the day before.

So, gentlemen, can you see the change of politics? Every one of your ancestors at one time ceased to be a German, or an Italian, or an Englishman, or an Irishman, or whoever -- whatever he was before, and became an American. That's a political change. And it meant, as you know, much disaster. When the First World War came, all the people in Wisconsin were very unhappy, and -- because their old fatherland suddenly became the enemy of the state in which they lived. They had never dreamt that this would become possible. And you know McCarthyism is the result of that. People in Wisconsin have resented that two -- twice the United States were at war with their home country. And they even say that Mr. McCarthy originally is not McCarthy at all, but of German descent, which would be very much to the point. But whatever it is, Wisconsin is, of course, full of disgruntled people who, without being able to articulate this, are very angry that there between their origin -- the country of their origin and

the country of their destination there should be this terrible attitude, you see. And this constant American predilection of the French for no -- very certain reason, is un-understandable to them. It's an injustice. You see how it -- again yesterday -- day before yesterday, when the steel of the Saar was { } because the secretary of state of the United States gave away the Saar in 1947 without even asking the president, let alone Congress. It has never been stated that the Saar issue is an American issue. You'll find it in not one American newspaper. It's a very interesting story, because the French can get away with anything in this country. That is not a French issue. It's an American invention, the Saar. And it nearly wrecked, as you know, the new peace. And it remains an injustice. But that only shows you that people in Wisconsin have some reason to fear politics. And that's part of their real religion. They dread this. And McCarthy is an outburst to say, "We are better Americans than all these francophiles."

Well, may be that as it is -- in the background, gentlemen, of every one of us there looms the fear of political catastrophe. Take a Quaker, down to 1828, a Quaker could not go to court in England. He was without any legal status, for he didn't belong to the -- you see, he was a non-conformist, and had no group that was represented. Imagine! Such a man could not go to court. There's a famous American -- famous English novel based on this. I have forgotten the title. It's quite a famous book, on the history of a Quaker. It was very popular book. Just before the Emancipation laws, a Quaker was still lawless in England.

So politics, gentlemen, are something where you are exposed to unknown dangers. Politics is always, gentlemen, a change beyond your control. John Adams, the second President of the United States, said, "When we made the revolution, I knew it would lead to the destruction of our family fortunes, and not much better has ensued." That said the second President of the United States, gentlemen, feeling that a revolution was something far beyond human control. You are so ridiculous that in 1933, there was a questionnaire sent out in Harvard -- Harvard students what they liked most. And quite a number said, "A revolution, so that the boredom might end." Well, you can't have a better example of an absolutely atheistic attitude of these monkeys. They are not human beings, who can say that. They don't deserve to be students of Harvard College. And you could have said this in 1933, too. Just have a little revolution. It would be -- just for a change, as we say. Gentlemen, such a change is enough to make you tremble. And anybody who cannot expect change with trembling does -- has not ever plunged into this aspect of change beyond our control.

And therefore it's very hard to talk to you about religion, because you think that you are quite sure that you never tremble. Now, people who cannot weep, I told you, have no religion. The boy who resented that his bride -- his fianc‚e wept on the -- when he departed from England, is a godless fellow. He doesn't deserve to be loved. But it's the same with politics, gentlemen. It's so very hard to talk to a Dartmouth student, because he thinks politics is just politicians. Gen-

tlemen, politics is the incalculable risk. You always hear of calculable -- "calculated risks." It's one of the most stupid expressions there is. It's either calculated, or it's risk. You can never have "calculated risk." That doesn't exist. Anything where we put the hand to the -- our fingers to the cantilever of politics, lead us you don't know where. Poor Mr. Lattimore, when he went to China -- entered politics, he didn't know where it would end. George Marshall was a general, and he met Eisenhower. And when he went into politics and became secretary of state, he didn't know that it would lead to the tremendous exhibition of human weakness -- the President of the United States, that was shown, not standing up for his friend, when it was time to do so. Yes, that's politics. Catastrophical. Changes your character. You're a coward suddenly, when you thought you were a courageous gentlemen. And you call, "this is politics," and then you say it excuse -- as an excuse for the President of the United States, gentlemen. Is it an excuse? It's terrible. It makes you tremble. Who are you and who are we? You hear -- Hitler comes in. There are many, many couples married between Jewish and non-Jewish people in Germany, and they divorce each other, so that the Aryan husband or the Aryan wife may get rid of the Jewish partner. Isn't this to make you tremble, that even marriage is not anything in the face of politics? Just gone, with the wind. Politics, you are a different person, even in your married life.

Once you see your own helplessness in the face of such political changes, you begin perhaps to understand, gentlemen, that politics is not of human making. It's not of your or my or anybody's making. It's the rhythm of life. The rhythm of life. And in this rhythm, God or the Devil appears. That's certainly beyond our control. It's a superhuman power. And you laugh it off and say, "It doesn't exist." Now the atom bomb comes, this technical thing, and you suddenly say, "That's terrible." And that's mechanical change. What's the atom bomb compared to Mr. George Marshall's slander, as a traitor? I say -- tell you that the atom bomb to me, in religious experience, means nothing compared to this terrible letdown of a country in which this can happen. But you tremble and talk, and form committees about the atom bomb. I haven't heard any committee formed against the treatment of General Marshall.

(Sir? Excuse me. Did you say that political change you felt was inevitable and that there was nothing anyone can do about it at this point?)

Yes. Inevitable -- but, how to deal with it is the religious question. Isn't that true? You see?


The difference is only that people today, because you laugh off political change, you are suddenly taken aback when you yourself change your identity under it. It is the coward, you see, who says, "Oh, but I'm a free agent. I'm an

individual," you see. And then comes the political change, and he suddenly discovers, because he's quite unprepared, you see, that he divorces his wife. Now I think a man who has religion knows that he is in danger of losing his identity, because of these tremendous powers. And so he can deprecate it in time, you see, because he knows his weakness. The religious man is always one who admits his weakness. And you are not religious, because you insist on your power. The strong -- the man who says, "I'm strong," then suddenly changes the colors, you see, like that, because he has made an idol of himself, and then it happens. It is better to say that you -- it can happen to you than, "It may not happen." Is this clear?

(Yes sir. Thank you.)

But gentlemen, here you have with the atom bomb a typical mechanical change. That is, movement, in the purely mechanical or physical -- physicist's sense. Speeding up, flying through the air at supersonic speed. That is mechanical change, which is the god of this country. Mechanical change. And you think that this is the only issue that makes you move, move differently. You move now on highways or through the air; and before, you moved on dirt roads.

This change has to be admitted, gentlemen. Mere movement is already change. There is the change of position, of certain elements in the universe, from one place to another. It's a change in space. Movement. It's the minimum space -- change. This change is always viewed by us, as we say, a mechanical change. A machine changes some raw material. And so on. So gentlemen, this change -- mechanical change -- consists of adding power, or adding links, or adding distance to what we can do within our own time limits. And this change, we said before, this first change, mere change, is external to ourselves. That is, gentlemen, when we see movement in the outer world, our mind controls the movement, so the very opposite from politics. Politics changes our mind. Because we suddenly have to greet another flag, and we suddenly get a brainwashing -- as the Communists call it rightly, you see -- because we change our mind. Politics change our mind, surprisingly, unexpectedly. Like the man who divorces his wife the day after Hitler. And movement changes things, and stays our mind. In the mechanical movement, our mind is victorious. In the political movement, you see, our mind is defeated. Can you see this? We call therefore -- you have to have what -- to distinguish the degrees of change, because we have already said that the fact that a man has to go through more than one stage in life, forces him to ask himself, what's all about? And we said, God is the question "when to change."

So gentlemen, if you look at your body, and your soul, and your mind, you can walk. And then you change your place, your position. And everything in this world today is treated as though everything was mechanical change. So we know of change by our own transportation from one place to another. And we

accordingly can direct the rest of the universe to change. So change is an experience of our own life and it is also -- can be put into action in other things. We see the stars move, and we can construe accordingly then things moving very fast or very slowly. Organic change you also all know, from ourself; we digest, we breathe, we burn oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. So that's a different kind of change. It's physiological change, as I like to call it. We have, as you know, this strange ambiguity that physics today means purely mechanical processes. In Greek, however, it meant, of course, the whole plantation of the universe, the living universe was physos in Greek. So we have a very hard time to divide now the two kind of processes: the organic ones, of living matter, physiological; and the physical. Originally, it's all one. And so we call this better organic and mechanic so make clear that this is the realm of the -- these gentlemen who dominate your mentality today so completely, the physicists with their stratospheric dreams and all their perversions. And it is really terrifying to see you believe in the importance of mechanical change. Do you really think that a doctor who goes around in a horse and buggy is a worse man -- worse off than the man who goes around in a Chrysler? But that's what you believe. They -- you call this even progress. I prefer certainly the doctor of the horse and buggy days. He was a real man. This modern doctor has so much to do to be a chauffeur that he rarely is a doctor.

So, gentlemen, just to remind you of the same root: this is a physiological change. We -- as I said, it's in our own body. You can cook and boil also in the outer world. You can -- chemistry, of course, is the great externalization of your inner experience of cooking, of boiling-over, of mild indigestion, of fever.

Now, gentlemen, you all know that you undergo these organic changes. They are not connected so much with a loss of place, of position. Movement is. You can also define "movement" negatively with the fear and trembling of God by calling it "loss of position." It is not only -- always something positive to go places, gentlemen. Because it can also be very negatively felt, as losing your home. And you never -- you are so certain that movement in itself is an advantage, that you rarely come to consider that you cannot have movement without loss of position. You lose something. So the loss here -- let me put it negatively, because religion has, after all, to do with fear and trembling and faith. It is a loss of position. Now what is chemistry doing, gentlemen? That's the loss of form, is it not? Some substance changes, a loss of form, not of position. The loss of quality. But "form" is perhaps better. The psychologists call it Gestalt. It's a loss of structure. It's melted down and boiled up again, you see. It's re-fused, re-molded. And we all undergo this change, day by day, and if you are very sick -- who has had a -- had to be in bed for more than four weeks in a -- in a stretch once? Well, you must know that such a sickness, you see, does something to you, does it not? This organic change puts you to the test. You are asking this question, what it means to be so sick, you see.

So here enters the question, gentlemen, the meaning of illness. And here I already would say is a tremendous minus in American life, whereas movement is always getting the plus sign. More movement, more movement, more movement. Physiological change, illness, is something which you think should be strictly avoided. Gentlemen, sickness is a lifesaver. People become sick when they don't know any way out -- other way out. Illness, for a religious person, is not meaningless. It's nothing to be -- just to be handed over to other people. You are a religious person, you just don't go immediately to the hospital. But that's the American attitude, making it into a mechanical change of position. If you can go to another place, you already think that you have responded to illness right. Gentlemen, you have only responded to your sickness right if you make it a chapter in your whole life. But you can't. You can't. You reduce this organic, great event of a real sickness into something mechanical. They bundle you up, they put you as a package into a hospital bed, and then you tell the doctor, the nurse, "Take -- you take care of me from now on. I'm at your -- I'm just your object." And that you call "objectivity" and science. And that's why illness in this country is a tragedy. Also, you see it financially. Because everybody abdicates, and as soon as you abdicate your own personality, of course they take -- they rape you. They are -- will ravage you. They fleece you. So everybody is ruined in this country when he falls sick, because it costs thousands of dollars to get well again. The whole question of social medicine is in this, because you do not accept an organic change as a personality challenge, but you abdicate it immediately and say it is a mechanical challenge. This is the whole story of modern man with regard to illness. You don't know this chapter, the miracles of your own body. Gentlemen, illnesses are for most people stepping-stones in the development of their character. You come to the end of your rope, in one -- in some certain development, and you fall sick, because you haven't made the { } in time, voluntarily. People over-work and they fall sick. They get the famous flu in November. They come home at Labor Day; they plunge into work without any letup. They know of no Sunday, but only of family gatherings, instead. They have no Sabbath. So in November, they all have an angina, you see. Or they all have a sore throat. Why shouldn't they? Bad living. But they go to the doctor for the sore throat.

(What would you suggest they do?)

Well, at least admit how they got the illness. It would help the doctor, too. They call this now "psychosomatic," because even the doctors themselves are fed up with this, you see, as they { } just a symptom. We'll see, gentlemen -- you must allow me to postpone the answer to this. It is very -- but you can take this down.

Every illness can come from five different layers of life. It can have a mechanical cause, like too much sunshine. I mean, you get a -- you burn yourself up, you see, by -- that's mechanical, of course, you see. And you can get the same illness

also in the chapter of organic living, you see, and as we shall see later from other reasons. So what -- my shortest answer to you would be, any symptom in this field, or any symptom in this field -- loss of position, can have five causes. It can come from five different realms of your real life.

Gentlemen, the next stage -- in this organic life, gentlemen, as you know, there is not -- no consciousness. People today call it the subconscious. What happens there. But I think it is a poor word. It's the organic life, which we all lead. Women originally had more of this organic certainty of their inner rhythm than men. They have their monthly rule, by which they are reminded that they are like moon -- the moon, subject to a rhythm of which their mind has no control. But you and I have the same, gentlemen. If you are -- penetrate into your own rhythm, you will see that organically speaking, you too are undergoing changes according to the seasons and according to your age. And that has nothing to do with subconscious, because that means to say that something shouldn't be subconscious. It should be made conscious. But the -- your organic digestion, for example, you see, remains organic. It's a chapter -- the original chapter by itself and other American attempts to call it subconscious is only an overrating of the conscious, as we shall see. There is also superconscious, as we shall see soon.

The conscious realm to which we now come, gentlemen, is that of purpose. I say I am now going to buy me lunch. As an organic creature, you would say, "I'm going to eat." But as a purposive American man, you say, "I'm going to buy a lunch now." The difference between buying a lunch and saying "I'm going to eat. I'm very glad. I look forward to this happy meal" is very strong, you see. I'm going to eat is an admission of your -- the organic processes of digestion. "I buy a lunch" is trying to put this to the -- under the domination of your will and your intent. So, of course, you have a poor digestion and you get ulcers. Ulcers are a translation of organic processes into the realm of the will. And that doesn't work. To eat is -- should be a consequence of your appetite. An appetite is something in your organs. The spittle develops. The saliva comes and you are hungry. Then you should eat. But if you did this, you could never say, "I'm going to buy a lunch." You would say, with great bliss, the feeling of real satisfaction, "I'm going to have lunch." Then it is still miraculous that despite your mind and your purpose, and all your idiotic intentions, you can do right by your body, by following its instincts and by satisfying its needs. But anybody who says, "I'm going to buy my lunch," is in great danger that he becomes the typical American working bee. That is, that he tries to live by his mind.

The third group, gentlemen, is the mental group of life actions. Part of our doing have to be intentional, deliberate. And they are therefore conscious. And they split man into mind and will. The mind says one thing and the will then tries to articulate this, gentlemen. In an organic process, gentlemen, the instinct leads and the mind becomes aware of it. First the body is hungry, and then I say "I am hungry." I'm forced to admit what is there, you see. But if I say I'm going to

be a doctor, I first say I'm going to be a doctor and then I force my poor body and my organism into becoming a doctor. That is, there the organism follows the will, in the decision of becoming a doctor. And in the problem of eating, it should be the other way around. Your mind should finally give in to the hunger of your stomach. Isn't that clear?

So gentlemen, in this organization of life, which most of you try to establish alone and uniquely -- what you call the "rational animal" -- this rational animal has a mind first and a body later. The sequence is that the poor body is meant to follow suit to what the mind has decided is right. Our whole industry is based on this assumption, gentlemen. Modern worker -- work is done in this deliberate fashion. A man is not allowed to take a few pebbles and find out how he can arrange them in a beautiful puzzle just by -- organic play, but intentionally he is told that within an hour, he can put together 2,000 stones in a mosaic by will, and so that's manufacture, you see. The other would be art. And so we manufacture today things, gentlemen. So the mind has our hands in his service and our will and tries to manufacture the things which we will, which our mind says are necessary. This is very important, gentlemen. This is a whole realm of work and production. What we call today modern industry, modern society is based on the power of the will to make the body serve. First the mind, and then the body.

Here it was the other way around. With the chemical processes, gentlemen, of your digestion, of your -- you first choke, and then you say, "Open the window. I must have fresh air." There it would be first the body -- the organisms, isn't it -- and second, the mind. Now since you are educated only in this world, and know only about this, since all your sciences which you are taught -- sociology, psychology, philosophy -- are based on this strange single-case situation of mind first, body second. You of course do violence to all your other chapters of life. And most of you to the next chapter, that's the fourth chapter, that's the realm of love.

The fourth chapter, gentlemen, this would be one, two, three -- we come to { } now mind you, in every minute, you and I are naming in all these chapters, in all these balloons, in all these gondolas, I should say, or in all these garments, you see, you all have at any moment to defend your position in space. I mean, otherwise you fall down by gravity. You all are -- we all mechanically are moving. I'm moving at this moment. You are sitting there. That's all in the realm of mechanics necessary at any one moment. You defend a position, or shift a position. It is all the time necessary while you are seated here that you are breathing, and digesting. And getting hungry. And getting tired. That's all necessary, and they -- make for change. You're -- you -- you're preparing for the third -- your third teeth, already. And the third chapter, gentlemen, again -- some work, some intention you have shown by coming here and saying, "At 2 -- 1:25, I am going to be here," and bring up your body into this classroom by an act of your mental decision, isn't it true? You -- here the body has followed suit. Otherwise

you couldn't sit here and do the work.

So I want to say, gentlemen, if I now tried to explain to you these five layers of life in which you are at this moment hung up, that doesn't mean that we really can at any one moment forego any one of them. The -- we'll see this about five, right away. But four. Gentlemen, you are here and you can only stand this drab hour here by some degree of affection you -- some other people have for you: your parents, your teachers, the administration, the whole country of America who loves their college boys, your own self-love, the love of your friends -- this whole realm of useless affections, gentlemen. What's the -- do I gain by the good life? You remember your question. Well, the answer is, you see, I am hungry to love -- be loved and to love. We all are. And you couldn't stay, if you think -- would think -- just close your eyes for one minute. Can you do this in this room? It's very hard. Can you all close your eyes for one minute? It's not so easy. Well, do it, really. Close your eyes, gentlemen, and try to figure a world in which nobody cares for your existence. And just try to cut out all the people who are at this moment glad to have good news, good tidings of you. And cut them really out. Try it, gentlemen. And you will suddenly see that you are suspended not just in organic and chemical processes, or mechanical, gentlemen, that these processes of affection are the only thing that really count. You know very well where you were last weekend. And you know very well what you are planning to do next weekend. And that's what keeps you going during the whole week. Isn't that true?

Now, gentlemen, open your eyes again. It is very strange. You know that this physical closing of one's eyes is very difficult because you all are over-operative, over-intentional. The man of purpose cannot close his eyes because he wants to control the world by his eyes. The mind, gentlemen, is an attempt to be in control. Would you take this down? In the third chapter, we all try to be in control. And therefore we don't want to close our eyes. A mystic has always his eyes closed, because he doesn't want to be in control of himself. He has no self. But the rational animal which you try to be, gentlemen, hates to be not in control. And you cannot be in control if you close your eyes. You begin then to get dizzy. You swim. "There is a ship, and she sails the sea. And sea is deep as deep can be. My -- and my love is a ship, and it's going by. I do -- and -- " how is it? Do you know the verse? "The sea -- My love is a ship that sails the sea. The sea is as deep as deep can be -- " Well, the last line in any case is, "I know not if I sink or swim." I know not if I sink or swim. That's the experience of the fourth aspect of life, gentlemen. If you have anybody whose relation to you are in doubt, you don't know if you sink or swim. It's nothing in your control. You know, you can lead a horse to the water, but you can't make it drink. In the same way, you can tell a girl, "Love me," but you cannot force it upon her, if she doesn't. And in this sense, gentlemen, the fourth chapter is outside our -- your control. The mental chapter of your -- our existence, or the mental realm, or the mental cycle, or circle around you -- us is one in which our eyes are wide open and we are in control.

We have the doss. We have the savings. We have the capital. We can invest. We, we, we, we. We do it, we plan. We build. And so you get the skyscrapers. Ja?

(You said love is -- marriage is mental -- a mental experience --?)

No, it's anti-mental, Sir. Anti-mental. The mind can only dissuade you from falling in love, gentlemen. Do you know why God put the organs of sex into the most despicable place? So that you would have to break to whole resistance of your mind before you should give in to love. If the passion is great enough, that you forget all these visible circumstances, you see, physical, of the act of love, then you can love. And you can get married. You think it's the other way around. You think it's all just for the purpose. No, gentlemen. God here hides this great passion in order to make it quite clear that love is not an act of your consciousness, that -- that you are so overpowered by love that you will overcome your conscious impediments. { } -- Mr. Freud came into the world to show that where the mind enters love -- it destroys it. That's the whole problem of psychoanalysis. His great teacher, Charcot, you see, said all the -- he was a great man in -- in so-called alienist, as the French call them, the man of the mental -- insanity -- I mean, a doctor for -- psychiatrist. And he told Freud in 1882, or 1883 -- I don't know when -- one of these years, he said, "All my mental cases, c'est toujours genitale." It comes always from love, because these people, as Frenchmen would, are so over-minded, over-conscious that they can't love. That they frustrate their love by always being -- wanting to be in complete control of the situation. When you write a poem, gentlemen, to your sweetheart, you allow love to dictate your words. When you write, however, a rational statement, why you have the money to marry her, you reduce the marriage to an intentional proposition of Chapter Three. so you don't write poems, at least the Quarterly, the Dartmouth Quarterly, seems to prove that, that you are completely impotent of writing love poetry. And therefore your girl knows this, of course. And she asks you, "How much can you spend on a weekday?" and accordingly, she measures your affections.

The -- love is the power to overpower your mind, gentlemen. That's very simple.

But don't think that it's just the love to your sweetheart, gentlemen. Love occurs, or passion -- I should say, in much more general which -- because it is a great, great goddess, passion has nothing very -- really it has to do with sexual love, but it's only -- it's one of its outlets. Friendship is exactly in the same way. The relation of children and their parents is in exactly the same class. Hatred is in the same class. Why must people hate always somebody, you see? In this country, as you know, we have the President of the United States as an object of hate. I've never seen the hatred expounded by decent people to such a degree as I once met in the Somerset Club, the most fashionable club of Boston. I was invited there for the Harvard centenary, and I was seated between three judges. One

across the table, and two left and right of me. And they just spit venom against Franklin D. Roosevelt. I've never seen such an exudation of hatred and poison. But they need it for their digestion. And it was good for their bile. And a New Englander must have some hatred or some panic every year for three months. It's like going to Florida. It's a recreation. So don't believe, gentlemen, that hatred is not just as normal as love. Only takes other forms.

I had a friend who was really the kindest of humanity. He has never done any wrong to anybody. He wouldn't kill a fly. And he was very much beloved. And he said to me, and I think it's a great case in point. I wouldn't quote my -- me, because I wouldn't trust my own heart. But he said, "You have to hate. The difference between love and hate is only that hate must be short-lived for a wicked deed, or something. You must burst out with the flame of hate so that this wickedness is destroyed. Whereas love is supporting, and wants the life of the beloved for all the time." But if there was nothing to eradicate in the world, you see, and we couldn't hate, we couldn't live, because the hatred of the dead and that which produces death, of the Devil -- is a necessary corollary to love. And you cannot love, because you cannot hate.

It's the same, gentlemen, the difference between courage and intrepidity. It's very similar. You all have intrepidity, I take it. It's the great American virtue. But that intrepidity is something that comes this side of fear. Now gentlemen, a courageous man is not a man who has intrepidity, who never trembles. But a courageous man is a man who doesn't give a damn for his own cowardice. That is, if you don't have the coward inside yourself, you can't be courageous. You're just foolhardy. That's not courage. Courage is -- courageous is the man who is able to overcome his cowardice, and whom I shall respect. But I shall not respect the foolhardy, who doesn't even know of the danger. But you mistake this all the time, gentlemen, because it's the same with love. You are kind. You are too kind to your sweetheart as you are to your sister or your mother. Gentlemen, that isn't good enough for passion. You can only love if, for example, you are jealous of a rival. If you feel nothing but kindness for the rival, too, or for the three rivals, you certainly can't love, because love is selective, and rejects that which is not to be loved.

You know the Old Testament is full of this, that God is jealous, because how could He love Israel, if He were -- was -- didn't care? But you are so tolerant, gentlemen, you are all lukewarm. Now the New Testament says the lukewarm have to be spit out. God can do nothing with the lukewarm. And the third chapter, gentlemen, here, the mind, is lukewarm. It's in control. And man can only be in control as long as he's lukewarm. And with regard to commodities, you should be lukewarm. It really -- in business, it's good to be lukewarm. I mean, that's just in the delivery chapter of life that we work. And there we should not be upset. And we should cut our losses, and we should be quite indifferent. And we meet any man downtown and we have dinner with them, and to Hell with them. I

mean, you don't care for them, really, you see; and so you are very tolerant. But gentlemen, is this already your last, and most real relation to humanity? It is one, and you, however, are so much in the spell of the principles of good business that you think the method by which a businessman deals with a shocking individual, by treating him nicely and kindly, and -- is the only way in which we can deal with human beings. It's one way. It's the way where we do not lose control, you see. But gentlemen, if you cannot love, and lose yourself in this love, you cannot say that you know what life is.

(You say that this hate has to be short-lived to be --you have to -- the hate has to be short-lived?)

Hate has to be short-lived. I would say -- I have, you see -- once you grow up, my dear man, you see in my face that I have lived, and I see in your face that you have not lived, you see. And that means that I have loved, and hated, and feared, and dreaded. and you have -- neither -- done neither of these things. You haven't been sleepless, trembling that the world would crash around your ears. But we have lived through some events. And so this is to be seen in my face, certainly. Now what was your question?

(I was --)

So I know what hate is, and I know how tempting it is to hate. Shouldn't I hate the Nazis who have taken my home country? You see? That's a very simple example.

(Yes. That's the thing I was wondering about. Before, you had mentioned that love should be short -- hate should be short-lived, and yet, it looks to be the antecedent to love when love is something that would be long-lived; why, I would think that there would be some hate that you must carry with you.)

No. You see, the strange thing is that life and death are not in a balance, in equilibrium. Life must win out. It's the same with love and hate. You see, your -- our logic -- again, the third aspect of our -- you see, your reason, which wants to be in control, as a rational animal, says, "Here's life. There's death. Here is love. There is hatred. So, 50-50." Obviously this isn't true, you see, because love and life must win out over death and hate, see? Can you see this?

(Yes, Sir.)

There is no such equilibrium as the logic says. Logic is so that far wrong, because all opposite members of a syllogism can be balanced logically. You see, black and white; and day and night; and on it goes. But gentlemen, the problem of living is obviously that there has to be a little more light than darkness, you see; and a little more love than hate; and a little more life than death, you see.

And so there is no such logical equation. They are not on equal terms, or in life, they are just in your poor logic and my poor logic. And so down with logic. Logic is a tempter. It's always the Devil who tells you cynically, "It's all one. At the end, we are all dead." But gentlemen, to have lived in between is quite something, you see. It makes a difference whether you are dead today or tomorrow.

(Did your friend, who said that hate had to exist in order to eradicate, and should be short-lived, also say that hate should be supplanted by love? Or love should follow, necessarily, in the same vein as the hate?)

But not to the same object. You see, the old tradition of the Church is that you have to hate the sin and not the sinner. But you see, if you see what drunkenness does in this country, or drug addiction, you see, you must hate this whole traffic in drugs, must you not? This { } business. And the smoking of young women, who upset the whole rhythm, whole secret of their life by all these drugs. Smoking is just as bad to them, because the human -- a woman is in such a rhythmical harmony that she doesn't need the stimulators. And we are ruined as a race here in this country.

So you should hate that. You shouldn't hate the girl, as long as you can hope that she is not seducing others. As soon as such a person becomes a witch and tries to ruin other girls, to do the same marijuana, you must hate her, I would say. I, at least, couldn't help hating her, you see, because she is spreading the poison, do you understand? So there are degrees. As long as you can hope that you can dissociate the woman from her vice, you see, you only have to hate the vice. And that corresponds to hate. Hate is something abstract, because it's just annihilation. You do not take up a creature and say, "How wonderful that God made her." But you dismiss it, and say, "God did not mean to include into His creation drugs and our addiction to drugs." Couldn't you? So you are acting on God's -- in God's place in this moment by dis-creating, you see, something that has cropped up as an ugly boil on the face of humanity.

I have this interesting -- you may be interested, gentlemen. I have a -- reports on a case of a young woman who grew up too sheltered. And she's 25 and she's still living as though she was 17. The parents have just given their all to this daughter and have not allowed her to grow up. I mean, she's just where she should be at -- you see, have -- might have been at 17 -- the reason is that the mother married at the age of 18 and never knew what it meant to be grown up on her own. You see, she married when she was still a -- so young, that she doesn't know what it means to be 18 and not to marry. So for seven years this girl has been ruined. And so I'm getting all these reports, and I am asked to advise these poor people, because the girl went insane and had a deep melancholia and wanted to jump out of the window, had persecution mania, and all kinds of things. And they brought her into an asylum. And there all the sick tell each other about their phenomena, their symptoms, and comfort each other. They call

this now group therapy, and deprive the sick person, the mental -- alienated person of the one power of her hatred for her own sickness. And I have ordered them to take the girl immediately out and to -- not allow her to see anything -- to anybody but healthy people so that her hatred of her own sickness may come into play. That she must fear this relapse into this state, like the Devil, like a snake. That's a part of the cure. You can fight your own states, you see. And already, I understand it, it's beginning to work.

So we undermine this power of resisting against such a mental, you see, delusion, by our modern treatment. It's very cruel. If you go to Concord, I think it will be held against us in future days how we treat the mental cases. No nurses. Thousands herded together, and everybody treated in Chapter 3. I mean it's -- prisons and mental asylums of America are not nice places to think of. It's a complete misunderstanding of human nature, to put 10 mental cases together and allow them to un-- disarm their horror against their own being sick, you see. Condemn them to die. There you have a case of hatred, you see. But hatred against part of yourself is a necessary medication. Jesus says as much in the New Testament. He says, "He who doesn't hate himself and his parents and his brothers and sisters cannot reach the kingdom of Heaven." If you cannot at times turn against these great powers, which in general are a blessing, you have made them into idols. You have lost the power of dissociation. Gentlemen, what is hate? That God is interfered with by these lower associations.

So I have tried to tell you this beforehand that dissociation, or -- is a part of your relation to your own destination. If you cannot hate that which stands in the way of your destination, you see, you cannot love. Because love, gentlemen -- now, let me say it -- is taking the plunge into your next state. It is the courage to be transformed. He who declares his love is changed thereby. To speak, gentlemen, lovingly, means to be willing to be changed. So in the chapter of love, we for the first time reach that situation in which a man affirms his willingness to change. Nobody can love and keep in his own mind. That's impossible. You cannot stay in control when you love. If you pay a dancer in the Met, because you are a rich man, you can have her as your mistress, and you can have your money and put so much in -- into her clothes. If you get married, gentlemen, you very well know that your will is very soon replaced by her will. And if you are fortunate, the only redemption -- redeeming grace is that her will is replaced by your will, at the same time. But if you do not -- cannot dismiss your will when you get married, you can't get married. And most people in this country can't get married.

I have this case now -- another woman comes to me for advice. Her husband was a drunkard and he later he shot himself. Now I can't tell her, of course, that he never loved her. And she must never have loved him, because otherwise he would never have committed suicide, and he would have stopped to be a drunkard.

So the fourth situation, gentlemen -- why do you have a friend, gentlemen? Because he's more understanding of your shortcomings than you are, and you accept from him all these criticisms. Otherwise you are -- he's only a chummie. Don't have such a roommate who never tells you the truth about you. It's no use. Waste of time. And certainly leads only to disaster. Obviously you have a friend, so that he may be able to state in time before a great disaster happens to you what you should not do. In other words, you -- with every fraction of friendship, gentlemen, we give up a part of our own will. We can only do this in reciprocity. Gentlemen, love is reciprocal, or mutual. If you have not this faith in the reciprocity, you cannot really love. And so this country, however, does -- not knowing this gentlemen, is sick of the will to love. You all will to love. Will love. You cannot will love. You either love or you will. Love and will are opposite -- at opposite poles.

Chapter 3, I intend to have built a factory. I build a factory. And finally, I turn out atom bombs. That's all mind first, body second. Gentlemen, what is the sequence of events in love? The first embarkment on your new station is that somebody calls you "friend," or "sweetheart," or "honey," or whatever it is. That is, that you are called out by a new name. Any love affair is certified when the people involved call themselves by names not previously used. That is, you embark on a -- affair, as we say, but this affair has to do with your soul. That is, it is against your own mental prejudices. You suddenly find yourself that you love a girl who is older than you, or younger than you, and you have -- she is brown, and you always thought you would only love blondes. Everything in love is a surprise. And it's always quite different from what your mind has painted it before. Or that isn't love. It isn't worth it. If you can marry the girl which you have planned to marry, please don't marry her. That's the end. For this, you see, nothing is necessary in love which is predictable. Nothing is { }. That's why it is terrible to marry only for having children and to count that on March 17, you will beget the first son. You -- we love, gentlemen, and do not know what comes of it. You must marry your girl. And if there are children, there are children. But you can't marry for children. That's ridiculous. They are a fruit of love. But do you see in the flower the fruit? No. You believe just that this fruit, because it's a living being, will develop into a fruit.

So I mean, we have today these two classes of people, gentlemen. Some people marry with a doctor's certificate that they can have good offspring. They are in Chapter 3, you see. Or they marry as bachelors, you see, because they are bored stiff and they can afford to have a wife. And they belong into Chapter 2 -- 3. And don't -- they can -- do not know what "marry" is. I would say the first people who go to the doctor and say, "Yes, you two are both of good races, and eugenics tells us that you would have nice children," they belong into vegetation, here, in the physiological part, the organic part.

(I would conclude from that that eloping would be a religious experience.)


(I would conclude from that that eloping would be sort of a religious experience, because it's really love, and being carried away with passion, and not with the mind. Well, you said one time that --)

Well, sometimes, it's just impudence, eloping. You see, real love is very patient, and is not in a hurry. Now elopement, I mean, I don't know. Looks like a shotgun wedding to me.

(Is that where you would get your tie-in between --)

I mean, in one -- pardon me, in one way you're right. The Bible says very reasonably that a man must leave his parents, his father and mother, and cleave to the wife of his choosing. But it doesn't say that the wife must elope from her parents. I think that a good suitor is a man who finally convinces his in-laws, you see, that they have to give way. It's my only indication against eloping. From the side of the man, it's all right that he should act, regardless of what his parents say. I'm not so sure that the girl should act regardless of what her parents say. Not quite the same. At least, not -- well, if they don't -- if they are unreasonable and obstinate, you see. Elopement is a very ambiguous term. Not to tell them beforehand, I feel, is unpermittable. If then they -- you are unreasonable, then that is a different story. Then that wouldn't be elopement, really, you see. Elopement, after all, I take it, means to take the girl away without ever having tried to reconcile her parents to the act. Isn't that true? And I think that is doing that -- if I were a woman, I would say that this man cannot love me very much. He can only love me for my beauty, because my dowry, as a woman my dear man, would then be the traditions of my home: the faith of my father, the dignity of my mother, the self-respect of the family. Now if I am forced elope with you, you see, this would mean that I don't give a damn for the best I have gotten. And that he doesn't give a damn. { }. A woman, after all, is not just a pound of flesh. And she represents the order of the world, that now will be able to be carried on. The husband can -- only can -- he constitutes the disorder of the world, you see. He'll run into debts and will smash everything up. But she is tidy, and I mean this in every word, my dear man, you see. So be careful. Love doesn't mean to use an atom bomb. And you smash up the whole old family. How can you then ever expect your children to enter any family life? It's a very doubtful proposition.

Now please. There was another question.

(I was just -- I noted a discrepancy between what you said before about the fact that we nowadays marry too young and -- well, not a complete discrepancy -- you stated a financial reason for not marrying -- not marrying young. And considering that there are other reasons, other than financial. Is this patience the

philosophy what you would mean to say if a person fell in love at a young age? Would that be what would carry him over to the older age?)

I would think so. Wouldn't you say so? That formerly we were expected to bring all the troubles of the world to our sweetheart. Now you are only expected to draw unemployment insurance. That's too little. You don't bring her anything. You see, the challenge of a young man at 21 is to build up in the next year so much of a future, of a career -- of a -- you see, of a position, that you have to offer something to your wife. Now if you marry at 20, you see, she's -- usually has to go into business and make the money. So that's not real -- full love, because your passion doesn't show itself. I don't believe in passion just as a word, my dear man. Passion means to be given wings so that you can do deeds which otherwise you couldn't do. The drab worker who works eight hours a day, when he is in love can suddenly work on the site four more hours to build a house for his sweetheart, or whatnot, I mean. Or he can suddenly get a better job, because he is winged. Love, you see, over -- goes uphill. Perhaps this is the best description gentlemen, against the other chapters. Wherever you are in love, gentlemen, the difficult becomes the easy one -- thing. And that's why the salmons go upstream, to spawn. That shows their vitality. When you are in love, gentlemen, you overcome gravity. That's the test. This is the test of love, gentlemen, that you do overcome gravity. Otherwise you are not in love. Otherwise, just will.

(That I understand. But that's not exactly what I was driving at. I -- you said that we marry too early. I mean, just in general say -- for instance, I'm { } 26 or 27 as being a far better age to marry than as a -- than 20 or 21; yet, well say that a person either falls in love or thinks he falls in love at 20, are you -- do you mean by that that we are actually incapable of knowing what love is, then? Or that if we should fall in love at that time, that the patience of love should carry us over until we are maturer or ready to marry?)

I have no recipes. Every case, every human being is different. You have your freedom. But I would suggest very, very strongly this one point, gentlemen. The power to love is something just as -- to be developed as the power to read, or the power to think, or the power to walk. It is nonsensical to think because that at 14, we can have feelings of sex and with all the details of the sex act, that you should marry at 14. That would be the logical consequence of your interpretation, you see. If physiologically, you see, we are able to marry, we should marry. Obviously not, you see. At 21, you become able to select -- that is, to see differences, you see. It is not just sex; it is not promiscuity. But you open your eyes and you see how different the destinations of the human race are, really, by just your distinguishing the girls whom you do invite up here and whom you don't invite. And the best girl is then the third whom you don't invite, and get married. You know very well how many boys make this distinction, that they invite somebody up here to the various parties, but that's not the person they intend then to marry. They have a good time with her. They -- I think they're quite wise. They post-

pone the real decision, but at the same time, they are very nice and friendly with girls, you see. Isn't that a show of some reasonable attitude, in this respect?

Gentlemen, the fifth chapter. We are completely in a realm beyond our control, and yet, also beyond our feelings. This is an unemotional world, icy-cold. I think Mendez-France is the type. An excellent statesman, but icy-cold. Very terrifying. I couldn't stand it. I couldn't live with such an icy-cold man as my antagonist. I'm afraid that Mr. Adenauer may be -- die very soon after his negotiation with this man, because he exhales just iciness. He's amok, he runs amok with the political idea, but he is absolutely no human touch. Very interesting phenomenon. Very -- obviously very good in politics. But very horrifying to have to deal with, because he just -- such people murder others who are of a weaker or softer breed, a gentler breed.

You just read Shakespeare to understand. What happens to Richard II if he has to deal with politicians. I mean it. I mean, this is murderous, because there is no reciprocity. May God save you, I mean. If you know -- go into politics, you must know what happens there. That you give a little finger to an icy machine, to an avalanche. Nothing human about it. Beyond our control, gentlemen.

Now, what is the human position with regard to politics? That's the important -- the central position? Is there any? Is this just fate? The ancients said of course it was fate. Here we have passion. The name first, and body and mind later. If you read Romeo and Juliet, by the way -- ja, I am still once more back in the fourth chapter -- if you read Romeo and Julia, you have a very clear case of the order of the human energies in love. Romeo there says that in the night, "It is my soul that calls upon my name." You know this line? It's the greatest line in Romeo and Juliet. "It is the soul that calls upon my name." And because he is now suddenly called out, "Romeo," by this loving soul, his whole life is, you see, revamped and he loses his consciousness, his intents, everything, you see. And so you must just learn that this exists, that this new name suddenly changes everything else, rearranges everything else, even makes him { } within 24 hours to his death. A new name, and that name, gentlemen, means the discovery of his one soul. The name signifies that there is a power which overcomes our own mind and our own body. So I don't care whether you call it "name" or "soul." The word "soul" is so unfamiliar to you, better call it a new "name," if you hesitate to acknowledge the power of this. But I assure that when your girl calls you with the name she only gives you, you will wake up from death.

There is a famous novel by -- not a famous novel, but a very good novel by Esther Forbes, called Paradise. Anybody read it? Well, it's playing -- is laid out in New England. Mr. -- Miss Forbes is writing as a New Englander, Yankee lady. And she -- there is a story where, at that time, in the 17th century, people were married without their will, of course. And there was an indentured servant in her father's house, of this young woman, who -- with whom she was in deep love.

They had played together as children. And she marries the clergyman, whom she does not love, who is a fanatic, and a very terrible man. And in her childbed, she just wants to die. And she really means it. It's her opportunity. Why should she live? And the child cannot be born and the travail is not working out and so finally this clergyman overcomes his deep-rooted jealousy against this young man and calls him in and says, "Will you talk to her?" And the man says, "Leave me alone with her, then I will." And so, while she is in this deep lethargy and apathy and -- very happy to die, he calls her by the name she -- he gave her when she was playing with him, when they were 14. And she cannot resist. And she returns into life and she survives. And the clergyman understands that he owes it to this man's deep love that his wife comes back to life, which is quite a story. It's a very wonderful book, Paradise, I recommend it to you, just for this -- this is the heart of the story, gentlemen.

And believe me, or believe the book, this integrating power of a new name, gentlemen, glues together the man who is split in mind and body. Love heals the split between mind and body. Now, whatever you call this, "soul" or "name," what then the new unity is, but love unifies a person that otherwise would split himself into mind and body, as you all do. You stand before your mirror all the time and look at your body. And that's why you are no people. Real people don't do that. You are not mind and body. As long as you think so, you are split. You are schizophrenic and you know how this -- one thing begets the other, because people do not know that they wait for the name by which they will be unified again. They go schizophrenic in this country. There are more schizophrenics in America than in any other country of the world. Nobody in the Philippines ever goes schizophrenic, because these people love each other. Or they hate each other. But they certainly don't think of themselves as mind and body. But you do. And so, in the consequences of schizophrenia, you see very clearly that love is the power to heal the split where mind first, body second, says. { }. I always feel that many of you are tempted to treat your body as an object. You give him all the nice treatment. You go under the shower. But gentlemen, it's you who is under the shower, not your body. Enjoy it, sure. But say, "I am under the shower, " and not "I expose my body to manicure and pedicures, and short waves and permanent waves."

But isn't this just your illness? Don't you actually, when you are -- are put to the test, pained to believe that you are mind and body? That's a sin, gentlemen. You cannot be a good lover, and you cannot be happy in love, as long as you think that God created a mind and a body, He created you, with all your dirtiness. He's just as interested in your little toe as your mind. Your mind is no better than your body. That's Greek, that's Platonic. It always leads to homosexuality and perversion, as soon as you begin to believe that you have a mind and body in separation. And it's the degradest of the body. There's no reason why the body is not just as much divine as the mind. I don't think your mind is -- I really like -- no, I won't say anything.

And -- but -- number -- Chapter 5. Gentlemen, there is one relation to the fate. When there is a war, gentlemen, and people are killed, what can a man do and accept that as his share? What can he do for his country in such a moment? He can volunteer. He can volunteer. He cannot -- must not dodge the draft, as he do -- does when he is in Chapter 3. And he can sacrifice his life. And sacrifice, gentlemen, is the only relation to Chapter 5. Mr. Adenauer is an old man. He's 78. And I'm sure he says to himself, "If Mr. Mendez-France kills me, now, what of it? I have very little to give to my country, so I'll give my physical existence. It may shatter my heart. I may fall down from a heart attack, but what of it? I'm going to give this gladly." Probably. I think he's a great man, who knows this. And so he will expose himself to the torture of dealing with such an icy-cold politician who knows of nothing in the whole world but France. That's so terrifying about a Frenchman, you see. They despise humanity. They despise Americans. They hate Germans. There is nothing, as Clemenceau said, "Humanit‚ est belle; mais la France est plus belle." He has said that. And every Frenchman believes it. And that's very awful. And I mean to say then, gentlemen, that we learn the relation to political events is sacrifice. Now, you give me a better word for this. This country is dead, because it will not admit that sacrifice is a part of the normal vocabulary of daily life. You hate sacrifice. You only know of enlightened selfinterest. You all live only in Sphere 3. You call even a sacrifice on the battlefield of life, you call it "enlightened self-interest." Gentlemen, there is no enlightened self-interest for a man who is killed in Korea. That's all nonsense, and the sooner you drop this connotation with which we dishonor the dead, the better it is. But I hear in all departments here -- government, political science, history -- they call this enlightened self-interest when a man dies for his country.

Shameful. Or they say that the people in the Civil War, or all the immigrants who came to this country landing there, threw their young lives onto the battlefield there at Gettysburg, that they did it for industry, for economic reasons. And you repeat all these stock phrases and you think that's scientific. It's dishonorable. And cowardice, it is. Great cowardice, because you hate this whole realm of love and this whole realm of politics, because it's beyond your control. And it is beyond your control, fortunately. Only you -- the he-man enters it who can love, and hate and who can make a sacrifice and can accept a sacrifice. You can only deserve the Korean War or the World War if you accept the sacrifice by these people. As long as you say that they have served enlightened self-interest, these buddies are not your buddies. These veterans are not your men. You have no right to draw on the advantages created by them for you. Here you live in a country made by people who have died for you and you dare to say that they died -- did it for themselves, for some reason. They did it against all reason. And -- but you don't wish to say "Thank you" to them. You are ashamed of that. You don't wish to love them. You don't want to meet them in your dreams as asking you, "Have you fulfilled that for which we died?" That's very disagreeable, of course.

I said in the other course, and I am going to repeat it here now, gentlemen. You, because these sacrifices haven't spoken to you, don't know what it is to live. You don't know what it is to live. You come only into the real life, which is full, in these fourth -- five chapters, after somebody who has died for you has a constant appeal on your actions, and on your direction, and on your mind. That's the essence of Christianity, that there is one man who died for you, and as long as He is not present, you are just an animal, despicable. A louse. And I -- it's a terrible thing -- is not that we are lice, but gentlemen, that in this country, it has been for the last 50 years, a braggadocio -- a boastfulness, "Let's be lice." Because you have erased Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 of your real existence. You have said that -- your purpose, your intent, your will, your intelligence, your reason is what makes you a man. It makes you into a working bee. Of course, you can produce brick and houses, and machines, but gentlemen, you can neither be loved, nor are you worth any sacrifice.

And gentlemen, in these chapters, 4 and 5, things then are reciprocal, in a much deeper sense than in the act of the will. In an act of will, I give a quantity, and I receive a quantity. I give two hours of work, and I receive $3 in a -- back. In friendship, I call him "friend," and he calls me "friend," and we both treat each other with an exchange of wills. I will his future, and he wills mine. But gentlemen, in politics, you are unable to live in the order of this government, of these United States, unless you are constantly aware that people have sacrificed for you and that you are expected to sacrifice for others. And since you hate the term "sacrifice," since it has no place in your vocabulary whatsoever, since it -- or if it is, it's like a stumbling block in your -- in the rest of your philosophy, in -- unitarianism, or psychology or whatever you call your little philosophy of life, gentlemen, you have no access to the full life. Because at this moment, I am only here because of certain tremendous sacrifices made so that I may live peacefully in this country. But so are you. We -- when you and I live on sacrifices made in the sphere of politics to stand against dire fate and to change fate, gentlemen, into what? What did Jesus do, when he broke the fate of antiquity? What is fate, gentlemen? That what has been said before. Fatum comes from fari, and means that what has been said before. Every man who is a -- makes a sacrifice is a new word on the pages of history. Jesus is the logos, the word. But that's nothing that is closed again for you. you are the logos, too, if by sacrifice you become a new name on the pages of history. A new word, gentlemen, spoken by people of good will is always what changes fate, what breaks fate. We could have stayed out of Korea, could we not? And just washed our hands of these poor Koreans. And physically, they would be better off. But morally, we would be infinitely worse off, if we hadn't gone there. "Mr. Truman's War" is honor for Mr. Truman. He should insist that it is "Mr. Truman's War," because there was at least one man who gave his word, following up something. These -- ridiculous Republicans who say that "Mr. Truman's War" is an indictment of Mr. Truman. Obviously it takes always a full human being to say something of this kind, that there is now a war. I respect him for this. Or only, Mr. Roosevelt should have said this in 1944,

and not asked the Russians to enter the war. That's a different story. I'm not at all happy over the politics of the former administration, gentlemen. But to call a war "Mr. Truman's War" is a great honor for Mr. Truman. A great honor, because it means that he was conscious of sacrifice. And you are not. You hate it. But anybody who hates sacrifice, gentlemen, cannot enter the good life, the full life of the generations. Because we never know at what time this -- the house burns, your child's -- the child of your neighbor is in the flames there. Now, my dear man, you are demanded, without any preparation, without ever having this on your program, to save this child. You cannot say, "But I have a wonderful career meted out, with DuPont." You have to rescue this baby. And there's your whole life shattered. And still, we will honor you, because you did the decent thing. And the man who runs away from this fate, from this fate, and answers this by his sacrifice, and rescues the child, you see, and is killed in the process, this good man meets politics quite unemotionally -- not by emotion, not by reciprocity, but by sacrifice. Gentlemen, a sacrifice is the gap between our life and the life of the universe. It fills this gap. It enters into the lacuna. Here's the fire. There's the child. I must enter and close this lacuna, so that the child -- in spite of fate -- can get away. Can you see this? The fate, plus me, makes for history. The fate without me is just iron fate. Can you see this? Give me a better word for sacrifice, gentlemen, and I will embrace you. Perhaps you don't like that. I'll give you $10.

Because really that's what matters, gentlemen, that you introduce into your absolutely stale vocabulary of your own existence on this earth, the necessary terms. You cannot understand life, if you do not know that there is mechanic, organic, conscious, passionate -- put -- let's put here passionate -- and political life. And -- politics are met by sacrifice. Love is met by reciprocity, by a dismissal of your old name. Work is met by purpose, by hard-thinking. Organic life is meeted by rhythm -- met by rhythm. And mechanic life is met by power. More power. And since you only wish each other more power to you, you only live one-fifth of the real life.