{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

[Opening remarks missing]

... in the totality of words to be spoken to us, sentences to be made, ideas to be transmitted. Therefore from the very beginning there is a promise that at the end we will experience all words as parts of a whole, what the ancients called the logos, a reasonable totality of speech, you see, in which every sentence makes sense, as we say. The pagan is after all, a fall. It's unnatural that you should get stuck with one idea, as the Greeks with the idea that the daughter and the father contain the whole secret. I tried to get your attention to religion by saying, "Now concentrate on this wonderful fact that the father will sacrifice everything for the happiness of his daughter," you see, although she will not even carry his name. So anonymously, he will want to enter the future life of this new family, into which his daughter may go, you see. And he will be perfectly satisfied. It's bliss for a father, you see, to lose his daughter to a husband she loves. Yet he feels that she's carrying on the best in him, because there's always this mysterious correspondence, you see, between mother and son, and father and daughter. Now there you -- you can, however, immediately exaggerate this. The Greeks, I think, did, when they said Zeus had a daughter without a mother, you see. That he had Athene, and there was no mother in the picture. So that was an exclusive arrangement -- a typical pagan, you see, settling on one divinity, one superhuman experience.

Now I think paganism then is artificial isolation, you see, of something that grow out of a continuum, out of a whole, as a special experience coming to me at first, you see -- but expecting me to be willing to see it in larger context. Now, the modern American, since he is completely indifferent -- he doesn't believe in brimstone, and hellfire; he doesn't believe in angels; he doesn't believe in the Devil; he doesn't believe in anything, practically speaking, I mean; he thinks he's immune against all these things. He believes in psychiatry, in analysis, in the business cycle, in the standard of living. These are his gods. And in the Giants, or the Dodgers, accordingly. Since he has these beliefs, he's nowhere, since they are partly just play gods. Just bright ideas. He has -- is nowhere forced to look them together, to see them together, to see the function of play with regard to serious life, or of religion with regard to family life, and so on. Therefore, polytheistic is the easier thing. It happens when you are not keeping up your yearning for unity. And I cannot give this to you. It is -- I would say we -- if you have here a pyramid of 90, of 100 units, of -- representing the full life, gentlemen, most people are satisfied with 40 percent. Some with 60 percent. Some with 80. The terrible thing of a believer is that he knows -- he cannot force anybody else to the full faith. If the man is satisfied with suspended animation, he's satisfied with sus-

pended animation. If the masses just want to have their golden calf, you and I may talk, and we may go out in The Salvation Army, or as priest, or as missionary, but you can lead a horse to the water, but you can't make it drink. Isn't that true?

So gentlemen, please consider this situation. At every moment, since beginning of time, there have always been men filled with holy inspiration and genius. And real drive, and faith. And they have always had around them other people who were satisfied with less-vivid life, breathing a little less deeply. And there is absolutely no way by which the leading man could make the smaller man bigger, except in the way of sacrifice as Jesus on the cross. One of you -- Who was it in this class? I think it was just an auditor -- came to me after -- two weeks ago it was, after class, and said, "What's the difference between Christ and the soldier who lays down his life in Korea?"

It's a very simple answer, gentlemen. The man in Korea lies his down -- lays down his life for the American people against the Japanese. But Christ, as you know, laid down his life for his enemies, for the people who crucified him. That's quite some difference. Therefore, for the -- to make the higher life known to the lower life, there is no other word -- way but to allow the lower life to kill the higher. That's very gruesome, very cruel. You can't make an embryo understand how wonderful this young mother is. The mother has just to take the risk to die in the process of the birth. The embryo just takes all the energy and { } you see. If his head is in the wrong position, the mother may die, because the embryo can't understand how precious the mother's life is to her husband and to humanity. Just nothing doing.

If you take this -- gentlemen, unfortunately a literal example, it's literally true that no lower life understands the higher life in the {moment it comes}. You can only make men -- them know that there is such higher life. For the last thousand years, the society has been officially Christian. Gentlemen, what did it mean? Do you think they ever were Christian? They were just as little Christian as you are. I think less Christian. I think you are much better Christians, because you do not pretend to be. That's maybe your salvation. But gentlemen, what was the difference between you and the people in 1100 or 200 or --? That they admit it that there is much superior life in { }. That they do not say, "I do nothing {with} religion," but they say, "Let -- I know what is the highest, what is divine. And I know that I am compared to this a -- abominable sinner." You laugh at sinners, but gentlemen, it was only in a sense of proportion. These people said -- wanted to set themselves in perspective, they wanted to say that there are -- I am perhaps here at this moment at 30 percent of full life. And you are perhaps at 40 percent of full life. Now I, however, feel superior to you, because I can point out to you that there is 60, and 80, and 100. You, however, say that there is no such -- any-

thing better than you. You deny it. It's -- in democracy, the first thing is, "All men are born equal." Gentlemen, they are born equal and become unequal, because very few come up to expectations. Yes, very few come up to expectations. The most get stuck and die in the process, at 15 or 18, or as seniors in college. And the rest is just dross, dead matter. You don't come up to expectations. We give you a chance. Everybody's given a chance, and then another chance, and another chance. Do you think everybody takes his chances? It's not true.

Now the great process of formalized, institutionalized religion, gentlemen, is to hold onto the standard, to the yardstick -- not to the standard of living, but to the standard of life, which you confuse. There is a standard of life. That is, there is perfect life, less-perfect life, still less-perfect life, and there is deficient life. I have -- trying to show you that when you worship the god of speed and you conquer space, you do something which is valuable. But it is only 20 percent of what you have to conquer. You cannot live by conquering space. Yet, I -- there's nothing to be said against conquering space. It's a mighty power. And within the framework of the Western world, gentlemen, the Americans have made a tremendous contribution. They have taught the peoples in Europe, and in Asia, and in Africa how to conquer space. Why aren't you satisfied? But it means that you cannot rest on these laurels, you see. That you have to learn from the others that there are other gods, which do -- have nothing to do with space, absolutely not. Can you see my point, now -- how polytheism is the giving-up of hope for unity, you see. You don't yearn enough. The promise is not opening up, beyond the fulfillment, the incompleteness of {life}. Part, this -- of course, space is conquered in this country. {You can sense}, you see. If you -- the plane -- fly from California to New York in six hours or how many hours is it, now -- Wie?

(Nine, 10.)

Ja. I mean, it is fantastic, isn't it? It is -- space is conquered. Perhaps you take this even down, because it makes room for a new god in this country. The great goddess of America, the conqueress of speed, has won the battle. It is nothing more to be hoped for. I mean, whether you have four cars in the garage or two cars, it makes absolutely no difference, you see. Therefore, this is over, this whole period in America. Why do I give this course, gentlemen? Why do you go Sunday to church? Why is there General Eisenhower and McCarthy? Because the whole country feels the rumbling of a conservative trend that people must come to first principles and to -- to go -- {back} -- to grassroots, that we can't drift any longer as we have done in the last 70 years, just after our own machinery. There is a very deep longing for something that is a little more solid, isn't that true? This has to do with the -- the polytheistic man, of course, doesn't know that he is polytheistic. Only he denies the fullness of life. He doesn't even know what that means. The more abundant life. He thinks it means more ice cream, or it

means more butter, you see, until we have so much butter that we have to send it abroad, to Russia, and you see -- and a college professor has to feed his family oleomargarine. That's the situation {with regard to} America, in this country. You give away the butter because you pay such salaries to your intellectuals that they can't live.

All because, you see, mass, mass. Speed, speed. You can produce -- outproduce the whole { }. It doesn't help very much, you see. After you have outproduced the whole world, the other god should be seen as just -- as many apparitions of the divine, manifestations of the divine. Do you begin to understand?

(Yes, I understand that.)

I think the word "polytheistic" is less good than "fragmentary" religion, you see. That the people see fragments of God. It isn't the poly, the many, so much, than the some. They see some gods. Is that better?

(Now who is this "they" --?)

You, I, everybody. We all are infected by this. Gentlemen, when I write a book, I'm drowned, of course, in my obsession with genius, be it Athene or Apollo.

(Okay. So we call this -- rather than polytheistic, fragmentary -- religion.)

Ja. Well, I must agree with you. {You are quite right}. There is -- you see, you cannot know these connections. People have made the distinction between {panentheism} and polytheism. They have said -- some people believe in one god for them, you see. And some believe in many. I think that both -- very unfortunate expressions. That's why I cannot call it one god for you and another god for me. { }. -- in Greek, the word for "some" would be { }. So {eni -- eni} really would be the right words. Some god everybody has, you see. But he doesn't make attempt -- an attempt to round them out into one god, into the unity, you see, in which all these many forms and aspects just tell us that there is one god, ruling the universe and creating it.

This is a very serious question. I -- believe me, I have pondered over this now of course for so long. The future gospel can only be preached by openly recognizing man's tendency to polytheism. The -- who does know the Creed, and the three articles? Who has heard of the Creed? Oh, you have heard of the Christian Creed and its three articles of faith, have you not? Who has? Well, please tell me; I -- otherwise I could -- . Don't you know what it is? Well --

(Does it start, "I believe in God, the -- )

Ja. How does it go? First article: believe in --?


First article, nothing of the Trinity -- the Creed is the belief in the Trinity, but it is expressed in three articles of faith. What are the three articles of faith? I always presuppose too many things. Gentlemen, the three articles of faith -- they are -- have ruled human history for the last 2,000 years and they are just about to create the third millenium. These three articles of faith have been believed by you, actively -- and your ancestors for 2,000 years, gentlemen. You believe in the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

Now, all theology of the first thousand years was the belief in Christ. All actual theology of the last thousand years was to believe in -- the belief in the god of nature, in the god of creation, in the god of Aristotle and Plato, in the god of order and natural law. At this moment, gentlemen, the whole emphasis is shifting to the third article of faith, God as Holy Spirit, as creating society, not nature. And not coming in the figure of one savior, single, but as -- on -- in groups. This -- these articles of your faith you had better re-acquire, gentlemen. They make history. Men have lived and fought wars and crusades only under this impact. And the shift from the first article to the third article is as mysterious as the shift from the second article: "I believe in the Son," in His inborn son, Jesus Christ, which was the cornerstone of the church, but which then was turned 'round into the first article. Here are the three articles, gentlemen. Perhaps I shouldn't mention this to you, because you are -- you think these are words. Gentlemen, they were the banners under which people lived and died. The Russians die now for the Spirit.

And we'd better say, "As the Father, as the Son, and as the Spirit." We'll come to this, I hope, later. But let me say this, gentlemen. We believe in having to speak of God three times, because a man you can call by one name, as you have it. You are John, or Mike, or who are -- you are. Since God must be mightier than you and I, it is only fair to say that at least you have to call Him by three different names before you have Him at all. It's a most reasonable idea, to really exalt a being beyond you and me. The Trinity is the first condition of the insight that God is more than you and I. And since you can be called by one name, the Trinity can of course not be invoked by one name. It has to be invoked at least three times. Three times you have to turn around before you can become able to face, to understand, to -- the evidence of the divine life. You have to turn 'round three times. It takes time to speak of God, gentlemen. You cannot invoke God in this manner. You have to take at least three breaths. That's the meaning of the divine.

This is very, I think -- later people will not understand how it ever could be thought otherwise. How can you speak of anybody who stands higher than you and I in a manner that is not even as reverential as you? You have three names, don't you? A first name, a middle name, and a last name. And this you take for granted. Of God, you want to speak as though it was just a screw, or a nail. Impossible. If He has created you and me, then obviously it takes time to speak of Him. You have to be introduced with all the three names, which is a very stammering and stuttering affair to many people who for the first time have to memorize your full name. But have you -- are you known if you are only Dick? You are not. You can insist that you have three full names. This you have only in the image of the Trinity. Because we rate a man as the image of God, he has the same three names as God the Father, the Son, and Holy Spirit.

Well, that's too early for you to understand. But I meant to say one thing, which may help you. At this very moment, the Christian Church has lived in the first thousand years by the second article, the love of Christ. That gave wings to Paul and Peter and John and that {gave} people -- Boniface to the -- and St. Patrick preached the Gospel for the sake of their love of Christ, of the Son. That is, they met God in the form of the suffering son, of the man willing to be sacrificed for His enemies. The second millenium, the people who discovered America, and the people who discovered everything, and invented everything -- your -- you, with your spirit of adventure -- you went into the world of the Father, as it was created. And so the faith in God has given wings to Christoph Columb, and to Humboldt, and to Edison, and to Faraday. That is, there was a creator and the whole universe was not chaos, but order, design. At the end of this order, you get the despair of Darwin. Everything is accident. That was in 1859 the end of the second millenium. Everything is accident. There's no reason why there should be one world. According to Darwin, you could just as well hold that there are many worlds, because it is only the faith in one creator that makes it plausible that there is one world.

Now gentlemen, since 1859, the world has been plunging for a new key, for a new orientation. And this orientation is: men must have experienced the Spirit, the Holy Spirit, before they can believe in God. If you haven't lived in a family group, if you haven't lived in a fraternity, if you haven't lived in college, in a youth camp in summer, you don't know what the Spirit is. Therefore today, where people are so lonely, so atomized, and so broken down the { } is: give them an experience of the Spirit in diminutive form, and they'll believe in God again.

Look at all the juvenile delinquency. These are people, you see, who have no spirit. And for this reason, do not understand what we mean by God. They don't -- didn't know what even is meant by Christ. You cannot preach them the faith

in God the Father or the Son. You first have to give them an experience of the Spirit. Now this is all over the world. And all over the world therefore, the whole onslaught today of the people who are serious -- pardon me, this is one -- which means the second article of the formal creed of the Church, this is the first article. And today we turn to the third article. So there's a very mysterious reversal of order. The logical order in the old Church was, "I believe in God the Father, and God the Son and the Holy Spirit." But practical experience was, for the people who were christened, "I love Christ." The second step was, "I have faith in the order of the world as created by the Father." And now, gentlemen, "I have experienced the Spirit," which is something third again. In some small way, all you people come from a family in which there has been some spirit of peace, and gladness, and friendliness. And so in this image, you have experienced one aspect of God which has nothing to do with suffering, and which has nothing to do with creation. So you haven't met Christ and you haven't met the Father, but you all have been touched by the Holy Spirit. Can you see this, perhaps? And since this is today ruined in our apartment dwellings, and in our slums, and in our whole massive society -- of mass, masses, you see -- today the whole cry is, "Show me the Holy Spirit, then I will believe."

So, to give you a practical example, gentlemen. When the first Paul came to the Corinthians or to the Romans, he had to speak of this perfect man, the second Adam, who had given His life for His enemies. And that's why he says this Christ Himself was justified by faith alone when we love Him. And the love of Christ makes us converts. His faith and our love for His faith ties us together. Isn't that -- it's every formula in the New Testament. When the Puritans came to this country, gentlemen, they found God in this universe, pre-ordained order of nature. And so you get here Emerson, and you get the Concord Transcendentalists, and you get Thoreau and all your friends. You get Moby Dick and Melville. All these people worship in one form or other the god of the universe, the Father, who has created all the environment, which the Americans newly discovered, a world waiting for them, never seen before. And yet, perfect in shape, you see, just made to create free men, and to be a new world. Oh, brave new world!

Now gentlemen, today, as I said, if you wish to move hearts, you cannot talk to them. You have first to give them an opportunity of experience in the good life. And after they have been in a Quaker work camp, you can talk turkey to them. To you I cannot talk, because you haven't experienced the good life. You have only experienced the complacent and the lazy life. If we go to -- fell trees together or if you would come to my barn and help me carry out the manure with the horses, I could philosophize with you, because we would work together. Today, people who do not work together cannot really speak to each other. Isn't that true? You know it very well. People have no confidence in each other. I can make big words, and you say it's just words, because I do not know what's

in back of your experience. I have to try to get up some reminiscences of your own experiences in a group, within the good life -- how you have changed from one group to another. I have tried this. But I {know it} -- you see, to tell you that you die to one group and begin a new life in another, all this, you see, to you seems quite mystical, because you seem to have never founded a new group and then buried it again, with grave disappointment, and great pain.

So here you only see how to be -- come to all this. This -- are very practical beliefs -- the hope for the Spirit. That a Spirit may, befall the little company of people, and make them of one mind. That is the spirit of the hope that keeps us going today. And these are -- is the same god whom we worship, sir, you see. And that freedom our religion has given us, you see. That's not polytheism. You understand the difference? That's the Trinity. There is from the very beginning hope, love and faith, as two -- three various roads into the bosom of God. Can you see the difference?

(Yes sir, except that before we even believe in the Trinity, we experience other gods. Am I correct? Even { })

Exactly. Well, if the Trinity is not preached, you get stuck in any of the subordinate gods. Dionysus, the god of wine and enthusiasm, you see. In -- is partly related to the enthusiasm of the martyr, of Christ himself, who certainly was an enthusiastic man, was he not? But as mere Dionysus, as Nietzsche represented him in the -- in the end of the 19th century, he was wearing a mask, hiding against Father and Holy Spirit, you see, trying to be himself only, not being humble enough to say, "I'm only one part of the full story of this -- of man's creation, of man's spirit."

(So until we recognize the Trinity, whether we are modern men or not, we're all polytheistic and therefore pagan?)

I would say so.

If you read the final -- the last chapter of The Christian Future, you will find that there's a very fine man in the Navy. Who has read the last chapter, already? Well, you aren't very curious people. Or you are very curious people. This young friend of mine, he's now in New York, as a -- quite a successful lawyer in the shipping -- in a shipping firm. And lives even -- has even as his postal address Greenwich, Connecticut. It's the dream of every New Yorker. And -- well, he has written -- I printed his letter, which he wrote to me in -- during the wartime and he said, "I am a pagan, for I have no speech." And if you read this chapter, you know what is the danger, you see, for the man who gets stuck with duty, or with family love or whatever it is. He's a -- that's a very -- he's an excellent person, a

very fine man. And his grandfather was Chief Justice of the -- the first Chief Justice of the state of California. And yet he feels, you see, he has relapsed into paganism. "I'm a pagan, because I have no speech."

We will see how this goes together. Any man who is, you see, just repeating his own routines within the small circle of his professional talk, or his Rotary companions, you see, loses his eloquence. That's the very -- it's connected with this freedom of us to change between these three powers of our heart.

Anybody who can love his wife, hope for his children, and have faith in his country, has something to say to the country, to his wife and to his children. The Trinity, you see, renews your speech, because you have to translate what you experience with one to the others. Because otherwise you would go crazy. You cannot keep from your wife your business experience. You cannot keep from your business companions a little bit of the gladness of your heart, which you receive at home. And you have to tell your children how to work and how to love. This is the renewal of your speech, you see. Because we have to translate the three experiences of hope, faith, and love into each other all the time. It's very miraculous.

Well, this was an anticipation. I didn't mean to go now into this, but only to show you these are really very wonderful, practical things, gentlemen. Anybody who can speak of the three articles of our faith in alternation is eloquent. If you want to understand Mr. Webster's eloquence, you will see that he constantly translates the speech of the Bible into secular politics. That as long as he did this, he was eloquent. That has died out. The same, by the way, with Huey Long. Huey Long knew the Bible by heart and Shakespeare by heart. And he was a very eloquent man. Mr. Eisenhower cannot speak. He has no eloquence, except when he suddenly comes upon some translation of some Biblical idea. Now mind you, you have my article. Have you already read "The Time Between Days?" Who has read that? Well, that's a hopeful sign. You remember the end?

(I said I read it, I read of it.)

Well, don't say that you read it. Well, gentlemen, real pearls before real swines. What a waste. Sorry I ever gave you the paper. Why should I make you such a present? It makes no sense. You just despise it. If I ask $20 for it, you would think it's very valuable. You only live by dollar values. How can a man ever hear me teach and then not be curious enough to read this in one hour? Don't understand it.

Keep it. Your grandchildren will be paid $100 for a copy of this. You may be sure of that. But you will not, of course, evaluate it. But your grandchildren will

be -- they will be searched. The attics will be searched for this manuscript.

I wish now to follow up these various grades, degrees of worship, but we'll come back to the Egyptians, and to our own speed worship. Remember that gold and speed are related. The first change, the conquest of space, the victory over space, over that which -- whose open jaws make for death and disintegration, this empty space into which we fall with our own corpse, which if we do not keep moving, will get us, down -- this space, gentlemen, was attacked by the natural religion in the form of doing the bidding of the imperishable gold. And by our religion, it was -- became functional, because speed is only a part of life and nobody can really worship the god of speed without connection with other political and other powers. And therefore speed -- the worship of speed, in itself, I told you, is innocuous. The worship of the golden calf is never innocuous, because it seems to be possible to worship space per se, and to subdue all other life to it. So gentlemen, this would be then the same degree of transformation and of threat by death in a revealed religion. That is, in a religion -- what did we call revealed? -- in which this one form of change was recognized as only one and all the other forms were kept in evidence, and manifest. You come -- we come back to our problem of polytheism, don't we? This would be fragmentary, accidental, you see.

Now, we come to the second for which to you is even more hidden, the organic, the worship of organic life. The word, natural religion would even -- well, yes, we can put it here -- natural religion -- no, it should go out here. On the second stage of natural religion, we come, as you will remember -- I should put this here -- to the organic, to the animated world. Under revealed religion, gold becomes steel and machinery. You worship the tractor and the Jeep in the same way in which the Egyptians worshiped the golden calf. But because the Jeep is in movement, it is less separate from the whole fabric of all our lives, whereas the gold doesn't move, isn't functional, you see -- can be, so to speak, seen most in separation from all the other functions of life. Now we have the same problem, gentlemen, with the -- the organisms, the organic life. The organisms that breathe. We said the main point which distinguishes the purely mechanical life -- the purely mechanical existence, I should say -- and real life, is that life begets corpses. And by breathing, by rhythm, by digestion, by metabolism. Let us use this rather poor term, "metabolism," which -- because it has the word, "meta," in it and meta means change, something before us. The literal translation of the word metabolism, the befalling process. That what befalls a person. Ballein -- bolism means, you see, to be thrown. And "metabolism," to be thrown into a change. So "metabolism" means to be transformed inexorably without your being able to do anything. It just goes on and on, you see, until you are used up and carried out into your -- into the graveyard. This metabolism is today your -- the god of many people. All the people who talk of calories and vitamins are -- and

what's the third? -- Wie?


No, no. They are not organic substances. Glands, glands. They always talk of glands. Now gentlemen, the ancient religion, the natural aspect of this revealed religion of metabolism of nature in you and me is, of course the totemism of the tribes. It's called animism, usually. The first men, breathing themselves, and living themselves, had no standard of living, but tried to have a standard of life. And they included therefore in their reality all the animated universe. To them, everything was alive. This is called animism, the power of recognizing life outside of the human sphere. If you have the whole world of animals and plants -- the oak, and the birch and the spider, and the bee, and the forget-me-not -- then all these names, given to this animal world and plant world, for which you and I are still grateful, because they are such nice names -- King -- Queen Anne's Lace, goldenrod -- all these names show that man lived in a world which was set off against the inanimated world. And wherever he could establish animation, he felt at home. He felt that was life of his life. And bone from his bone, and flesh of his flesh. And he worshiped this life. This is called totemism.

We'll come to the deeper reasons of this animated thing when we go a little deeper. I only now at this moment -- I'm still concerned with making you see how complete our spectrum of religions is. It is a spectrum of our discovering the various degrees of transformation which I and you undergo. Now one form is our digestion, our metabolism, our sleep and our wakening, the rhythm of our daily and monthly and growing existence. There is a suckling. There is a babe. There is a nursling. There is a school child. There is an adolescent. All these experiences belong to our experiences of metabolism. That you simply are young and become old. Something you would like to forget. You are very far, therefore, from this worship of metabolism. Because you try to deny these changes. In the antiquity, the first worship was to these great steps of initiation and of change. The ancients were very -- made it very important that you became 7 years old and 14 years old and 21. And they made you experience these changes as final. I told you already from the word of Augustine, did I? As many ages a man lives through, as many deaths does he have to die. As many ages he lives through as many deaths does he has to die. That is, when you believe in rhythm, and when you believe in animation, and when you believe in a standard of life, then you make it very certain that a person who is 15 is no longer called a boy. Then it is impossible that a lady of 70, wears d‚collet‚ and is called a girl. That to such people is detestable and irreligious, because it is the non-acceptance of reality of the divine truth about your and my life.

Now you live in such an ante-diluvian society. As you know, in Victorian age,

a man after 30 wouldn't dance. In this country, people dance when they are 90. You can take your choice, but you must know what you're doing. You jump over the question whether or not in our changes, visible in our body and our physical makeup, there is a doctrine, there is a voice telling us to behave differently, to live a different life. The standard of life, gentlemen, demands this change of mind. And you don't want to change your mind. And you know the great boast is that the Americans are 12 years old, as -- on an average, everybody -- which is the denial of animism.

Today people tell you in anthropology, or psychology, or where -- or history that primitive men were animists. Gentlemen, wise men are animists. It's a great religion. You have to be -- are now talking about these primitive people, because they have to teach you and me something. Do you think that it's an accident that we now all go now in archaeology and prehistory and have large expeditions going to Peru or to Tasmania, or to any of these far-flung things? That's for the saving of your and my life that we do this, not for curiosity, because we must learn from these people again how to change with honor. Because you and I -- we are even asked to sing, "Dartmouth Undying," unchanging. When the Nugget burned down, the alumni said it had to be put on the same place, because when -- if they came back to Dartmouth, they wanted to find everything unchanged. That's the -- alumni childishness of which this college and all colleges in America suffer. That the old alumni are more childish than the sophomores. Sophomoritis is the attempt of a young man to become serious and then to be frustrated by a society which says, "By all means, don't become serious." I think it's -- the sophomoritis is a great illness which should be honored. It's a real attempt to grow up. Who had sophomoritis? Well, I hope you had. It is necessary, gentlemen. It's a very serious business. We suppress it and we send the people to Mr. McKenna. They are the normal people. The man who has no sophomoritis is not a good student. The man who is a sophomore and experiences change. And he has to know whether this is lethal or whether it is vital. I think it is vital. It's a -- society tells you, which is a childish society, that everybody better stay a junior in high school for the rest of his life.

Gentlemen, this is irreligion today in America. People don't want to be old. They have -- old age has no dignity. You shut up these old people in homes. They have no influence on the young. They live in whole states, in Florida, in California, or in Vermont. There is no mixture. The young people say we don't need these people. We'll pay them a pension, ham-and-egg plan, or something like that. Is this the relation of the old people to life? Not at all, gentlemen. It is -- here, you pension off people of my age and retire them at the one age when they should teach. It's not necessary that the man of 25 should teach in this college. That's ridiculous. He cannot teach. But since he can play baseball with you, you think he's an excellent professor and instructor. And if a man no longer can play

baseball, you retire him. And that's the moment where he could teach you something. It's ridiculous. It's all -- everything stands on its head in this country. And you take it all for granted. And you really think it's a compliment when your grandmother is called a girl over the radio, by the man who gives her some silver spoon or something for a ridiculous quiz.

This is irreligion, gentlemen. Because obviously the changes inside your life are just as imposing as your death. Why is it -- the final death where you take your hat off and are quiet for a moment, even perhaps shed a tear and spend a thousand dollars on a ridiculous silver coffin for your grandmother, and waste your money with the undertaker -- why is this more serious than the death of your youth, the death of your childishness, your sophomoritis? Why is this more important? I cannot see it. I feel that the moments in your life, where you say farewell to a certain state of affairs and become a new man are just as real, and just as provocative as the final. It should be that way. You had -- you cannot even understand. To you this is all so remote that you haven't even words for this state of organic religion. This is not the belief in the golden calf, gentlemen, but that is the belief in the Great Spirit. That's what the red Indians mean by their faith. All tribesmen, gentlemen, have a very elaborate system of worshiping growing pains. Change in organic substance. Of setting aside the old, and the young, and the middle-aged, and the babies, and give every one of these groups an important role. Ask yourself if you really know that every decade in a life of 90 years is necessary for the whole of your society. And you will come to the conclusion that you do everything to forget this. You go to a church today, who was originally founded to show people that old age, and young age, and children and old women were necessary. And you find Bible classes for the young married, and Bible classes for the divorced, and Bible classes for the babies. That is, the whole church is a divisive business today, where people -- age is set against age. And they never meet. They never impart to each other their -- communicate their inspiration. The Church in this country is the most irreligious institution I know of. It worships just tradition for its own sake, because it doesn't tackle your own mysterious changes. Gentlemen, we don't need laws for that. You don't need science for this. You don't even need poetry for this. It happens when you lose your teeth. It happens when you grow a beard. It happens when you get married, that you enter a new phase of life and this challenges you; because if you really live, you must change your mind. Every age has a different animation, a different animus, a different intention and a different faith, therefore -- an expression. It must be the same underlying faith; yet it must become explicit in a different manner.

Now, the Egyptians, as well as we, lost this. The unnatural idolatry of the Egyptians, gentlemen, came just from the fact that they stabilized every human being like a statue. I told you, they made a pharaoh into a god, into a golden

statue, even in his lifetime, if they could. Therefore, all these changes, of aging and so, were overlooked. In this sense, the Egyptians were far from the truth, which the patriarchs said. The Bible tries to express this by distinguishing two old natural religions very carefully. The religion against which Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob go, and the religion against which Joseph and Moses turn. One is the religion of the Egyptians, and one is the religion of the tribes surrounding the patriarchs. In the relation of Abraham and Rebekkah, and their old-age story, and the relation to their son and their grandson, you see, and then Jacob's relations to his sons, you find a very careful elaboration of the different states of mind of the different sexes and the different ages. That is the old, first layer of natural religion which is transfigured and overcome in the revealed religion of the Old Testament. The red Indian religion is the religion which tries to study your and my change in the eye of plant and animal life. That's why people are called lions, and ravens, and eagles, and tigers, and cats, and dogs, and wolves. As you know, in every tribal system, it's a constant to call those people who leave the tribe wolf. You must -- may know that the -- Rome was founded by such a wolf who had been suckled by a wolf, you see, the famous -- his mother, the mother of Romulus and Remus -- the nurse -- how do you call it, the wet-nurse -- was a wolf, a she-wolf, you have to say, a she-wolf. Well, in all these traditions, there is this kindredness to the world of the animals. Who has taken a course in anthropology? You may know how much people have talked there on -- about totems. Have you heard of this? We come back to this. It's not at this moment the right thing to get stuck.

With this, because we are still trying to convince, to show you that there is a complete number of possibilities of worshiping the powers that keep us alive, while we are changing. And the one power which allows us to change with honor in the organic kingdom of our growth or decay, is the world of animals and plants. They share life. They share the withering of the -- on the stem, and -- in fall -- and the coming to life again in spring, and the animal teaches us all about our own relation, parents and children, siblings, sisters and brothers, and the rhythm of life. So our Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts, of course, have taken a leaf from this by calling their -- these youngsters, you see, with these various degrees of biological development, or growth, the cubs. And on it goes. That is less playful than you think. It's very serious to give these children an insight into gradations and changes of responsibility. Because all this comes the second time under the heading, "inexorable change," which doesn't depend on your and my will, which is above our will. Which forces us to change. And which exposes the mind to the great danger not to change with the physical, or the organic change. Your mind is irreligious with regard to the second phase of the divine experience, because you call, as I said, old people "girls" and "boys." Your mind stays behind and is not transformed with your physical and internal metabolism. Can you see this? It's a -- you do not enter this change, but you look at it from the


So you try to reduce this metabolism, gentlemen, to something as external as gold or speed. You leave it as a matter-of-fact business out in space. And you even boast of it and say you are matter of fact. But gentlemen, you are not matter-of-fact. You are a fiat, yourself. Fiat-man, out of "boy." And you don't want to be fiat-people, you want to be fact people, so you always miss the bus.

Therefore, there is a tremendous yearning at this moment for this, the world of the animistic creeds, of animistic religion. That we care suddenly for these prehistoric primitive men is not because of this primitive men. It's because of your and my loss of vitality. We care for these people, because they have something to tell us.

Is this clear enough? That you understand what I mean in natural religion, with animism? In our life, it would be metabolism. What is speed, with regard to gold, would be totemism, or animism. That is, looking full life into lions and oaks, compared to metabolism -- our modern, biological approach, you see -- that man undergoes years of change. Take your mothers, who are now in the painful process of entering these years of change. Some go nuts. They are put in the lunatic asylum. Some brave the battle and become -- conquer by now suddenly using their minds. If you want to do a favor to your wife, gentlemen, know that at the age of 45 she has to study, she has to take up intellectual quests. She shouldn't go to college at 20, but she must study at 45, because at that moment, she must replace her physical beauty by mental conquests. If this were known in this country, it would be a better country. We are completely helpless before these poor women who have these nervous breakdown, or go to Brattleboro, shot up as melancholics, or make everybody unhappy. The husband then divorces her and he marries his young technician, and -- because they -- people do not understand how such a woman between 40 and 50 can sublimate her physical beauty then into a mental conquest, you see. But she has to change her mind. She cannot look upon her body and go before the mirror and only say, "I look awful." She must forget her wrinkles, you see. And she can also not powder herself and use red. It doesn't help. She has to admit that her -- the center of her being has to shift from her body to her mind. Then she is safe. This is very serious, gentlemen. We waste all these millions on Radcliffe and Smith girls. You shouldn't. You should waste them on your mothers, it wouldn't be wasted. You would save their health. And if you young people, gentlemen -- you can do a lot with families around you. You can say occasionally, "Why don't you take up a language? Why don't you travel? Why don't you study? Why don't you pass an exam?" That they -- that will help. Because there the woman is much more intelligent at 45 than she is at 20. She is out for these conquests. You are now, allegedly, in the intellectual sphere. You are not at 40.

It's very strange, gentlemen, that this metabolism, and this animism reveals the greatest secrets even of social disorder. But as you know, your belief in gold and speed has made you utterly blind to the importance of the different changes of your organic nature. If you talk to a suffragette, or to a psychologist in this country about the fact that a mother, after she has educated her children, must study, and that a bride must not go to college in order not to ruin the nervous system of her babies, they get at you and they say you are the Devil. And you are just prejudiced. And you are old-fashioned. Just think of this one simple fact which metabolism and animism would make you see as a religious item. You can beget a child now, if it so happens, any time. But a father you can only be when your child is 12. Because the function of a father is not to push around in a perambulator, but to tell a child what is right and wrong. And a child doesn't know what is right and wrong before it is 12, and therefore you cannot be important as a father before a child is 12. The old great Tolstoy, the Russian, allowed his wife to educate his -- their children up till they were 12, and then he claimed them, and said, "Now my hour comes." In this country, where you are pseudomothers for your children, that never is discovered. Nobody here seems to be a father. He's just a daddy.

But father is an important function, gentlemen, and it obvious -- comes after you have become a husband and a lover. So you can say, that if you would observe only the real facts of your practical existence, you would say that you begin as a sex boy, then you become a lover, and then you become a bridegroom, and then you become a husband, and then you become a father. And there is no other way to -- becoming a father, unless you go through -- separately through these stages. For a mother, it is just the other way around. Here is the girl. And here is the virgin. And here is the bride. And here is the mother. And here is the housewife. And woe to the woman who's first a housewife and then a mother. She cannot keep the attention and the love of her husband. Nobody wants to have a housewife. She becomes a housewife by her hard work, you see. But that's a by-product, you see. And she first has to become, out of the bride -- comes the mother, right away. And to your husband, her husband, this same mother has still to remain the bride. He must love her as though he saw her on the first day. Otherwise love goes out of the window. As soon as she called, she would only see the housewife in her, he can just as well have a maid.

Now, would you kindly watch this? Here is this sequence: One, bridegroom. Second, husband. Father, third. One, bride. Second, mother. Housewife, third. That is the reason why a young woman is not the best student, and why a housewife is. Because the bride should become a mother, without the intellectual effort -- can become a mother. But at some place, her intellectual maturity must also be attained. And that comes here, when she has to run the household and is otherwise left cut and dried if she cannot sublimate it by intellectual -- encom-

passing her problems. Now, isn't it strange that our Victorian and our scientific age of the last 200 years has been unable even to envisualize the true metabolism of husband and wife? That is, you can look into all books on psychology, on biology, on sociology, on history, without their ever mentioning the fact that Mary was the mother of Christ, but not a housewife. { }. That's why she is so lovable.

This can be observed. And we have these, as I said, these mental asylums strewn over the country, wasting our taxpayers' money. And yet no doctor, and no teacher has been unprejudiced enough in a country of suffragettes and women's rights, simply to see what's going on. And as soon as you see what's going on, you can help. But for this simple reason, it hasn't been done, because it was forbidden to say that a girl of 18 was not just the equal of a boy of 18. It couldn't be said for the last 50 years. There you see what superstition does, gentlemen. The superstition of science, disenabled Americans to see women and men as they grew in their physiological buildup. It has disenabled you to attach any significance to the fact that the menopause at 45 is a revolution in the life of a woman. You don't have this revolution. So why don't you do justice to a revolution in human affairs, when it happens in every human being? People have just been silent, and have pooh-poohed it. In this college, if I gave you the list of frustrated women who had to go to Brattleboro, or had to be divorced, or committed suicide, your eyes would weep. Because we are in a scientific group, and we are all stricken -- struck with Egyptian darkness. They are all worshiping the identity of man from beginning to end, in both sexes. Now, any study of the animism says that God sends his changes, like the seasons, as great secrets. And we have to catch up with them. You cannot live at 30 as you live at 20, gentlemen. Don't try it.

Perhaps you take this down, gentlemen. The problem of the next two generations is to introduce into the life of the business society the great fact that today the problem is not money or economics, but not to do anything at the age of 40 in the same manner as you did it on the age of 20, and not to do anything at the age of 60 as you do it at the age of 40. It's a -- quite a new proposition. A hundred years ago, a man was a doctor for 50 years. Or he was a businessman for 50 years. Today, gentlemen, by the danger of ...

[tape interruption ]

... to enter the next age with a bang. You have to give up certain things. You cannot simply say that all your life you will do the same good things. All the wise people today do just this.

There was a great surgeon in Colorado. At the age of 50, at the apex of his

efficiency, he became a farmer. They came to him, imploring, and said, "But you are the greatest surgeon all around here."

"Yes," he said. "That's why it's high time for me to change."

There was a trustee of Harvard. We gave him a doctor's degree a year ago. He retired as a lawyer, it was one of the most illustrious law firms in New York; he was one of the -- its owners. The law firm of Elihu Root, the great Secretary of State. He was his partner. He left it at the age of 50. Then he was a trustee of Dartmouth and he left -- of Harvard -- and then he left this at the age of 65. And he retires and lives in the country as a great old sage in New Hampshire. These are the people from whom you can learn what it means to respect the voice of God in the changes of your body, of your organic life. Throw your mind after your body, and you can't go wrong. But to try to stay with your mind upstairs somewhere in a crystal -- in a ivory tower, and look down on your body's changes -- that's no way of living. Include your mind into your bodily changes, gentlemen. Can you understand this?

Every bodily change is a challenge for changing your mind. If you don't do it, you don't take it seriously, you are just godless. Because God is in your changes. He is in this winter and in the summer. He is in the rainbow and thunderstorm. He is in Edna and Hazel. Now why shouldn't He be in the changes of your own seasons? As long as you haven't even been frightened by the changes in your mother and your sister, gentlemen -- it hasn't to be in your own body -- look at your -- the womenfolks. They change more decisively and it's a greater tragedy, for this reason, because the change cannot be escaped from. Why do we have these noisy Daughters of the Revolution and these Women's Club ladies? And these speechmakers? Because nobody tells them that they are right that they want to go intellectual. So they go into politics. Grandmother Moses knew better, didn't she?

Here is religion, gentlemen. It isn't so far away in any one, big heaven. Religion overtakes you, or your irreligion. Have I made my point? Have you perhaps -- do you begin to see that what I'm talking about is your real life, which has nothing to do with your theories? It just happens to us, that we undergo these changes, gentlemen. And to have religion means to receive them with an open mind, and to throw your mind into these changes, and to say they are important. After all, gentlemen, religion is the sense of the important, of the -- that what matters, isn't it? You remember, the first religion was: matter does not matter. The second religion is: physiological change does matter.

Thank you.