{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

[Opening remarks missing]

... let alone himself. That is, no one man is able to think, you see. We can only think two, three, and more, after having established peace, because then we only know what should be true. True is at first this which is true for you and me. Finally, we have said true is something that is true for everybody. But that's only a generalization from the experience that you and two -- you and I have agreed on something. And this has to happen by our calling each other "friend," calling each other "related," you see, giving each other. So I always have in such comparisons to the word "reciprocity," or "mutuality," which forces me, you see, to be confronted by the other fellow. There is in comparison -- I compare this and this, and they may not have anything to do with each other. But it's this way they are facing each other, and lending each other their strength, imparting to each other the good conscience that they are who they are. Do you see the difference of --?

[tape interruption]

Gentlemen, as I see it, we have still six meetings. Isn't that right? Four meetings after -- ?

(Five meetings.)

Five. And so I propose that we today devote once more a meeting to animism. Next time we'll speak of the religions of the first cycle, of the first sphere of the dead cosmic order, the -- the astrological religions, you may call them. And then we have this -- I should be able to do this, this week, and in part the first meeting thereafter. And then we have one on the Greek religion, and one on the Jewish, and one on the Christian. And so today shall be devoted to animism. And I want to remind you, that as we found it, man is hanging in these five spheres, he finds himself -- when he finds himself as somebody who has his own name and his own will, as you at this moment are established as students at the age of 20, that above you are the great problems of: whom are you going to marry? And who is -- what is it to -- have a family? And the great catastrophes of the universe, and World War III. You can even put it this way. That this is above you. It will crisscross and cancel all your own private plans if there should be World War III. You just would have to do, you see, as at the sign of the road saying in -- "Closed in times of war -- at the outbreak of war." A witty Vermonter put this a few miles from us, in the midst of the woods there. It's a wood road, and they put a sign across, "Closed in case of war."

So, here are your passions, your own vices, your own -- and here are you. And everything below this, if I number now these spheres as they should be numbered: 1, the catastrophes. That is, {views} of a universal character -- 1, your group, your people inside which you have love and hatred. That is, the individual group. One, yourself. One, the organic life, which must serve you in order for you to carry out your will: your body, but also here your house, your -- the earth, which feeds you, the sun, and so on. And finally here the dead matter.

We have already stated about animism that it does not yet dare to say anything about dead matter, but that it concentrates on feeling that all organic -- organisms, animals, as -- but the flowers, too; and the water, too; and the woods; and the mussels, I mean, every -- that they should be treated as alive. Including the stones, for example. That's why you find from time immemorial remnants of this in the Holy Stone in the Kaaba in Mecca, you see. Animism tries to limit man's understanding, or man's worship, or man's religion, by developing all the positive powers of aliveness, of vitality. So if you see this, you will understand that animism is more or less not yet able to face up to Saturnus, or Jahweh, or Christ -- to the great gods of catastrophe. And it is not yet willing, or has not yet found any means to rationalize, or to suffer -- suffer from, or to recognize that which we have to give to the golden calf, which we have to give to the sun and the moon, which we have to give to steel and iron. The -- these primitive people don't drive cars, and if you want today to revive animism, as you have with the vegetarians, for example, you see, who say you -- that's a very animistic group. They don't care for these other things. They just care for, you see, for this part of the universe. This limitation today is a voluntary restriction.

In the first days of mankind, I think it was a normal clinging to the first thing of importance: life. And there is -- then a kind of curtailment of animism, in animism. And because there is this curtailment, to you animism today seems to be something primitive. I must warn you, gentlemen, that it isn't primitive, but it is only limited, which isn't the same. It is quite genuine. That is, you and I must be animists. But we cannot be only animists. So my criticism, gentlemen, of this first tradition of the human race, animism, is not that it is wrong, or primitive, but that it is -- restricts the universe's perceptions, and our means of dealing with the universe, you see, by saying, "We only must breathe in harmony with the rhythm of the universe." But don't give it up. You cannot replace animism by saying it is wrong, or it is primitive and we are civilized. If you omit any worship -- respect for life itself, for breathing, for rhythm, you must provoke vegetarianism or some similar sects, because in the economy of the human prayer, of the -- of human religion, of this field of power, nothing real can be lost, totally. So every one, gentlemen, universal faith at any one time, when it tries to supersede certain elementary processes, like this animism, it must provoke sects. And this -- perhaps the first moment in which I can state on the basis of this animism of the

-- of the tribesmen in the woods, that nothing is lost ever in the field of religion, nothing is totally lost. If you suppress this, and say we are -- have superseded this, we have outgrown it, gentlemen, you may be sure that it will visit -- be visited upon your civilization, because you have just diminished, you see, the wisdom of the ages. And you have to include it.

So, my first words would be -- say -- say our whole approach -- all this course has not been to exclude any of these experiences, you see, but to put them in such a place where you and I can still make use of them. Can you see this? The remnant in Christianity, of course, of this animism, is Communion, where bread and wine are treated as much as life as Christ Himself. And if you limit the wafer and the wine, you see, to just this one thing, you are following your reason. But if you enter in the spirit of the animistic tribesman, you are again in possession of the secret that in this part of life, in the whole of life, God wants you, you see, and therefore Christ is -- reviving in the highest possible way that the first belief of all men: that life is one. And so don't underrate it. You must rediscover animism from the highest of -- part of our own religion, and must not look down on it as something primitive. There is nothing primitive, gentlemen. You are primitive, because you are -- old age, barbarism, is always this last stage of life. The Romans in the Roman Empire, they were bar-- they had become barbaric. And we are just in process of doing this. Under television and radio, you can't -- advertising, you are primitive men. You have lost the first original primeval realization that everything dead should be thrown out, because it clutters up your brain. And you should only live with living substance. You should. The -- what is this for a country in which you eat paper? The bread which you eat is just absolutely lifeless, as you know. Chemicals. For the last 50 years, all over the world, the food of -- stuff -- of the people has shown no understanding of what life is or what death is. If you analyze the bread which you eat, you know that it is perfectly worthless. You only eat it for the sight, for the whiteness, for its whiteness. No content. And this is -- was of such concern in France and Italy already at the end of the 19th century that the governments had to forbid this, because we couldn't eat anything else, these poor people, you see. You can eat steak, and therefore it doesn't matter that you eat this paper, or wool, or cotton, or whatever this bread may be called which you eat. It doesn't contain one shred of life. As you know, the kernel is taken out. The one thing that made bread, bread.

So, gentlemen, I'm not talking about anything far away from you when I say that the primitive people had this glowing desire to unite with all life. And you have lost it, because you live in a mechanized universe. And you do believe that chemicals can feed you. And there is a very serious biologist in Switzerland who says that man therefore misses one whole phase in his life now in America, because you all are leptosomes, if you know what this means in anthropology.

You all keep growing up to improbable heights as an average. The American population is larger than anyone else, because it's this loveless type of the 14and 15-year-old who's thin here in the chest, you see, and shoots up, like that, which is cultivated by our whole civilization. And it's not the -- vital one then would the -- pic- -- how would you call it? What's the other type? Leptosome and piknosome, I think, is the contrast. Who knows? Well, you all should know this in your course on health.

Which is the poetical, and the vital and the organic -- organistic, so to speak, element in you -- the wide chest and the -- which stresses width more than length. These are two types. And in a normal human being, you go through various stages in which one or the other types in your -- inside yourself, so to speak, prevails. That is, you embrace both aspects of humanity. Our power to deal with the dead, which would be in the vertical, so to speak, you see, and our embrace of the universe as our own as we ourselves which would, in a way, express itself in a more round form as the woman -- women do in -- compared to the men; where you have the feeling that they themselves present organic nature, whereas men, as simply tall, would present much more the fighter who destroys and exploits and beats down the enemy, and doesn't care for his aliveness, but wants to see him dead, the slayer. And there is, of course, in humanity, each moment these two tendencies: to say the rest of the world, you see, must serve me, I treat it as dead; and the opposite tendency, you see: the rest of the world is mine, and I treat it as alive.

The Gospel has this very strange statement. You find everything in the Gospel of the old primitive religions. Jesus says in one place, "He who is against me," you see, "Who is not against me is for me." And another place, "He is not for me, is against me." And they are contradictory. And they are the woman and the man in every one of us. And Jesus had to say, since He is the perfect man, both things. And it is just to draw the line. If you think of these spheres as concentric spheres. You can also put it this way, looking on it from above, you see. Jesus says in one place, "He who is not for me is against me" -- by which he groups the Christian Church as the only alive group and says all the rest of the world is dead, you see, is inimical. From the point of view, however, of the willing missionary, you see, he who isn't -- not against me, you see, is for me, because he still can be won, you see. He can at one moment, perhaps wake up and come over to me. Both is true.

At any one moment, I would think, gentlemen, the principle of animism is in the sentence, "He who is not against me is for me." It is my attempt to treat everything as alive. And as we shall see, the opposite tendency would be in the nonanimistic attitude, "He who is not for me, is against me." Can you see that? That the same thing here -- I need you, so to speak, as a borderline case, and it's up to me at this moment to try to win you over, you see, pull you in. Or to say this man

isn't, you see, just a stumbling block in my way. I treat him as an outsider.

This whole secret, gentlemen, of religion is including and excluding. We all the time include and exclude into the living; we say of every one thing when we speak, you can't open your mouth. It's either alive or dead.

I always give this very small example. If you say today, "Europe was a great civilization, according to Mr. Toynbee," then you have condemned Europe as a has-been. And it is outside. It's no longer for us, you see. If you say Europe is a great civilization, you express hope that it may still be one, and prove itself. But with this little word "was" and "is," gentlemen, you betray your faith. Whether Europe belongs to you, your responsibility or not. If you say "was," it's all over. That is the danger of all these books which are printed today -- Spengler and Toynbee, you see. That they don't say clearly that they are taking sides. You cannot write on 23 civilizations without declaring them all dead, absolutely dead. Because that which is alive, gentlemen, is never many. That little bit of life which you and I have is our life. And of our life you can only, you see, try to continue it, or to prolong it, or to revitalize it, you see, but you can never say "it was." It makes no sense to say of your own life, you see, "it has been." Except if you want to commit suicide.

So if you say, "Well the Western civilization is dead," which it perhaps is, you also say in this very moment that you are not a part of this Western civilization, because you are able to see that it is dead. And anybody who can see that something is dead, gentlemen, cannot be dead. So animism -- I want you -- only to build up before you as a very modern part of religion. Don't believe for a minute that it is a primitive religion. It is a necessary and very important and very comprehensive part of your whole universe, gentlemen, that you feel you know what is dead and what's alive. And you can see this of the Bolshevik. You would say that they are dangerous, that they are wicked, that they are our enemies, that they are threatening us. You wouldn't say that they are dead, you see. They are monsters, sure, in your eyes, perhaps. They aren't in my eyes, by the way, simply monsters. But I would say they are certainly there, wouldn't you say? And we cannot say that they are just outside, as dead matter. You see this. Because they are working; they are moving; they are surprising, whereas the French may be very nice, gentlemen, but they are still as dead as a dodo. I mean, with milk -- you cannot revitalize a nation if the prime minister drinks milk. That's very nice and very witty, but it takes at least 40 years before the drunkards in France will have disappeared. So for the time being, it's a very doubtful proposition. And the milk is so terrible in France, it wouldn't help them, anyway. They have no good milk.

So it is very actual, gentlemen. You don't know this, gentlemen. The nations

of this world, the -- are like the plants and like the animals, our -- today's problem of animism, because any one item of reality to which you give a name of its own, you make part of the spiritual life. To -- I told you, I think, in this course before that you -- did I tell you the story of the 137 species on New Guinea, and the birds there? No? I think -- I thought I said to you here. Anybody who has a name shares a place in the universe which in the old text is called Heaven, in the Our Father. And everybody who is not named shares this place on earth. Earth is that part of us which can become mathematics, which can become figure and quantity. "Heaven" we shall call everything in which -- inside which -- or -- we shall call everything which preserves its own name inside the family of men. This is very important. We have to replace today for our own understanding, gentlemen, the terms "Heaven" and "earth." I think they are useless. And the only way which I can propose to you in such a short matter -- manner -- way is to propose to you that we shall call "Heaven" -- you should call "Heaven" from now on, or you should have these learned to understand that what is meant by "Heaven" in the New and Old Testament, and in the traditions of mankind is a membership inside that world in which everybody has his own name. And earth is everything which can just be mentioned by counting it, by analyzing it. You are earth and Heaven, because you have on the one-hand side your own name and on the other hand, you are just one of the students, you are one of the Americans, you're just a piece of flesh, you weigh 145 pounds; so we are both earthly and celestial. And that's the real meaning, gentlemen, of "Heaven" and "earth." And we have to replace it at this moment, because animism tries to personify everything living and thereby put it into Heaven, so to speak. The terms "immortality," the terms "Heaven," the terms "religion," have this with each other to do, that they are always depending on our power to speak, to pray, to invoke, and to reciprocate with somebody else whom we deem more alive as we ourselves, or equally alive as we ourselves, and thereby want to sustain, and want to recognize as part of the universe in which we continue to live, and of whom we feel that he must be kept alive as much as we.

So you can see that the great pain in the neck of the animists was that he called every animal -- and it was a great experience to baptize, to Christen all these animals with their own name and yet had to take their life in order to keep alive yourself. So sacrifice in the animistic group was a necessity for doing something for these same people. Now when America sent 4 million CARE packages to Germany after 1945, that was the same act. You had to vanquish the Germans; you had to take away their government; the head of the government committed suicide; the other people are beheaded as criminals. Yet you have to recognize that the group of people called Germans are with necessity a part of the Western world, so they have to be kept alive, you see. And that's very serious, gentlemen. Don't think for a minute that's sentimental. Because you -- many people sent CARE packages without knowing the individual plight. The Ger-

mans, it were -- was the Germans {who were} { } in general, you see. And a living group, the name German, should not be eradicated, although the Germans, as a state, as a government, you see, as an army were destroyed. And if you -- later generations will say that world wars served the purpose of eliminating Germany as a great power. And that usually -- {probably be lasting,} you see. But it could not eliminate the Germans. So the Germans -- they are a spiritualized nation who have never any political, you see, independence to expect. They are divided, and maimed, and what-not. So their only hope is that they still reckon into the realm of the heavens of mankind, into that which all can exist.

I want to make you feel, gentlemen, that Heaven and earth are not transcendental notions, of which you have not every moment to make use. You speak every moment men into hell or Heaven, earth or Heaven. If you say that a man is only earth, that he is a number, and you put him into a gas chamber as Number 113 and he loses his name, and he's just Number 113, you have brought on hell, you see, because you have denied him his place in Heaven. On the other hand, if you say of a living soul that he is God Almighty, if I can say, "I'm Christ," you have taken the earth away from him, and you have tried to establish him as a god, you see, before he has died, which again you cannot do. It's always reciprocal, you see. Any group, gentlemen, which tries to make people certain -- certain members into celestial people, you see, deifies them, and others condemn to earth only. But your and my fate is that we are always both. That is, partly you deserve to have your one, single name, you see, not to be substituted by a number, or replaced by a quantity. On the other hand, there is something quantitative in you and me.

So Heaven and earth are the two animistic foundational concepts, with animism stressing something we have to learn again: that we create our Heaven whenever we recognize that some part of the created universe needs a name of its own. Names, gentlemen, are provinces in God's Kingdom.

What we -- what you call "Kingdom of Heaven" is not unpopulated. The Kingdom of Heaven is something very definite, something very alive. It is peopled by all the names which you think are sacred, which the names -- that they mustn't disappear in reality from this earth, you see. If you say, "Democracy must not perish from this earth," "Government by the people," -- the famous phrase -- you mean thereby that democracy is something divine, { }. Can't you see this? You put it on -- above you and it's worth a sacrifice. Anything that is worth a sacrifice is religious, you see -- endowed with religious power. With a power of -- make you act, of making us do something, you see, to keep it alive. Can you see this?

Now in animism, this took shape for the first time, when the huntsman recog-

nized that lions, or panthers, or bears were great people who, if decimated or eliminated, had to be increased even by sacrifice. As you know, the Ainus on Japan, a typical animistic group, the -- originees -- aborigines in the -- on the Japanese island. Ainus, you know who they are. A-i-n-u. You have heard of them. No? How terrible. Usually when people go to war against a nation, they learn a little bit about them. That's the way world war works. Ainu. You have never heard of them? Well, they are very much like our red Indians. But the Japanese, having no Christian missionaries, of course left them much more unscathed and untouched. And so the Ainu animism is -- very interesting, and they have a great bear festival. They will catch a bear and put him in a cage, and kneel before him, and apologize for having to kill him. And give him, so to speak, all the treatment of a deity before he's slain. Now, there -- it isn't ridiculous in one way, but it is very pathetic on the other. Their livelihood depends on bear, originally, on bear-flesh, you see. That was their nourishment. And they have this great feeling that the nourishment then has two sides to it. The identity with myself, you see, that it is life, and the service, which I demand from him. And so I feel that this bear ceremonial of the Ainus is a very good introduction into the problem of animism. Can you see this? At the same time, the bear is exalted, and then it's debased. He's debased.

This is the interesting thing about the -- Communion. That in Christ, in the Communion, this is explicitly repeated. And don't say this is primitive. Don't dismiss our Communion service, gentlemen, as primitive. But say quite to the contrary: if Christ had not kept this identity with man's first feeling, He could have never become the second Adam. He could have never reconciled all the nations of the world to a common destiny. He had to include the first man as well as this blas‚ gentleman in Dartmouth College. Christ didn't come for the civilized people. He came for all men. And He -- if you do not understand the ritual of the Communion as reaching down into the first religious inklings and movements of the human soul at all times, you do not know what religion is again. You think it is a philosophy of, and should always be the most sophisticated, and most academic, and pure philosophy. Religion is neither a philosophy, gentlemen, nor is it interested in you or me. It is interested in a power that runs right through the whole of life. And if -- as I -- remem- -- you get into this Ainu ceremony, you must see the beginning of our Communion supper, you see, in order to do justice to what it is.

And I warn you once more against these terrible terms which I have found in the dictionary. I have looked up the definition in the American dictionary on the word "animism." And it's worth -- after I have tried to explain how important this animism really is, you will see what terrible atmosphere we live in today, in the academic world, what you call scientific world. Because the people never ask, "How about yourself?" This is their definition: "Animism is a system of philoso-

phy," Number 1, "based on the idea that the soul is the seat of life," which is a tautology, you see. "In modern usage, a term applied to express the general doctrine of souls and other spiritual beings," which is really quite helpless. Souls, other spiritual beings. "And especially to the tendency of common -- tendency common among savages -- savage races" -- of course, savage races -- "to explain all the phenomena in nature not due to obvious natural causes by attributing them to spiritual agencies." And this is then offered you as animism. It's -- it is nothing where anybody can be interested in. It's something outside, there, you see. And that's the whole -- the whole American encyclopedia is so worthless for this reason. Everything is put there before as though you and me couldn't know anything about the truth of the matter. It is so stated that it's left out there. Can you feel this cold breath that is in this statement? I don't think that anybody gains by these descriptions. Of course, it begins all right -- all right, this Christmas -- heh, I say Christmas! -- "Animism is a system of philosophy" -- so you see already how this poor man got lost in the very beginning.

So I warn you, gentlemen, most -- the books on animism which you read are quite unable to describe it, even, you see, because they decline, for example, to mention vegetarianism or to see that this is all around us. They just won't see that we are partly animists at an -- every moment. When I say of a man, he -- you see, the famous saying of the -- some dons in Oxford, you see, that they were dead for 20 years, but they hadn't noticed this, themselves, so far, that they were dead. I mean, that's a joke, but half of the world in which we live is dead, or decaying. Many orders of society in any one moment, you see. And you have to know what's alive and what's dead. You have to. And you have to prefer the life -- life to death. And you have gotten a nose to distinguish between life and death, and you know it very well, and you don't marry a lady of 75. You after all take better to a girl of 20, because she is less dead.

So all mating, all selective -- selection in the human race takes only place, because we have this decisive sense, this selective power of knowing what -- where life lies and where death lies. We all assume this. So this description, gentlemen, of the dictionary, I warn you against, is typical -- one which I would say is destructive. It is useless.

The second thing -- source I would like to mention is an interesting book by William McDougall, a famous psychologist. He later was as -- he was at Harvard for a long time, was disappointed there and went to Carolina. And -- is an Englishman. His dates you put perhaps down. William McDougall, 1871 to 1938, because dates are very interesting in the history of religion, always. You have to know when Christ lived in order to understand His coming. William McDougall wrote a book, Body and Mind: The History and Defense of Animism. A history and a defense of animism, in 1913. A history and a defense of animism. McDou-

gall is so interesting because to him, animism is only a philosophy. He thought it was the right viewpoint, so to speak, to view life. He didn't know, as we know, that it's more than -- that it's a whole system of actions. But that doesn't matter. He has the merit at least to be the first -- have been the first man in our time to use this term and to write courageously in defense of animism. Of course, if he hadn't written the book before he went to Harvard, he probably would never have been called there. Because that was forbidden in the -- as you know, in the last 70 years. And in Dartmouth, I think it's still forbidden. You can't become a professor of psychology here and -- if you are defending the human soul. It's impossible. It's -- the religion on this campus, very strict, gentlemen. That it is -- happens to be an anti-religion doesn't mean it -- make it less dogmatic.

There is no place without a definite religion. And it's a very strange religion. We hear death is really preferred to life. Certainly not animism. We had this experience in our town. We have -- are -- were a farming community across the river in Norwich, and we had got a zoning law proposed, the same as is in Hanover, enacted. And we were going to be congratulated as being as advanced as Hanover, by this zoning ordinance. And I voted against it. It contained a fullfledged fight against everything alive. No animals on our property, neither chickens nor horses. Dogs were admitted, because so many old ladies have dogs. But it was an old-lady ordinance, right through. I said, "Now why shouldn't we welcome a carpenter setting up his shop -- workshop next door to us. It's wonderful. We are only there people who teach in Hanover, or are doctors in the Mary Hitchcock. I wish -- would like to have some people who brought in some real work and life into the community."

"Oh no," they said. "Zoning, zoning."

And the whole gist of the matter was that no life should happen any more. They wanted to have a controlled, absolutely dead suburb. A suburb is dead. The children are born in the hospital. And the people are taken away to the crematorium. Neither death nor birth is visible in a -- in a so-called suburb. And there is a hatred of life in this country, gentlemen, which is quite staggering. Everywhere life, mechanism, ordinance, organization is preferred to organic life. Because in organic life, you actually have to sneeze, occasionally. And that upsets the apple cart. That's not foreseen. You have to be impolite. You have to be dirty. You have to be alive. Now life, gentlemen, cannot be controlled. There's a -- you perhaps read the joke in the paper the other day, where a young woman comes to the board of public health in New York and -- on Long Island, and says, "Where is the place where the births are controlled?"

And they were, of course, very embarrassed, how to say it to a pretty young woman, where the births are controlled. And so they finally found out she meant

just the office of registration of new births, you see. She'd mistook the word "control." But she was -- she didn't see what it meant to say, "Birth control." She was a virgin, obviously, and thought it was just registration. She couldn't probably think that this meant life-controlled, life-checked, life restrained from -- taking place, from happening.

But we live, gentlemen, for the last 70 years in an atmosphere of prohibiting life. Prohibition is just a little segment of this whole movement, of saying that life is better when it is predictable, organized, coordinated, registered and measured, measurably under control, as we say. You say, as a sense -- as a sentence of praise, "Everything is under control," don't you? You should always feel very miserable if everything's in control. You are bored stiff. "Everything's in control" means that nothing can happen which you have -- hasn't already happened.

But this is the -- our religion of America, gentlemen, that no life is better than life. And my zoning experience has really frightened me. There were young women and mothers who had themselves children, and still they hated life. Because dangerous. And it's equal. And with all our democracy, gentlemen, outside the human race, we don't want to have equality, with trees and things. That all must be controlled. But you -- as soon as you want to control life, gentlemen, you deprive yourselves of life. Because by establishment -- perhaps you take this down -- life is that which cannot be controlled. And death is that which can be controlled. It's as simple as that. And if you want to say, "Everything is under control," you say that you live in an environment which has dammed and diked itself up against life, the invasion of life. Because any new passion, you see, would mean that you are -- it's not under control. How can -- could anybody fall in love, if everything's under control? To fall in love means to -- well, to admit the inrush of something that floods your heart and your whole existence, and it is perfectly out of control. And that's why it has to be revered. Anything that is not under our control, gentlemen, may lead to disaster, and it may lead to felicity. And it is certainly nothing to make you happy. The pursuit of happiness will always lead you to keep everything under control, because happy is that which you think happy now. And bliss, or life, or reality, or however you call your real destiny, gentlemen, is that which happens against your will and desire only later showing you that it was a blessing in disguise. And if you cannot -- and most people are not able to accept something they haven't wanted. They just can't. They won't want to accept what they haven't kept under control. They argue against it. They say, "This shouldn't have been."

The power to realize newness, you remember, we called the power of religion. You remember now? May it come back to you? Now the animists were able to realize newness, because these migrating, migratory tribes, gentlemen, learned new climates, new animals on the day of their movement. If you think that all

the red Indian tribes of this continent of America crossed the Bering Strait, probably, and came over wide stretches of various climates, you see that animism was a real religion, because it enabled them not to argue. It enabled them to accept the new things, the new environment, which they saw for the first time, by saying, "This also has a right to be revered, to be respected, to be reckoned with."

The first generation, gentlemen, the pioneer generation in a new environment has always to cope with this environment as a religious proposition, because it has to decide what part of this new environment must be revered as indispensable, and which part can be treated as accidental, and can be pruned, and can be cut out. When the 36 billion of pigeons, wild pigeons in this country were all shot dead within 20 years -- as you know, in the '30s of this century, there were 36 -- that's an estimate, of course, as good as anything else -- but billions and billions of these wild pigeons and 20 years later, there was not one left. That meant that the men in this country had no religion for pigeons. They were not considered elementary. Can you see this? But the water wasn't, you see. The abundance of water in this part of the country which led to the pollution of water, then made water just into a, so to speak, superfluous entity. In Arizona, they are far from treating water as accidental. It is very precious. And the next war probably will be between Arizona and California, as you know.

And where is war, there's religion. Because you can't fight, you see, if you do not think that the re-creation of the natural resources is a condition of life. It's the -- life-giving, the water in Arizona. I really think they would go to war, you see, if they just could.

Now, therefore, perhaps I have made -- have I made my point clear: why animism is a religious problem? The first generation in a new environment, gentlemen, will always have to distinguish between the accidental and the essential in its environment. And the essential is thereby declared to have a lasting name in the book of life. And that's meant by the Book of Life in the Bible, gentlemen, by the way. To be inscribed into the Book of Life means to have a name of your own, lastingly. And to -- not to enter the lay -- book of life, means that you are -- can be replaced by other quantities, that you are just a chemical. And I thought I had told you that a name is the last celestial, or heavenly distinction, reaching into the ground. If you say that it is enough to have the species dog, you say that the species dog is a part of God's will. But the individual dog is not, which I think correct, except for pets, or horses, or { }. We treat, gentlemen, in the animal kingdom, the species as not to be extirpated. We will collect the species of a rare -- a rare species, and at least try to save it now in the zoo, by saying there should be one elephant. But you can shoot the elephant in Africa, and thereby say -- I think we talked about this here, before, didn't we? I only

want to remind you, gentlemen, that within the animal kingdom today, the species has its own name, but the individual animal has not. We, however, standing up -- set up one step higher than the animal, because you have a name, you see, of your own, and thereby you are distinguished as more important, you see. Man is as important as a whole species of the animal. That's why you can say that humanity consists of species. Every man in the species man is an -- is a -- treated as a species. That's why it's so ridiculous to say that man is a -- is an -- a rational animal. It's one of the most stupid and worthless definitions. Every one of you who makes this statement thinks that he has a right to live. No animal has a right to live as an individual. And life is -- permanently taken without any jury accusing the other animal of murder. The animals kill each other without any redress. But we say that "I cannot kill you," gentlemen, that you have a name of your own, and therefore you are recognized as a species. It's as simple as that, but as important as that, gentlemen. Heaven and earth are very dynamic situations. That is, you can constantly enlarge Heaven and constantly enlarge earth. You -- it's your religion which does this. A man's religion distributes the names, your celestial element. Please.

(I'm really sorry, but where does the -- where in this whole scheme of things does the society for prevention of cruelty to animals fit in? Because they seem to -- to me to regard animals slightly differently than we do.)

Well, you see, it began with -- on one cruelty against animals. And with this then, it's in between. They felt that animals should be -- get their due. They did not say that animals should be served, that they were like we, you see. But that they shall be treated like faithful servants. The whole reaction came -- as you know at first with the beating of the donkey in Italy and Spain, when the -- a Boston lady traveled in Italy. And that's how it really began, when Mrs. Burton, an Englishwoman, the wife of a very famous translator of the Lucias, Burton. Has anybody heard of Sir Burton? He translated Carmole and St. Lucias and he was a great expert on the Arab -- Arabic world. And he married -- she married -- he married a crazy -- a crazywoman, Isabel Burton. And she was the founder of this society for the cruelty against animals. And so she aroused the indignation, you see, of all the ladies who saw other people mistreat animals. And especially, as I say, the donkeys in the -- Southern Europe and in the Arab world, you see, where they were so mistreated. And then vivisection was the second issue, but only second, you must know. And that all meant unnecessary suffering. But this is -- was not -- they did not -- at least, at large they did not shake the foundations of the order of the universe, compared to your and mine. No, it's a -- it's in between, the compromise, this society. They did not say that they had immortal souls and such things.

Now gentlemen, the animistic universe, then, is impressed by the unity of the

distribution of lasting, or personal, or divine elements and earthly elements throughout the world. Water is divine, and man is earthly, so to speak, in the animistic system. They do not say that some parts of the world are named, and others remain unnamed. They do not see that one is numbers and quantity, and the other is quality and individuality. Far from it. But what they are inspired by is by their power of naming. The religious power that goes through the animism, and makes it therefore rather unwarranted to call it animism alone is that any animated part of the universe -- deserves to receive a name. Therefore, it's animism plus naming, which is the real functioning animism. The difference between Mr. McDougall and the Encyclopedia Americana and the real animistic religion is that neither the encyclopedia nor Mr. McDougall feels forced to name the universe { } by its vitality, whereas his own people, gentlemen, had the power, as the Bible says in the 16th chapter of Genesis, that men at that time had this discriminatory power to give a knowledge and a name to every element in the universe.

I must have told you this wonderful story of New Guinea. Gentlemen, I'm still kneeling in admiration before the wisdom of our creator, when I hear this story. There was a professor at Harvard, didn't I tell you, who came to deliver a lecture here, three months ago, four months ago? And Professor Mayr. He's Agassiz professor of ornithology. Agassiz was a great Swiss who taught at Harvard. And he went out to New Guinea to collect and -- birds. All the birds of New Guinea. That was his ambition. New Guinea, as you know, is very primitive, most primitive part of the universe you can find today, and we only learned it after -- in the Second World War really how primitive it was. And so he goes out there, after the Second World War. And he finds these tribesmen very willing to help him in his endeavor. And they bring him all the species. And they collected 137 different species. And he classified them and said, "Maybe there are 138," and that's his result. Now -- and he said, "But the strange thing is," and of course, being a naturalist he had no idea what he was saying, he said, "the natives had 137 different names for the 138 different species." And he took -- his hat off and said, "Aren't they good biologists?"

Gentlemen, that's a great power. And you have really to admire the natives much more than Mr. Mayr. Imagine! Here are so-called primitive men of the lowest, lowest, lowest allegedly, and they have the spirit to know what a species is, and what it means to have a name of its own. And they had 137 different names. You cannot admire this sufficiently, gentlemen. If you wish to read the religion of a primitive tribe, gentlemen, you must know that the names which this tribe has given, are his prayers. I think I have told you already that primitive prayer very often only consists of names, which are just, you see, giving a string of names under which you place yourself, {God the merciful, Spirit the just} and so on. Father, you see, Grandfather, Ancestor, and all these words I told you,

they are already orientations in the universe. Now this is very serious, gentlemen. Here you have for the totem animals, for the birds, and their speech, this tremendous understanding that they exactly knew how many there were. That's a very good pantheon. That as the -- exactly the list of these 137 names now, gentlemen, for any Catholic that should strike a bell, in this class here, that is exactly as a cloud of witnesses of the saints in the Christian Church. That's the original revelation. That 137 brothers and sisters were given God -- by God to men in the animal kingdom of birds, that there are 137 names which he must call out into light, or in despair, or in -- or in awe, that's certainly as real, you see. As real as real. There is nothing more real than something you have to give a special name. This is -- must be your -- who is majoring philosophy? You must have heard of this struggle between nominalism and realism. But you can only understand the medieval energy with which they were fought between general ideas, you see, of -- as real, or as fictitious, if you come back to the foundational situation, that man does name that which is essential to the created universe, of lasting life, you see. It's -- as it is discussed today, the issue between nominalists and realists is -- just read the Encyclopedia Americana, as though your salvation wasn't at stake, as though you hadn't to know whether your father existed, or -- you see, or is just a word. You understand?

For Heaven's sake, where do you get if you say "harlot," "sister," "bride": you are all prostitutes. There are no such things. I mean, you -- there are only male harlots and female harlots. Sometimes you go to New York you think there are only female harlots and male harlots. And everything is just promiscuity. And they have certainly abolished the term, "sister." A sister -- you can now call out a girl and say, "Go to bed with me." Imagine! This incestuous world. They wouldn't mind people in a drunken -- well, we may -- may call this girl a sister and take her to bed with me. Isn't that possible? And you would { }, because we have lost all power, religious power. If you can call a girl a sister, you see, you cannot think of sleeping with her. Can you see this? But you are all naked, gentlemen. You have no language left. You cannot express your belief, because all this is absolutely prostituted. It's just {fun}. You have to re-create all these terms. This is very shocking to me, but the American soul today is just naked. It has no power of expressing its faith in the universe. Everything has been so cheapened. Everybody's a father, so nobody's a father. And everybody's sisters and nobody's a sister. But sister, and daughter and girl -- they are very strict lines. If you call your mother, "The Girl," and you call your father, "The Old Man," where's your father? He's not an old man to you. Or you have dismissed him out -- in the outer world of the dead.

And this is going on in this country. The destruction is complete. You have no place -- no way of orienting yourself. If you even call God your father, since you do not know what a real father is, somebody who has to spank you and whom

you should thank for spanking you, you have no -- can't have a father. You think a father's there to pay your debts.

This is very serious, gentlemen. And the species in New Guinea may perhaps help you to understand what religion is. The -- these 137 species are a miracle. And every name of every bird-species given, gentlemen, was a miraculous act of creation. And so my word is, gentlemen, the animist, the primitive layer of your and my own ancestry, because your father {spitted} and my father {spitted} at one time, that they made the universe. They completed creation, because they gave -- passed judgment on the {reality,} on the created world, and they said, "Birds must be -- 137 species must be, but the individual bird, no," you see. And therefore they placed the animals in their proper perspective. We can't do anything better. You have to say this, if somebody in the family has a pet animal: that he must not treat this animal as immortal. He must not raise the animal, you see, to the state of the human.

There are many idolaters of cats in this country, as you know. The old ladies and the spinsters and so on. The -- they are all idolaters. This is terrible. I mean, I run into them all the time. I can only say I hate them. I saw such a farm going to pieces under the impact of this. We had a neighbor, out in Beaver Meadow. He was a very energetic farmer, and he tried to remain a farmer, which isn't easy in Vermont, and he had the best field in town. And it was famous for its well-kept state. He had a sugar house, of course, and made maple sugar. But his wife was one of these terrible women who wanted to lead a city life in the midst of the farming community, and direct his enterprise, because she only wanted to have a permanent and the movies, et cetera. And most farmers, as you know, don't die from {Bang's} disease, but from their wives' ideal that they must live in the city. And so when I came there, being their neighbor, I came there quite often, she would always entertain me with her life problem. Her life problem was to place the cats of the next litter, without having them -- to drown them all, you see. And she said, "This is my great problem." And "I have not -- no other interests in life but to find ways and means of having every cat born in the next litter survive." Which of course was outrageous, because it's impossible to have every cat survive, if you have a litter every half-year. They just have to be drowned. I have to do -- had to do it myself in our own home, and it's not very pleasant to drown young cats. But the idea, you see, that these cats had to be more important in her life than the whole farm of her husband forced the man finally to sell and he has moved away. And she is guilty of murder of the farm, which certainly was the higher entity compared to the cats.

And she was as stupid as many atomized and irreligious women today are, that they think that they can pick and choose what is alive and what's dead. And there you get the wrongdoing of a wrong, misled animism, you see, running rife.

The old peoples, gentlemen, couldn't afford to make any mistake about animism. That was an orthodox religion. And I would say, gentlemen, there is orthodox animism and there is heretical animism. And what you find today, as a dispersed remnant of animism is usually heretical, because it -- mean -- puts into an individual human being -- usually a woman's -- head the decision whether this individual cat shouldn't be exalted to the dignity of a person. That's what she did, you see. She said, "Every cat is," and that's of course what many members in this society also try to. Gentlemen, resist it as males. Say, "That's nonsense." Don't become sentimental about animals individually. Then you are lost. It takes severity and self-discipline to know that an animal is an animal, that it is religious -- to be treated religiously as part of a name, that is, part of a divine breath, of a divine thought, of a divine creative act. He created this species, certainly. But He has given us power over the individual member of this species. If you don't draw the line, everything gets into disorder -- in disorder. Yes, please?

(What about a person who lives with his dog, say, all his life. The dog is, say, 16 years old and the person lived -- till he was 16 had this dog, which has been like a brother to him. And he put him in the same category as a brother.)

I have a young -- a friend here. She's a lady now of 60, still very beautiful. You can still fall in love with her. { } children. She's a princess in her own right, from the old nobility of -- from Europe. She married in the first place a Frenchman. He was a rich Frenchman, who was an opium addict. And she had to divorce him because he was a danger, I mean, dangerous from the opium addiction. He couldn't -- he went out of his mind. So then she came to this country, and although being a princess, she became a private secretary and had to fight hard for her life. She finally married a rich man who was a friend of her youth in her splendid days in Europe. And he's 75 and rather senile. And she's 60. And she, of course, her life has no real fulfillment. It's all right, I think, that they married, but you can imagine that it's only for partial life, so she --

[tape interruption]

As soon as you -- { } to betray yourself and say, "This is not a substitute; this is it!" you have overstepped the line. I don't know if I make myself understood.

(Yeah, but I mean, just like a person who was born -- )

Isn't that the {power of the} story? Wie? Did I hit the point?

(Yeah, but this person, you know, say, didn't have a -- is not using a dog as a substitute. In other words, if a person is born into the family, and --)

The dog is born --

(No. The per -- say a child is. And there's a puppy { }. Now, when the child grows up, with the puppy, say, 11, 12, 13, 14 years old. And this dog has lived with this child all through his life.)

Then it's the business of the -- of course not of child, but of the parents, and the older sister has to prepare this child for the right {leaving} of the dog. Something has to be done about this. And it's not the business of the child to outgrow the dog, but the others have to make an effort to prepare the child for the loss of the dog.

({ })

Can you see this? But something must be done, otherwise something goes wrong. Very { } it has to be said. Gentlemen, you see, the difficulty today is that people have lost their respect for our power to articulate, for the necessity to articulate. I tried to show you that these people in Guin- -- New Guinea, by saying that these were, you see, bird: parrot and {such} did something creative, completed creation. That is, put between them and this animal the right to live. And we -- you would think that to speak, or to think, or to classify is an act of science, of objects who are changed by our calling them, you see. But they are changed. They are changed by the fact that we are naming them, because we rearrange the universe for them. Partly they are allowed into the lasting part of the universe, you see, partly they are allowed to die as part of the changing universe. And this is Heaven and earth. Heaven is the elementary universe. It has to be, you see, without which all life would disappear, you see. And earth is that which is earth to earth, which we put into the grave when a man dies. And it's obvious, as soon as you have discovered the power of articulation, you know suddenly that you must speak of a dead person, for example, you see, because he has earned lasting memory.

The second part therefore of the animistic relation, gentlemen, in -- of the animistic primitive -- so-called primitive savage -- is our relation to the non-living, unborn and yet dead. You of course have heard of the cult of the dead, but you should be reminded, gentlemen, that our relation to the people who are not in our living statistics at this moment is double. It's the children unborn and the people already die -- dead. There's a double relation to your grandchildren as much to your dead. This -- generation, gentlemen, has no relation to the dead, nor to the unborn. You cannot meet in any town in New York -- in America anybody who will make a sacrifice for the year 2050, because nobody in this country believes that this is his concern. And if -- 2050 is not long, these are just three generations -- these are your great-grandchildren. A child born today can

still live to 2050, so it would be high time that you would consider the state of this country in 2050. Nobody does it. That's why the government had to take over all the holdings and conservation, because no individual cares for the future of the soil of this country. You have today a dictatorship, economically, for the future of America, held by the white father in Washington, because you and I -- we are only living for the moment on the wage of the month -- or the week. And all overdrawing our check accounts. And anybody who is loving, for example, in the installment plan, gentlemen, anyone who buys a car on the installment plan, is selling his future. That you all do. And therefore America has no future, except by the grace of God. Because not one of you is at this moment incompre- -- including the unborn as the hunter does who sacrifices for the rebirth of the bear, such an elementary part of -- I told you -- of his fruits of the cherry tree which he would not -- where he will not plunder one twig so that there may be cherries again next year. He may recognize that it is more important to reproduce the cherry tree than to produce cherries.

Gentlemen, the question of reproduction is the second aspect of animism: the reproduction of life in your own race, of the human race, not the production. In this country, people even don't know what reproduction means, except when you talk of reproduction of capital goods. They may know -- have heard that. Gentlemen, the reproduction of course is more important than the production. Whether you produce 5 million cars is just perfectly indifferent. You can go without new cars for one year in this country without any curtailment of your pleasures. But you cannot live without bringing down the next invention like atomic energy, which is reproduction of the plants. The same is true about the human race, gentlemen. I invite you not to think first of this strange behavior of the departed souls and the spirits in the grave and the -- all the ritual of the animists, which people tell you about, these superstitions, but to consider first the relation of the people to the future people born. It's exactly the same problem. Will life return? Will life return is the obsession of the primitive man. A man who has not a male heir is the most cursed of men in the ancient world. You have to have a male heir. Otherwise your whole life is not reproduced. You know, they went -- would go to all lengths of adoption, of incubation, of witchcraft, to have an heir. You can hardly understand this. You say it's sentimentality. Of course, women want to have children. But that is not what I mean, gentlemen. I mean a man demanding an heir, and willing to make every sacrifice for having somebody taking his place in the universe, his own place. His named place. The ambition of having an heir, gentlemen, has nothing to do with the love of children, as you think today, but the willingness to subordinate the -- my own life-time -- timespan, you see, to a longer timespan in which grandchildren would spring up and great-grandchildren, in which life would go on forever.

I think it is very hard for you to understand this obsession with succession.

The primitive man wants to be succeeded. Just as much as he wants to have the species -- the animal species, you see, alive, constantly -- he wants to have his name continued, because by having his own name, gentlemen, he is recognized to form a species. And only by having a son and a grandson will this species, created in his own right as a chieftain, or as a singer, or whatnot in the tribe, has any continuity. We have a Mr. Jacobson in this class. Probably have a Mr. Anderson. Probably you have a Mr. Davidson. All the words in son, s-o-n, you see, express this obsession of the primitive tribesman with sonship. Anderson is the heir of Anders -- of Andrews. And Andrews must have an heir or he isn't Andrews, because he is only Andrews if he becomes a species. Perhaps you take this down, gentlemen, because it's very hard for you to understand. Since every man names to become a species or be treated as a species, that is, as a name, you see, as that in a name to himself. The natural thing is that he must be continued, because otherwise his creation is incomplete. He is not completely a species, because species are something eternal, everlasting. A species is an element of the united Kingdom of Heaven.

And therefore, gentlemen, there -- if there is a St. Francis, you can see it very clearly, there must be Franciscans. The Franciscans are the proof that Francis is a saint. The Jesuits are proof that Ignatius of Loyola is a saint. If they had a { } Ignatius couldn't be a saint. All men created to a full personality must bear fruit. If they are not succeeded, they haven't borne fruit. If they haven't borne fruit, they don't deserve a name. This is an interesting correlation, you see, of name and succession. You -- in some quality of yours -- at their grave, somebody must say, "He was a good man, let's be like him." Then you have lived well. But somebody has to {tell it}, the { } that in certain respects you deserve to be followed. You deserve to be imitated. Now you take this universe in a moral sense, or -- but it is -- already they meant in this very definite sense man is a species if he is perfect and completed. But that's meant by the saints, gentlemen. A saint is a complete man, a man who has proved himself so energetic that for hundreds and hundreds of years to come, there are now Dominicans, there are Franciscans, there are Augustinians, there are Thomists, and so on. You see. Today there are {Hegelians}, and so on. There are physicists. They are all in sequences of, you see, they all take the oath of Hippocrates, because Hippocrates is their saint.

You underrate this, because you -- you do not see this division of Heaven and earth. To you everything is just Macy's, 5-and-10. You think you can buy people for 5 and 10 cents. Gentlemen, because you have been spoiled, the immigrants of Europe -- from Europe have furnished you all the necessary originality. The inventors, the painters, the artists -- you have exploited them and then thrown them away. You have pirated their poetry and their literature, when they -- you needed them. And these original Greeks, so to speak, gentlemen, they deserve --

they have -- find no respect in this country. The woes and the travails of the genius here is just overlooked. People laugh at it. You wait till the disk -- longplaying record can be played of Mozart. That Mozart is one of the most tragic figures of the universe is of no concern to you. You have never created a Mozart. And you never will, by the way, for this reason, because you are not interested in the whole process of creating things. You only want to have their following. But you have to be told.

And anybody who wants to rise, gentlemen, to a full-fledged human being has to penetrate this great distinction between having a name to himself, you see. You cannot leave Abraham Lincoln just as -- as exception. He's the only saint of -- this country has produced so far, in the public recognition. People -- I think there are many people who feel struck that they should be a little bit like Lincoln. Passionate, energetic, fearless, and so on. This isn't enough. There must be more. And Lincoln has, I think -- is a good example of what is meant by a saint. And what is meant by a species. Lincoln is a breed completely his own. Think only of the fact that he is the most religious person of the 19th century in America and that he didn't belong to a church. Which sometimes brings you to the conclusion that perhaps one better doesn't belong to a church in order to be a religious man. But certainly that's Lincoln's case. You can't read his second inaugural without feeling that he has a new revelation, that the Bible has come to, you see, into a vocality, and that it's just -- it's tremendous, said for the first time. And yet the -- as you know, he never signed up for a church. Now, this is an innovation. Here's a secular saint, without denominational strings attached. And in this sense, I feel that the human race has made progress through Lincoln. A new species has been created. And I do feel that both parties in this country admit it, and the Lincoln dinner is not a private dinner, you see. And it is absolutely so that Stevenson speaks at the Lincoln dinner as eagerly, you see, as Eisenhower.

But gentlemen, that's a very short-range story, I mean. Couldn't have happened 50 years ago, 70 years ago. And it's a great story because you see what a saint does. A saint is somebody who must be succeeded. And in the saint you have the original hero of antiquity. The modern saint, the Dominicans, the Jesuits, the Franciscans prove it. And all your other orders of the church. But all the other branches of human types which we respect, when we say of a man he's like Lincoln, are the reminders that this first layer of humanity, the animistic religion, is still vigorous, and we can't be { } without it. The animistic religion expresses itself by creating species. And there's the {borderline}: nobody can be a saint as an exception. Napoleon is not a saint. Napoleon's just a monster, you see. He cannot -- and when Napoleon III tried to inherit him, you see, it proved a complete failure. Can you see the distinction? Hitler is a monster but not a saint. And this gives you a wonderful power to divide the world in good and evil. That which must bear fruit is a part of God's creation. And that which must remain an

exception, you see, is what the Romans called a "portent" and what we call "monstrosity." And it's a great disaster. And it has to be listed in the annals of mankind as a portent or as a monstrosity, as a miscarriage of nature, of creation. You admire just vastness, much weight, importance. Napoleon now doesn't stand on the same level as Lincoln. You must not place them both into the same category. We know very well what is fruitful, gentlemen, and what is just powerful. Religion then, gentlemen, is not any power. It isn't as much destruction as construction. But it is fruitful power. Fruitful power. Because it gives -- endows every one of you with a task to decide into which lines of force we should succeed, and into which lines of force we should take great care not to succeed. You and I decide of course on the religion of a people. If you become all Hitlerites, as Mr. McCarthy tries to do, then it -- we are lost. Then there will be no America. There will be a little Germany.

As you know, Mr. McCarthy in 1938, closed -- shut himself in -- or in 1944, I have forgotten the year -- with Hitler's Mein Kampf for a fortnight and came out and said, "That is it!" And ever since, he has simply followed the Hitler recommendation in Mein Kampf: never to retract, you see, never to apologize, and so on and so forth. He said so. And there you see that, of course, religion is always only decided by living people. We have no instance above religion who can tell us what it is to be a religion. You have either the religion of the Devil or the religion of the living God. That is, you have a religion of fruitfulness, or a religion of destruction. And Mr. McCarthy has chosen the religion of destruction. And this feature alone, that he learned his lesson from Hitler's Mein Kampf, is enough for me to give me the right to say, "Out goes Mr. McCarthy." I don't care for any measure or any proposal, or any ideas he has. That's the -- not the point. His method is of the Devil. And he adopted them -- his whole content of his policy only after he had adopted the method of Mr. Hitler. He's a -- and that's just the animal -- the wild animal method of destruction. It's very important, gentlemen. Who do -- what do I care what his measures are? Who cares about security boards, or not security boards? But his right to go into the United States and the brotherhood of man, which we have formed here to a certain extent, and to treat it as a wild wilderness in which he can attack everybody else as his enemy, if he thinks so, this is Hitlerism: to create enemies, so that you can arouse party spirit. And that's so the -- so to speak, you have to have enemies before you can go into politics. That's the great method of Hitler, you see. You have to have enemies. You have to make enemies. {kwude gekud}. Because otherwise you can't be this avalanche, you see, and if you tear the whole country to pieces, all the better, all the more power will come to you.

So the reversal of the proper order of politics, that's Hitler and that's McCarthy. First, tell me how to gain power, and then I'll enter upon any issue which gives me the power. And by the way, you should know this. I know this from

Mr. Pusey, the president of Harvard, who lived, as you know, in the same town in which McCarthy's home is. And so I trust him that he well very knows this. This is very important. The non-successful or non- -- not-to-be-succeeded spirit is the spirit that first asks for the results and then acts, and fills this -- for this purpose his acts with content.

Well, that's next time. Thank you.