{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

[Opening remarks missing]

... the sphere of Venus. But before, I want once more to point out that there is between the sphere in which we are surprised to find organic changes -- that you get grey hair one day, or lose your teeth, change your -- it's changed your convictions, all these problems of change -- of the organic change and the sphere that you one day collect stamps and the next day you play golf. That is, you put your purpose in -- one after the other, according to your own whim and will, that between there -- there is, of course, a religion of the playboy. If you have the animistic religion -- special emphasis here in Hinduism, on even an exclusive importance of sleep, the deep sleep -- and if you get the Egyptian religion, which we compared to Mr. Ford's automobile craze, faith, old. We have now the Jupiter sphere here. Realm -- you called it, you had a special -- what was your expression, Klaus? You didn't call it "realm," first, but you had a -- we can call it "sphere." That's perhaps the best word, because spheres can surround you in more than one -- more than one sphere. I think we are really surrounded by spheres of reality, you see. And the outermost -- the external -- is the sphere of the dead matter, the space world of the stars, and of metal, and of air and fire and what-not. I mean, this substance where we meet gold as the most imperishable thing. If you think of yourself as an onion, you are -- consist of all these various layers around you. And the most external is the sphere of space. Next to it comes the sphere in which you can breathe. And the third sphere is that of the will. In between this sphere of -- the sleeping animal in us, the animated being which is the same -- you are -- we all are animated. You see, the word "animal" is a very beautiful word. You should never use it in a derogatory sense. It's a great privilege to be an animal. "Animal" means to be animated. That is, not to be dead. And you come to the sphere of will. You could -- we said that the sphere of the will is the power to incorporate dead matter into animated life, gentlemen. To work means to bring corpses back into life, to make use of them. Carbon is former vegetative life. Now it's dead. You burn it, and it enters again the lifestream of society by the heat it produces, or the light it produces. Can you see this? You have no definition of work. You don't know what work is. And I offer you a very simple religious definition: work is man's power to bring dead matter back into animation. To make -- when you eat, you see, you conduce dead matter to enter again the bloodstream of your own body. That's the simplest way in which you keep living -- keep alive. But by the work, which your stomach produces, and -- by the digestion -- you bring back matter of less vitality into the stream of life which you yourself represent.

So will you kindly use this opportunity, perhaps, and get a definition of work.

Then you will see what work cannot do, and what -- what can work do? Well, work cannot create life, but work can bring up dead -- deader things to participate in the life of the living. That's something very important, but never exaggerate life. You can see the distinction between an inventor and a worker. In a chemical factory, the inventor, you see, creates the combination that is unknown. The worker is the -- in the chemical factory produces a mixture that is known and by which -- by this work, he reads back this into the lifestream of society. But there is a difference between an inventor, obviously, who creates something that didn't exist before, and the worker who simply carries out planned orders, and thereby deals with reconciling the first sphere of deadness with the second sphere of animation. So he who is in the Jupiter sphere does something to Sphere 1 and 1 -- to Sphere 2. He brings something out of Sphere 1 into Sphere 2. Can you see this? And by doing so, he himself, of course, represents a third sphere, because his activity is neither in the first sphere nor in the second. The merely sleeping, animated being couldn't do this, you see. And the -- of course, the world of space, the golden calf, or the racing car can't do this, you see. The racing car can only use up energy, you see. But it cannot produce energy. It has to be manufactured in a factory by the will of men. Can you see this?

So I think this is a very wonderful relation, as soon as you would only kindly see that everything we do by will can lead to work. The human will is limited to combining Sphere 1 and 2. But you don't know this. The self-reliant man says he can also get himself a wife in this manner. He cannot, you see.

In our neighborhood, this occurred. There is a great usurer and he buys and sells. Has become a millionaire. And he's is a hypocrite and many other things. But the story -- this is very telling -- most telling is this. He was 45 when he tried to buy the love of a young woman in Florida. He bought her a wonderful mansion in Palm Beach, valued at $150,000. And well, she was not pleased, and she decided to marry such a nice man. And six weeks later he came and said he had sold the place.

And she said, "How can you? This is my -- present, my wedding present, you said. And I was proud of it. And that's why I said, `Yes.'"

And he said, "Yes, but, you see, I had an opportunity of selling it for $230,000 and of course it would have been criminal if I hadn't done so."

And so she broke the engagement. This is a typical case of a man who distinguishes not the spheres, you see. He thought that a present given to his fianc‚e could be dealt with in the business manner, that she had to agree that this had a numerical quality, of money value. And therefore, since he could make $80,000 more, why shouldn't he take it and sell it? This is very widespread in this coun-

try. Real estate is a religion. And you have to take an opportunity, and there you have the whole problem of the opportunity. Gentlemen, if you give a bracelet to your girl, you cannot evaluate it in money. If you tell her, "It cost me a thousand dollars," you devaluate your present. You have to convince her that it is the only bracelet that suits her. And that it is done in such good taste that the money doesn't matter. Whether it is worth 50 cents or $5,000, if you love your wife, it must make no difference. She must be equally pleased if you give her a forget-me-not which you found yourself in the field. That you happen to have $5,000 ready to buy her a bracelet doesn't prove at all that you love her. But it must be the one bracelet that brings out her feature with greater beauty. Then you have done well. That is, gentlemen, a present, a gift, has a unique quality. It is incomparable. It is as unusual as the girl whom you court. And if it isn't unusual -- the present, then it is nothing.

I once had a terrible experience. I was asked here to speak to the club of bibliophiles, of booklovers, in this college. And there were 12 snobs or 13. And they all collected books. And I brought them a number of books which had come into being in the course of our lives, in our family. They were all books which we had composed for a special purpose, bound ourselves. One was a copy of the letter to the Romans, in a famous translation by Karl Barth in Zurich, which I had undertaken so that my wife might have my own handwritten copy of the letter to the Romans, and such other things. That is, every one of these books existed only in one copy. And the only answer I got after I had displayed all this was, "What's the catalogue price?" They had totally misunderstood why people collect rare books. They thought they collected them to have values in sense of money. That's how many people buy pictures, because they say it's a good investment. Gentlemen, don't buy pictures since -- because they are a good investment. It has nothing to do with pictures. Why don't you go to the stock exchange right away? That's open -- that's the open market for money values.

For Heaven's sake, gentlemen, your whole mental health is at stake, because you have not been educated to distinguish the unique values and the monetary values. In the sphere of work, everything is simply estimated -- and rightly so -- for what it costs. But if you build yourself -- a home yourself, it doesn't matter what it has cost. It's your home.

I have a neighbor who was a schoolteacher. And he had dreamt, because he was teaching in the next village, of this spot where -- next to us, as a beauty spot. And his wife had, too. And one day when he was 60, he said he could afford to retire, and he asked his son, who was a Harvard architectural school graduate, to build him a house. Well, funny enough, it turned out to be exactly a copy of a one-class schoolhouse. Being a teacher, that was his ideal. So he has now -- lives now in his private schoolhouse. But the very day on which they started building,

they -- he put out a sign, "For Sale." And, of course, we were very much interested in this funny psychology of a man who dreams for a decade that he wants to have a house, and the first movement is that he puts on -- out a sign, "For Sale." So when we visited him, as our next-door neighbor and the house was up, I said, Mr. Farnham, you must forgive me, but I would like to know why you put out this sign, "For Sale."

"Well, yes. I thought I'm -- after all, could I afford this? I mean, it's -- after all, a little big for me to build a house here in this beauty spot, so I said, `I'll let Heaven speak.' If there comes a buyer for this, I have to sell it."

Just like the man with the -- as you know, with the Florida home.

"If I'm lucky, no buyer will come. Then I may live in it."

So the poor man was a slave of his own religion. And that is a religion, you see. If somebody had bought -- offered him more -- twice as much as he had paid for the site, he would have felt that it was his moral obligation to sell, you see, because you cannot part with this profit. And on the other hand, he prayed that it might -- the chalice might pass him buy. And nobody came to buy it and now he's there. But of course, he's such a money-maker that for the last 10 years, he's teaching in Lyme and never sets foot into his own house.

That's very typical. Most businessmen in this country cannot distinguish between the the third and the fourth sphere. They cannot. And they are very miserable for this reason. It always dances and -- between -- they feel, of course, that there's something wrong. So they heap -- for example, as this man, this usurer -- he heaps his -- on his sweetheart something, but then he takes it away again, as though it was just something you could treat as a commodity. But it isn't. A house, for example, your own house, is not on the market. If it is on the market, you don't have your own house. You have a house. And it's up to you whether you can make the distinction between your house and the house. And in most cases, I think, with regard to houses, people can't make the distinction. If the opportunity comes, they have just to sell. It has happened to us, that a good friend who meant well, found a buyer for our house after we lived in it for seven years. And he called us up and said, "Come over." And I came there and he said, "There's a buyer for your house."

So what?

"Well, he's willing to pay such a price. You'll just have to sell it."

So it cost us our friendship. He never understood why we couldn't sell our

own house. He was, of course, a minister, of the holy word. Even ministers are completely without religion, in this respect. They have not learned that what God gives, only God can take, and not the next buyer. There may be a reason for me to sell a house. But it certainly cannot be the reason that somebody pays me a large sum. Otherwise I would admit that I never owned the house as my own house, that it was just an investment. And in this moment, I would despise myself. As the same as -- I told -- I think I told you here about the -- death. I mean, if you don't weep at a funeral of a friend, it would mean that you can get him out of your system just by reason, so he never was a friend, was never your mother. Anybody who suppresses weeping doesn't want to pay the price for having had a man enclosed in his own life, and being in partnership with him. That costs not money, gentlemen. That costs grief. And the very philosophy which you have, "Oh, he was old, so he had to go. It's better for him to die. He wouldn't have liked to live on," and all these wonderful rationalizations on your own part, with which you forego the explosive character of pain and grief, just means that you cancel out the whole relation backward. Because after you have not grieved, it means that the whole relation was in the second or third sphere of accident, and did not belong to the next sphere of affection -- to Venus, here -- in which we -- you -- you'll see we are not masters of our destiny, but our women are.

Before, however, going to this, I think I should mention one thing, that the playboy of course has also a religion. You think -- the best example of this in a serious manner, gentlemen, is Prince Hal, Henry in Henry V and Henry IV. Who has read it? Well, I can then talk about it.

Today the more pertinent thing is Princess Hal. The girls with whom you meet, gentlemen, are very much in the situation of Prince Hal, that they all have some -- do some petting and have some demivierge situations before they get married and decide to have a real love. They just fool around as much as Prince Hal did. Well, he became a great king. And I don't say that a girl who is Princess Hal for a first -- cannot become a great wife. But you must know what this means. You must know that there are two religions. For the playboy and the playgirl, there is a different religion, a different standard: promiscuity, and whatnot. Dates, and so on. And later on, it's all forgotten. They never think it ever happened. Remember what Henry -- what Henry V -- Prince Hal says then to the -- chief justice or the lord chancellor when he becomes king, you see, that he understands that the chancellor was down on him. You remember? And he doesn't fire him, he doesn't dismiss him. Gentlemen, this is a very great -- perhaps the greatest scene in English literature -- of the change of religion, of a young man into a mature man. The playboy has a preliminary religion. It is provisional. And I think you all have. And I only feel that Prince Hal is a long time ago, and Princess Hal is right with you, gentlemen. The girls of today all

have the playboy religion, that as long as they haven't snatched away one man for good, they can afford anything, and remain noncommittal. They tell me that in this country, if you are a South American or a Spaniard, you can sleep with any American woman under one condition: that if you meet her next day at a party, you must feign that you never met her. That's the condition -- strange condition attached. In all other countries, people who have been intimate remain friends, or they become enemies. But in this country, we have managed -- that it hasn't happened. It is just a completely -- complete separation of mind and body. And this is the essence, gentlemen, of the play religion, the division of mind and body, of which you all suffer. Because you also think that the mind has one -- does -- thinks one thing and the body can do something else. The division of mind and body -- and gentlemen, this religion is always pluralistic. No one event is really divine.

The expression of the Greek religion for this were the nine Muses and the three Graces. They were all many. You also have many gods. You go to sports, and you go to cocktail parties. You have liquor, the spirits, and you have a little stimulation by reading ticklish and obscene literature, and you have summer parties on the river, all your party-going is -- belongs into this line. You have many little, little divinities. and you can't do without them. You have even television. It's a necessity. Look at all the poor people today in this country who think the first expense they must have is television. But when they have a wedding in the home, the best thing they do is to shake hands and have a reception, and never have a meal, and never get drunk at the wedding. It's a very strange religion, but it is a pluralistic religion, gentlemen. You all have many gods, but they are so tiny, because -- that they are -- don't -- you don't give them the word "gods." You call them values, or you call them interests, or you call them ideals, or you call them pleasures. But they are something to which you pay the price of worship. You all over-expend on these matters. If you think what you spend wantonly, it's incredible. But Prince Hal did the same. We are all wasteful at your age. I have been a terrible waster. And -- so there's no blame attached, gentlemen. But as long as you know that -- as Prince Hal seems to have known all the time -- that this is transient, that before he hasn't up against a real task, it's no use becoming strict, you see. Just fooling around, wasting time and biding your time.

So I would say that the preliminary religion is a very serious business if it isn't understood. We -- before we reach the threshold of decision, of manhood, we fool around at the entr‚e, in the ante-chamber, so to speak, at the -- in the vestry of the sanctuary. And we say, "Well, obviously, this doesn't matter. Let's try this. Let's try this." As long as you say, "It is -- just try it all out," it doesn't matter. Gentlemen, the playboy religion becomes only a religion if these little stimuli and ticklish interests have to be repeated by you, whether you like it or not. If

you have to have a cocktail when you write a paper, as a boy told me the other day while -- he wrote his paper only because he could secure a Scotch. And without the drink, he couldn't write. Then this has become an idol, a real god. A young man -- Prince Hal, for example -- can do everything once with impunity. If he begins to repeat it, he is in danger. If he has to do it always, he's vicious. The playtime, gentlemen, must be a time of play. A play can be called off at will. That's the essence of a play. As soon as you have to do playing with necessity, you get stuck in the playboy's religion. The transition, gentlemen, from play to play-religion is when you have to play. Can you see this? Not one of these plays deserve to become a necessity. Can you understand this? Sir, I look at you.

That's the problem of Prince Hal. They -- he has -- Shakespeare has led you into such a situation where we are not quite sure what --- how preliminary this is with him, you see, and how much he is sold to this way of life. And that's the interest in the -- the tension in the drama, is it not? That we are still surprised by his sudden, not only resolve, but power to tell off Falstaff and to decide in favor of his critics, of the { }. The two things are, of course, the same decision, you see, for and against. And thereby he unmasks himself as having only played with this preliminary life. But you also know of many people who stay Prince Hal when they become Henry V, you see. And that's the problem of the playboy religion. It only becomes serious when play does not remain play, for the person who plays, you see. Then for the outer world, this man is nailed down to his own preliminary stage, and as you know, innumerable people today are this way. Their preliminary actions come home to roost, and they think that is it, and they get stuck in this position. Therefore, I think for you the most interesting part of all this is -- as any liberal arts college, gentlemen, this problem of the Muses. That's a very excellent expression, of course, and perhaps too good for you, because usually you don't get stuck with the nine Muses, but only with the less -- the coarser Graces, nowadays. But {Hovey}, Richard {Hove} is a good example of a man, I think, who sunk into this abyss of the play-religion. The man who wrote "Dartmouth Undying." And that's why he could write it, because it became with him more than a religion to be a student, you -- you see. And therefore you see his picture in the {Hovey} grill.

So I think the play religion, or play becoming a religion is as interesting an -- special grade of religion as the deep sleep of the Hindus, as we made this into a special group in the second class -- I told you that this would be too big. So here, between waking -- sleeping and waking, gentlemen, we play. It's undecided. It's --we are half in our sleep, half in our dreams. It's a dream world, is it not? It -- sleep, the dreams of the night carry into daylight, and all you can say the beginning of seriousness, you see, get going, so to speak, the time of preparation for work, made absolute. You prepare yourself for work here. If you become an eternal student, you see, then you would stand still, you see, and it's the prelimi-

nary character would disappear. Can you see this? Gentlemen, of course this is -- in your -- at your age, your great temptation. And every one of us wants to play too long.

And therefore I recommend to you to think this through. There should be -- a great poet should write today a book or a novel or a drama on Princess Hal. That's America's destiny, or decision, or turning point, or fatal crisis. Because the girls in this country all behave as though they were Prince Hal. But unfortunately not always with the good outcome of Henry V. There is not always a kingdom to inherit, you see. And these poor girls, therefore, don't know it. And you can help them, all your girls, when you know this problem, gentlemen. Prince Hal is not an historical figure. There's something in every one of you. But today, I think the extreme case is more in the girl than in the boy. Four hundred years of Prince Hal poetry, so to speak, have steeled the male, you see. But they have not yet reached, so to speak, the girls. They have not -- no image in poetry and literature for this {theme}. Can you understand what I am driving at? Therefore I offer you this as an interpretation which you may use in a crisi -- critical moment for your own married life, gentlemen, and your love affairs. You must look through these girls' masks. They want to have a husband. It's their deepest desire. But they also are now thinking that they have to play the game. And -- as the language says it, "play the game," you see. And you must help them to distinguish this preliminary with the final. And the more you know about these deep secrets, gentlemen, the less harsh and the less brutal will her jealousy be with you. If you can speak her -- to her about these things, she will appreciate those relations of yours and those religious convictions which belong already to your maturity. She may demand from you that you put down the playboy, too. But you must -- she must never demand that you also put off that which you have acquired seriously in life, you see, your real friends and your real decisions, and your real convictions. Now I always feel that they throw over the whole thing at once. They want to have their boy just, so to speak, naked, stripped of all his convictions and traditions, and his real achievements. Because you marry so young, they just think they are no such achievements. And they are not -- you cannot show them, { } what you really deep -- believe in, your deepest -- deep down in your heart and which is vielleicht -- perhaps exemplified in your relation to this course, or to some book you have read, or to some teacher, or to some aunt or uncle -- they cannot see. It's still invisible, you see. You have to demand respect for this, however, because without this, you are impoverished. That's your best dowry for this girl, these things which you have seriously acquired underneath all your preliminary play and talk. And I always feel that many men in this country are so ridiculously coward -- intimidated by the girl, and they are so grateful that this girl condescends to marry them, that they sacrifice too much. You sacrifice the better man in you with the Prince Hal. This you must never do, because that -- the man in you is the only power that can make this girl happy. It

can -- she can never rest, when she gets you without your real inner growth, without the stage in which you have reached a decision. Do I make myself clear?

And wherever I look, I see this, gentlemen, and it's so many tragedies in this country -- all live between 20 and 30 and after this, no life whatsoever left. This country, which has abolished tragedy, is full of tragedy. It is terrible, and tragedy that can never be healed. Because once a woman has stepped in this sense on your sanctuary and says, "That's all over now. We get married and that's all just the past," she has declined to allow you to grow. And once this is capped, once this is cut -- this growing point -- is seared and cauterized, for the rest of your life, you may be the breadwinner of your family, and you may be a little rooster, but that's all. You are no longer a man who can connect his first convictions with his latest convictions. So it's your problem, gentlemen, I assure you, that you must see why the girl today cannot understand these things. Because playreligion and will-religion and animated -- animism -- all this is today confused. People have no religion. We have talked perhaps too big about God Almighty at once, you see, without all the primitive stages inside which we are faced with the partial manifestations of the divine life.

So that is clear. We have at this moment not said everything about the playboy religion, but you have one criterion: it is always more than one divinity. Playboy religion is always pluralistic, because they are all short-lived pleasures. They are all shorter than the real life. You can have 10 amours. You can have 20 dates. But you can have only one wife. And you can have 20 drunken parties, you see. But you can have only one wedding, or one great occasion in which your candidacy for office is celebrated or not. But that's all much more limited. One. But all the pleasures you can multiply. That's why playboy religion is always multifarious. Always -- you can go on from one party to the next, swimming and canoeing and tennis-playing and football, and on it goes. And these pleasure are innumerable. Can you see this?

Gentlemen, that's why we -- it is -- was necessary to have the Bible. The one book -- the Bible is the book of books, as you know. There had to be one book which is only once, in order to make clear to you that you are all apt to get stuck with the best-sellers. That's the playboy religion, that you go on from one book to the next, and to the next, in endless succession. As long as you play with these books, it's all right. But it's the great saving of your orientation that you must know there is one book that is not read for pleasure, and therefore it's only one. That's you -- that's single, you see. And therefore the -- believe me one thing. Anybody who wants to abolish religion says that the Bible is literature. Literature is playboy religion, Muses, liberal arts, plural, many, you see. Literature means that one book can take the place of another book. And the Bible means that no book can place -- take the place of this book. There is only one Bible, or

there is no Bible. But if there's no Bible, don't read it. That is, you can never treat the Bible as literature. You can decide not to write -- read the Bible, because it's just old stuff and superstition. Nobody can force you to take to the Bible. But never mistake it to be what it is not. The Bible is not one book out of many. As soon as you say this, you have landed in one sphere, the play-sphere or the willsphere and you have lost your outlook into the total religious spheres of man.

Because now, gentlemen, we enter the fourth sphere. And in the fourth sphere, people are not one out of many. This is not one date, but it is my wife Elizabeth, or my brother John. In the fourth sphere, everybody has a personal name. And he cannot be substituted by another human being. It's his name and nobody else's. So gentlemen, the fourth sphere is a named sphere. The difference between the Jupiter sphere and the Venus sphere is very simple in this respect. Everything we work, we operate upon, we manipulate, we manage -- can be replaced by somebody else. Management, gentlemen, in a factory means that I have 10,000 workers to work with, and tomorrow I have 10,000 workers, and they may be all different individuals, and still I have 10,000 workers. In the sphere of work and animation and matter, names do not matter. You call, for example, water, H20 in the process of the work of your laboratory. That is, the beautiful name of water has been replaced by a chemical formula. For work, that's all good. Everybody knows what you're talking about and you can reproduce this water. And by this you show, gentlemen, that it is replaceable -- expendable, as we say in the military, in the Army, where people work with soldiers as material, the worker -- the soldier is expendable. Give me 10 privates and one corporal. And whoever they are, they can sit down and guard the -- have the nightwatch. And whoever they are, doesn't make any difference. They are replaceable. One corporal and 10 men. Yes, all right. At your orders, sir.

So gentlemen, this is a tremendous break, and for the last 150 years, this break has been overlooked. What you call science, gentlemen, is the destruction of names. It is said, like my friend, that this is not Mr. Farnham's house, but it is a house. Then it is for sale. Your house is not for sale. Your glasses, sir, are not for sale. They are your glasses, you see. They are made to order. And even your glasses are your own glasses. And you wouldn't like it if I would take them and put them on my nose at this moment. You would resent it, you see. And rightly so. Whereas if I go into a store, and they are still 12 glasses, they haven't yet been personified. And I can try them all on and nobody minds, you see. There they have -- are still commodities. You haven't impersonated them.

Gentlemen, at this moment it's perhaps too early for you to understand the whole impact of named lives or numbered lives. Who is in biology? You may know that they now begin to wake up to this fact by talking of species, and are not quite sure what a species is. That's a great discussion now under way, in

biology, what a species is. Well, species is that part of naming that cannot be lost even in pure science, in natural science, you see. That's -- an animal is one elephant out of a { }, that makes it into a species. A species has to have a name. It cannot have a number, you see? Elephants cannot be called Number 742, you see. They must have a name. Whereas the single elephant has no name, you see. It's just one elephant. So they don't understand it, of course. These natural scientists are like children. And they don't know their own thought processes. Species is that part of the named world which is still contained even in science. But it isn't given to the single elephant or the single flower, you see, but what we call the species. The species is the last entity in nature which still has to keep a name. In your and my existence, gentlemen, man is the race, that -- {that strange} species in -- which consists of species. A species is some entity that has its own name. Now you have a name and I have a name, and together we form the species "man." So if you want to have a -- from the point of view from the naturalist, a pun, man is the species that consists of species. It's not to laugh, gentlemen. It's literally true. No scientist knows it. They will know it very shortly. That is, we are working, my friends and I, for the last 50 years on this whole pro-- process of doing away with the consequences of the Renaissance. And one is that man has no place in this universe today, because people do not understand what it means that you have a different name from me. And I, you see, by danger of being killed by you, must let you have your own name. If I take away your own name and say, "He's just, you see one out of a million," the first thing is that there are too many men. That's the first reflection. You come to a country like India, where you don't know the people and you feel that there are too many Hindus -- many American ladies plan, therefore, as you know, to cut down the birthrate in India, because they feel that there are just too many. In Italy and Japan, it's similar. If the American ladies had their way, they would all just throttle all these children, or choke them. The same, nice ladies who love John and Mary in this country, think nothing of abolishing millions of people in other countries, because to them they are all Hindus. They are just a species.

Gentlemen, all nationalism makes out of the nations outside your own nation a species. Russians. But inside your own country, every man is a god, is a species by -- in his own right. If you want to understand nationalism, it's just this little trick. That inside your own nation, you grant everyone his own name. But if you come to France, just French. If you come to England, the English, you see. And they're all alike. And the only one can be exchanged for every other. I once wanted to interest my neighbor, Alec Lang, in some British writer and he said, "It's just an English story." Well, I was {thrown} -- he was an intelligent, liberal man, you know, in this college. But when it came the British, he just saw red, you see. They were all John Bull. Everybody the same. And therefore, worth nothing. British, you see, species. Can you see this?

Gentlemen, the species is seen with -- as a -- that part of reality which we see with affection. You will admit that would be a great pity there would be no elephants left. At least, one dodo should be alive. It's a pity that they all died out, you see, isn't it? On Mauritius. The dodo. You know what a dodo is. Wie? There are no dodos! Don't you know that they died out?

(Some bird, wasn't it?)

Yes, sir, wonderful bird. Not some bird, but a dodo!

Now, I'm quite serious gentlemen. I hope that even you, brutal as you are, would regret that any one species would simply completely disappear. I do think that I can appeal to you to say that one zoo at least should save an orang-utan from extinction, or the elephant. Wouldn't you agree? That's why we have these zoos, in this deep feeling that no species should disappear, gentlemen. Species is that kind of creation -- that part of creation of which we affirm its integrity, that it is a part of our own existence that we should save. No one elephant must be saved. No one deer must be shot. We have now hunting season. They shoot at what they can, you know. Don't go out at night. I mean, it's very dangerous at dusk. They will shoot you too, but -- in New Hampshire. But one deer must be left. That's why we have this limitation for the hunting season. Otherwise there would be no reason. There must be some deer left. As you know, we have these wonderful wild pigeons in America. It has been computed that there must be -- the American people in the 19th century may have killed as many as 36 billion wild pigeons -- 36 billions of wild pigeons. The sky was dark with them. And bang! Bang! Bang! They all went. And now there is not one. And that is a pity.

Gentlemen, where we say it is a pity, we just remember that where there is a name, there is affection. And affection means that I am affected by the other names being not existent. I am affected. Part of me goes. You cannot realize, gentlemen, what today a European feels whose nation is totally destroyed. There is not a biparition of Germany, but there are Germans in Switzerland; there are Germans in Alsace; there are Germans in Luxembourg; there are Germans in Austria; there are Germans in Czechoslovakia; there are Germans in Italy; and there are Germans in the Eastern zone; and there are Germans in the Western zone. It is for you -- quite impossible to realize what -- how this hurts, because the species can no longer be recognized by one word, "Germany." There is no Germany. It's all a fiction that Mr. Adenauer represents Germany. He doesn't. It's the occupied zone of Germany which happens to be occupied by the Americans, French and British. And that's pure -- purely accidental. Weimar, the town in which Goethe lived; Jena, the town in which Schiller lived; Eisleben, the town in which Luther was born, and so on, they are all in Russian hands. Do you think that a country which hasn't the birthplace of its three greatest men can be called

Germany? Ridiculous. There is no Germany. Mr. Adenauer is a very great man, but has nothing to do with Germany. He has something to do with the military occupation of a part of Germany.

We did it. I mean, we were the fools -- we had Thuringia, with all these sacred places, you see. And the place where Bach lived in Leipzig, the American troops were there. And we threw it all away. Because of our playboy attitude, you see, no names matter. But gentlemen, in political life, it's all a question of names. Look at this Trieste business. It's just a question of a name. The place is neither shared by the Yugoslavs nor by the Italians. The only great time of Trieste was when it belonged to Austria-Hungary, because then it was a natural -- the only port the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy had. It was a big city, over a 100,000 people. As soon as the Italians got it after the First World War, it was a question that it dwindled down to 28,000 people. Now there live 24,000 people. But it's a name! And it happened to be an Italian name, so they went to war for Trieste. In 1913 -- winter of '13 to '14 -- it's long ago. You can -- have a hard time even to fathom how the world looked at that time -- I was in Italy. I celebrated Christmas with dear friends -- a professor -- Italian professor of medicine and his wife. And they brought out champagne and unfortunately the conversation fell upon Trieste. It at that time was Austrian-Hungarian. Well, it finished our friendship. I just -- I was a German, I was not even an Austrian-Hungarian -- I said just that Trieste was better off under Austria-Hungary. And it was a big city, and an important port. And what did they have to offer? If you look at the map of Italy, Trieste is in the extreme corner, in the northeast, you see. And no Italian can make use of it, because they have much better ports, you see. So Trieste of course is ruined, as soon as it is Italian. A name, a sacred name, gentlemen. And people will blow their heads out and kill each other for a name.

What's in a name? I'll tell you what's in a name. You know the answer in the poet -- "What's in a name?" You see it's just -- in every name, there's a {war}. Because in every name there is also a love story. Names are given from affection. And affection means identity. Affection means that this name -- by this name I recognize a person as belonging, as being a member of reality. I lift this child up -- in the ancient times, gentlemen, you could kill every newborn child, as today the nurses and doctors still have to if a terrible miscarriage is born -- a child that can perhaps live, but shouldn't live. Now you gentlemen, you don't know what's going on in our hospitals, but you should know. The old wives' rule in antiquity was very human. Before the father hadn't taken up the child and given it his name, you could do with the child as you pleased. Now, we have the idea that the natural brat, the embryo, is sacred, without a name. And therefore we let people -- animals survive that shouldn't live. People who are completely a torture for the parents for the rest of their life. We don't dare any more to trust the love and affection of a real father that he would size up this child and say, "Can it

live?" you see, or "Can it not live?" Somebody has to make this decision. I mean, in modern -- in modernity, it's done, of course, if the child could only live with oxygen, the wise doctor will just not apply the oxygen. Nothing is said and the child fortunately is not carried on. You don't know of these things -- usually it's done that a young apprentice nurse is asked to commit the crime. That is, the doctor just leaves her in the lurch and does nothing, and then fortunately the poor parents don't have to recognize this brat as a child, and it is no child. I mean, they are actually born with two heads not only, but in such a way that they shouldn't live. There's nothing wrong. The name once given consecrates the child. After the child is named, it must be buried, and registers as a member of the family. A child that grows up, it is told, that one child died, you see, because there was already a child. If the mother had six { } or an abortion, you see, in early -- it isn't mentioned to the younger child. That is not their business to know what happened. But once a child is named, it enjoys the circle of affection. It's in the midst of the family. You don't dare to admit this, because you have been told that words do not matter.

Gentlemen, words do not matter, but names do matter. What's a name? No, one moment, Sir. Then I ask you. A name is a word by which you call a person, itself. That is, it is the word -- is not a name, but a name is also a word. You are "John," because I call -- you listen when I call you "John." And when you are absent, I say, "John is absent." That is, every name can become a word. But no word can become a name, because the condition of a name is that the person or the living being, addressed in this manner, turns around and comes to you, and knows that it is -- he is meant, or she is meant, you see. A name must always enter this field of force. A name is that term or that expression by which somebody recognizes himself, is spoken of, and is spoken to. Three things involved. You must know that you are John. You must come to me, you see, because I call John. And when you are absent I shall talk to you of John. As you know, the full love, the full affection, the greatest affection a man can enjoy is that the people call him by the same name when he is absent as they call him to his face and as he wants to be called in his inner self. You know that when you call a man "Christ killer," or "Nigger" or "Dago," you can never call him this way to his face. And that proves that you don't love him. Very simple. You can make the test exactly at this moment whom you love and whom you don't love. If you speak of your father as "The Old Man" in his absence and "Daddy" to his face, it's very dangerous. I never could do it. I have never been able to call my father in his absence, or my mother with "Old Lady" or "Old Man" because I felt I would not say this to them in -- to their face. And since I love my parents, I have always used exactly the same term, without knowing what I know now. You see how deep down this goes. And I always suspect the people who, in order to be smart in their fraternities speak of their parents in a way in which they would not address them. You can't do that without hurting somebody's feelings, usually

your own.

Because complete affection means that one name stands for all situations. If you say to the president of the United States when you see him, "Mr. President," and if you say in his absence, "Mr. Truman's War," you certainly do not support the Constitution of the United States. You don't love it. It's a very strange country in which we live, gentlemen, in which all the hatreds of mankind are taken out on the president of the United States. He is the scapegoat. Every hatred is first carried -- he drinks, you see, and everything. Every president was said to be drinking, up to Hoover. They all were made out to be drunkards, or terrible men. Because it was a strange way out -- democracy is so tolerant, except for the president.

Now, gentlemen, you may begin to see that a word is not alive. It's applied to non-living things. But a name is terribly alive. It's explosive, because once this -- it's like electricity. And a name is something physical. Somebody else hears it. Don't think of names just registered on paper. Since a name is something that goes on my -- here on my eardrum, on my membrane, you see, I may tremble with fury if I hear you mention me in -- with the wrong name. It's an insult, if you call me names. And it's purely accidental that I don't hear it while you say it in my absence. And people always -- these rationalists, I always am surprised. All these rationalists say, words, words, names, names, that's all nothing. I -- we are scientific. We are analytical. But what I say to this man, "You cheat," or "You're vain," or "You're an idiot," they get very angry. I don't understand them. It doesn't matter at all what I say, according to their own philosophy. Doesn't it? They are just words? Question of definition.

Gentlemen, they are part of the created universe, names. With names, we reach the great fact that names are just as real as things. They work all feverishly. They -- all the Negroes in the United States work feverishly so that nobody might dare any longer to call them "Nigger." That's the whole -- that's all behind the segregation issue. Why do -- should they care to sit with these white children and get this kind of education? But at -- once they sit in this school, then nobody can speak behind their back anymore. That's the important thing about segregation. So that they have two languages that they have to accept; one to their face and one behind their back. And it's the same with all minority groups. And you know how serious that is. Very serious. How can you then say that name is not something physical? Gentlemen, names are sound waves. And you believe in a radio, and you go have long- and short-waves, wouldn't you kindly begin to see that speech is something physical, which describes certain etchings on your membrane, and a person who hears to his -- in his ear that -- he can be wounded, can he not? We look for traumas now, in psychoanalysis. Gentlemen, it's so farfetched. The trauma is here in my membrane. If, of course, I see that my parents

are constantly dissatisfied with myself and scold me, I am -- of course my membrane is etched, because they call out my name with a certain tone. And I just run away because I can't hear them scorch my ear. That's scorched-earth policy. And we -- you don't have to look so far. All these psychoanalytical things are so far-fetched, if you would only consider all the frictions that go on by a mother saying to Charlie, "Don't do that." "Well, I can't hear it any longer," the boy says. And he takes a ticket and goes to California. Obviously he runs away from this constant, nagging sound on his membrane. Isn't that simple? Why do you have to look for so much more complicated things? People don't want to see speech. Most people cannot see what they say. They cannot see what they hear. I invite you to consider that names are constantly shaking the air with terrific consequences. It's -- very physical.

Every religious person believes that God can hear. Otherwise we couldn't pray. Now, I have not spoken of prayer because -- to you -- because you don't believe in prayer. You don't think that God has ears. Because you don't even believe that you have ears. You only think. And other people think. And if they think right, that's all right. I want to hear you speak to me with deference. And if you don't, I say, "He has insulted me." And the same with you. Isn't that true? What is insult? { } my -- what I have to hear. Isn't that simple?

It's very strange, but this country is absolutely deaf to the reality of insult. And in "insult," we learn, of course, also "exultation." If a person says to you "Darling," and you have waited for a declaration of love for a long time, you are in the seventh heaven. She finally has responded. She says, "Darling." So you can set the wedding date. And then you say a name doesn't mean anything. That's a name she suddenly gives you, and everything is changed. The whole world looks different. You have entered a field of force that is -- as with electricity, you push a button and it's suddenly light. If a name suddenly is heard for which you have waited inside yourself, from the mouth of another person, you have entered a new sphere of life. Isn't that simple? Nobody in this country believes any of that stuff. That's all superstition. Gentlemen, the whole of religion is built around the sacrament of love-making, of declaring your love. That's why love in the -- according to the Gospel is the greatest manifestation of the divine power. Changes everything. Once a person whom you have courted is good enough to call you by this name, by which you love most to be called, you are a changed person.

Did I give you this at the end of the last meeting? The sentence -- didn't I dictate you two sentences? Well, I'm now back to this. It took me a long time. What did I say?

([unintelligible] Romeo is { }. Romeo said, "It is my soul that calls upon my


Ja. Stop. That's enough. Gentlemen, man is created out of nothing, the Bible says. And you can all experience this. The person you become, and the very moment that one good girl calls you in the way you have languished to be called, you are born for the first time. That's your real birth. That's your soul that's born at that moment. Before, you have been the seventh child of your family, or the stepson of Mr. X. and what-not. You have been many things. You have been a student at Dartmouth. But the very minute one woman calls you in this way, as Juliet calls Romeo, you are Romeo. That is, you are an -- irreplaceable, unexpendable, unique person. You have a biography. You are historical. You have entered life under your own steam. And you can't make it yourself, gentlemen. That's the difference between Sphere 4 and Sphere 3. In Sphere 3, you say, "I pay so many taxes, I'm the richest man of the United States. Therefore I am who I am." The Romeo says, "I am who I am, because one woman has called me by my -- in my -- my name with that power, and that confidence and that devotion which I always have waited to be called before I didn't know that I was somebody." This, gentlemen, is the meaning of the Biblical story of the creation out of nothingness. Nobody who has not experienced creation out of nothing, can understand why God should have created the world out of nothing. And anybody who has been loved ever knows that he has been created out of nothing, that is, without any cause and effect that preceded it, you see. Your mother doesn't call you this way. You don't tremble when your mother calls you, except if she's disaffected, if she's angry. Then you tremble.

I have known a man, gentlemen. He was 45. He met a woman. She wasn't married. It was love at first sight. They saw each other a second time, and when he discovered her in a restaurant, he went pale white. The man had had innumerable mistresses. He was a one of the most { }

[tape interruption]

He was a { }.

[tape interruption]

If you are in love, gentlemen, all your debaucheries, all your orgies are all forgiven. That's the wonderful remission of sins. There is nothing left from the past, because for the first time you are born, you are made over. Now, many of you have not experienced this. You won't believe me, gentlemen. I have -- I say you are color-blind and therefore you laugh and you discuss the creation of species and the survival of the fittest and all these {cosmogonnies} and geology -- 500 millions of years of evolution, and Mr. Dewey's remark that the human

mind found itself in hundreds of millions of years and all this bunk. Well, he was a Vermonter. He probably never married for love. I don't know that. But anybody who has been called for the first time by the name he expected inside of himself, gentlemen, to be called with, is for the first time himself. And it -- why should it not take 20 years before you are fully born? Why should it be all over in nine months? Obviously, you live for the last 20 years in the womb of your society, protected and sheltered. And once one person from the outer world joins you, gentlemen, and says to you who you are, you can now face the world. The great story of names is, gentlemen, that if after one person has seen you fully, by giving you the name you have expected inside, you two together will conquer the world. The story of love in the world -- of affectionate names, is that the way one person names you first, the world will name you at the end. The whole story of your second half of life is that a good woman, if she is really your woman, you see, will force the rest of the world to see you as she sees you. That's the success story of real persons. That's why a woman is so incredibly important. That's why Mary Lincoln made her husband president of the United States. Very strange story. You know, she married him with the ambition that this was the president of the United States. He became president of the United States. She was a monster. But you have to forgive her everything, because she was the first woman to see the president of the United States in Abraham Lincoln in Springfield, Illinois. A man with {obstipation}. That is, the most ungainly man in sight in the United States of America. And she was the only woman --.

I want to prove to you, gentlemen, that I'm not sentimental about Romeo and Juliet. I'm not talking poetry. I'm talking politics! The politics of any human life are to find one whole person who calls you -- discovers you for what you are to him, regardless of background, race, creed, color, what you can become. If you find this person, you are made, {if you are not dead, yet}. You are made by her recognition, or his recognition. Could be a friend. The great story of Abraham Lincoln is never seen in this country. It's a love story. She was the first American who saw his potentiality. All the rest -- as I said, she was a monster -- you pay a high price when you meet a man on this highest plane of vocation, of calling. There is -- you may find a girl who likes you because you have nice hands, and nice feet, or a straight nose. She didn't marry Lincoln for any of these paraphernalia of the second sphere or the first sphere, for his money, you see, or the third sphere, because he was a great worker. She married him under the -- fifth sphere. She anticipated that he was the destiny of America. But she had to say it. She had to en-- bring him out into the open. If he hadn't had this recognition by her, it would have never happened.

This -- these -- it's there life become -- begins to become interesting, gentlemen, and then you know what you gamble away when you marry your date, you see. You can date your bride, but you cannot marry your date. Do you

understand the difference? Hunh? Can you see the difference? Ja? Is it clear? Because the date is just suspended animation, or will, but doesn't mean that you really are -- have paled when you met her. If you haven't trembled -- that is, you haven't felt that if she doesn't come, you're lost. That's love. Love is necessity, gentlemen. And one thing I have to tell you in addition, it isn't pleasant.

I once had a rationalistic friend. He's a jurist, a great lawyer. Professor of law in Heidelberg at this moment. And -- public law -- and he was just a rationalist of the nicest order. I mean, he could only say two and two is four. And not a human being, otherwise. His father already had been a jurist. His grandfather had been a revolutionary in '48 in Austria, and he had been led to the scaffold. And he had proved to the man who -- the chaplain who went with him to the scaffold -- logically that he couldn't be executed. But he was. But he was. That's -- kind of type. He had proven it. Now my -- this friend of mine -- we began our careers on the same day, so I've always had a foible for this fool -- that -- he came to a mutual friend when we were students, and he said, "Don't you think --" man was a philosopher, a professor of philosophy, or an instructor in philosophy -- said, "There are only two kinds of feelings, aren't there?"

My -- our mutual friend was a little taken aback and said, "What do you mean? I never thought of feelings in this manner."

"Oh, well there are only two."

"Well, what kinds do you mean?"

"Well, the agreeable ones and the disagreeable ones."

You can only see -- already see that agreeable-disagreeable is always a very incomplete dichotomy, you see. Mexicans and Americans you can say. But Americans and non-Americans is only a half-baked dichotomy, you see, because the second thing has no name of its own. Now agreeable feeling and disagreeable feeling is pure logic, you see, because it doesn't say what the disagreeable feelings contain. It's just not not-agreeable.

Well, this shows him up in the first place. If you have a man who says the Church is an international institution, you see, he doesn't know anything about the Church, because the Church is, of course, not either national nor international, you see. It's universal. It's quite important to know this, you see. The enemies of the Church call her an international institution. But "international" is only derived from "national," so therefore it doesn't mean anything. The same way he said this. Then my friend said -- the mutual friend -- the third -- the philosopher said, rather disgusted by such a poverty of imagination -- he said,

"Well, what about love? This is agreeable or disagreeable?"

And this fool said, "Agreeable."

Now anybody who has been in love and had diarrhea, knows that it is not agreeable to be in love, you see. A decent bridegroom has a migraine on his wedding day. It's terrible, agony, to get married. But you have to. You have all foolish conceptions about this, because you don't know that destiny never is agreeable, as little as a battle is agreeable. But you can be the hero of the battle, and usually the people who are -- have fear in battle -- are the greater heroes than the people who have no fear. Love is not pleasant. Your dates may be pleasant. But that's sex. Love is not pleasant, gentlemen. But love is something you cannot escape. It's much more terrifying.

The first condition of love, gentlemen, is that you really make sure that it is stronger than you yourself. You must bring all the reasons into play to say "No" to it. And if it then cannot be helped, for God's sake, get going. That's love. The rest is, as I say -- inclination, sex, I mean, affection on a -- in a minor key -- it isn't important. It's one of the play-religious experiences. The best marriages I have found, gentlemen, were people who met when both were in despair. Both had lost their alleged love, or their real love, and they both were in despair. And they were able to look through the veil of nicety and pleasantness and became real husband and wife, under the sacrament of despair. Love saves you from despair in your own power to be recognized by the world. That's the best definition of love I know. Love saves you from the despair, you see, of not -- can -- being able to push your recognition by the world through -- under your own steam, under your own terms. You need somebody who sees in you what you hope you can be.

The rest is just, as I say, unimportant, pleasant. And it usually ends in divorce. This never ends in divorce. Those who begin under tears, gentlemen, shall reap in joy. But if you'll reap this just -- begin to sow with joy, you will reap tears. And there shouldn't just be joy and pleasantness in your relation to your wife. You must get struggling. You must find out whether this is serious. And I don't see what else you have in life that is serious. Our jobs are not serious any more. There are 20 jobs to a year. They all change. Nobody can say "I -- here is a profession." You'll have to change your profession many a time in the modern, hectic era. But in love, gentlemen, the people who miss today real love to me appear always as the real color-blind, the people who have no chance to live, because the only sphere of freedom that's left you, gentlemen, is the sphere of friendship, affection, love. There you can be unique. In work, we can -- no longer can be unique, because we have all teamwork, and anonymous work, and unrecognized work, and bureaucracy, and you just -- have you listened to "The Consul"?

Who -- do you know the opera, "The Consul"? The cruelty of bureaucracy, they are just terrifying. They are growing every day. And they make out of man just a rubberstamp. We are no longer anything in the hands of a bureaucracy that can deny you the passport, and the citizenship, and what-not. You don't know. The world is encroaching upon you. The only sphere that the Devil hasn't yet taken away from you is the sphere of making love and receiving love. And if you make any mistake there, you completely jettison your own freedom, the only freedom that's left you. The other -- there are no other freedoms. You have to take the job that's offered you. The society is very drab, isn't it? There are only very few steps that are of weight in your own life, and that is the family, and how to found it, and how to refound it.

This brings up the -- as a -- oh, pardon me. May I say one thing, which I think I would like to finish today? I think I spoke already about incest here, did I? It's very much on my heart to show you the connection, how simple everything becomes, once you discover the power of names. Why can't you marry your sister? It seems very abnormal that one cannot. Why can't you marry your mother? Why can't you marry your daughter? Many men, who have beautiful daughters, would love to sleep with their daughters. They can't. They never think of it. They sacrifice everything to their daughter. But they certainly don't lust. They have no idea of -- that this daughter is at their mercy, as they was -- they were in the olden times, perhaps. No gentlemen, very early men discovered what makes men potent, and what is love. When another person is called by you with a new name for the first time. St. Augustine has defined incest as a marriage, or sexual intercourse between people who already have given them -- each other another name, before they try to give each other the name of lovers. That's incest. It's a very wonderful explanation, gentlemen. You come from an era in which everything has been explained physically: "Incest to me is between close -- relatives." Wake up to the fact, gentlemen, that incest means that the power of love cannot come into play, as an original name-giving process. If Juliet had been the sister of Romeo, he could have never said, "It is my soul that calls upon my name." Because he who -- Juliet -- would have fooled around with his name in a non-serious way in a family life before. You can't call your mother with the name of "Sweetheart," because you have called her your mother. Let me bring up to -- out to you that the most difficult fact that in the fourth sphere, names are dynamite. And if you try to put a new name of love upon a name that is already stale, you see, you'll never recover the potency of your love. This love cannot make the person you love over, because she has heard from you that you called her by another name, before. Do you see this? Can you see { }? Once you look this through, gentlemen, I always felt that the rediscovery -- I found it. Nobody has -- that St. Augustine said this -- that this great man, who was the greatest knower of the human soul that has lived before our days, when he discovered what incest was, he also enlightened what love is, of course, you see. Love is your

hearing your own name for the first time spoken with conviction. That name, which you have buried inside yourself always waited, that somebody might bring it out and say, "He's really a fine fellow," and he's not just a number on the -- football team. And he's not just the third-ranking man in the class, but he's this man. And I don't care where he goes to college, and where he belongs to, you see. She singles you out so that there's nothing left of your whole background. And you are all present.

Gentlemen, love makes present and annihilates the past. Because in love, the lover only is interested in the future of the person. Therefore a new life begins. The lover calls you by your name as part of your future. And the enemies call you by your name as part of your past. They call you "Nigger." They call you "Jew." They call you with all the evil names. Even Dartmouth, just a Dartmouth students, second-rate intelligence, because so far no intellectuals have come out of Dartmouth. You could be the first Dartmouth student with an intellect. Couldn't you? You didn't come to Dartmouth for this purpose, but perhaps I work so hard on you that you might wish to become one. That would change the whole history of Dartmouth.

So love makes present. But, you understand now what present is. Love makes you suddenly begin a new career, a new -- a future. Because nothing that still adheres to you from class, group, background any longer matters. This wonderful formula, gentlemen, regardless of creed, color, race, is -- a belief -- a belief in democracy, in religion -- this is a Christian country. And when this was introduced, this democratic formula, it meant that everybody in this country shall receive his own future, regardless of his background, you see. And as long as this is true, this country is a Christian country. And it isn't true, as you well know, everywhere.

Thank you.