{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

(Philosophy 58, May 10th, 1949.)

...the Church in America, or the churches in America--that's a term taken of course from the Bible. And "politics," the Greek word, and secular word, we take from our Greek tradition, because the very word "politics" we only use the Greek city is "polis," means "city." We don't live anymore in cities, and yet we still call it "politics" although we live in nations. And today the nation is a polis. And you still even say, "Politics means the life of a nation." {Didn't mean} in Greece, because in Greece, it meant the life of an individual city. You remember, I said -- told you that Aristotle wrote 158 constitutions of 158 polis. They all lived, of course, in this small, tiny bit of Greece; but they all had different, you see, cities.

So gentlemen, what has happened today is that from 1776 to today, we talk Greek, and before, we talked Hebrew. Voice of the prophets, the Psalms. Every gentleman in this country had to transcribe the 150 Psalms in English, in his own meter. We still have -- that was a school exercise. The -- the Psalms were the vocabulary of every human being in the 18th century in this country. That's the Hebrew tradition. There are some very wonderful achievements. I've printed one of these Psalms out of the notebook of Gouverneur Morris, the -- the man -- from the state of New York, who signed the Declaration of Independence. He was afterwards the ambassador to Paris. And {rescued} Thomas Paine, or had him { } freed him from prison.

Well, he transcribed the 15th Psalm in a very beautiful English meter. But every gentleman had to do this. So much was the Old Testament the language of this country. And I said to you, however, the other language, the Greek, in -- before 1776, was underground, was { }. And in this moment, you see the dying of the combination, the compound of the Greek-Hebrew language. Politics are not a democracy, but God's country, and God's people underneath. You see, you say "democracy," but you cannot say it without the word "people" somewhere in your vocabulary. And the word "people" is a church word. "The people of God," "the people in church," "the people in the meeting-house { }." This word "people," and this word "democracy" is not at all of the same origin. "Democracy" is a formal term of Greek organization of the city. It has no religious connotation whatsoever, "democracy." But if you say "people," { }, "he's one of the people," "people we -- we like," and therefore the word "people" comes right from the Psalms. And the word "democracy" comes from Plato. Now if you wish -- try to separate them, and say, "We just have democracy," the rest of the world cannot understand you, because they do not know, of course, in the years the Americans talk in -- in Europe, about re-education for democracy, that this -- that you are no Pharisees, that you are no Greeks, that you are no pagans, and no Alexander the Great, no conquerors, {no Romans}. They hate you for this re-education of democracy. You see the word "re-education" is a Greek term, because the Greeks were pedagogues -- pedagogical. They laugh and scorn the idea that a na- -- a people can be re-educated. Don't you laugh. Funniest idea there ever has been, that a people can be re-educated. By whom? The only educator of peoples is God. And no human dean of women from a college.

They sent over a lady from Oregon, a dean of women, to teach, to educate the Japanese in American family { }. Well, that's much worse than witchburning, gentlemen. Just -- are true. Why? Because it's a Greek idea completely isolated from the religious humility, that if you don't have the same gods--and the Japanese don't have the same religion as you--you cannot do anything with their family { }; that's sacred. But this country that thinks it is democratic and has freedom of thought and freedom of speech, by sending this--I won't say who she is--this person over to introduce American -- to teach -- to educate American family { }, well, it's much worse than any Spanish inquisitor. It's fantastic. Sacrilege, blasphemy, everything you want. The greatest arrogance and infamy there has ever been in the history of the human spirit, to teach other people how they shall worship their parents, by a dean of women. Probably she's unmarried.

This is all going on under their noses. Why, gentlemen? Because for the last 30 years, since Wilson, this country has--he was the last Puritan--since then, this country has denied to acknowledge the connection between its Puritan tradition and its Greek tradition. Therefore, it is pure humanitarianism, as they call it. And humanitarians of course are {terrorists}. All liberals are against anybody who's not a liberal. You don't know this, but there are, I assure you. I know this from personal experience. I have fought and pers- -- been persecuted all my life by the liberals. I'm not a liberal. Because I know this duplicity. { }. {I won't, as the secular mind), without the human soul. These people have however said, "There is only mind, there is no soul."

So they re-educate Japanese children in logical, rational { } of behavior. They teach in the American army at this moment, there is no leadership, which would be a religious connotation coming from the -- the Bible. But there's only management. That is, rational psychology which is used. Mr. -- Eisenhower is the manager of the American Army. That's the official { } at this moment in -- in our -- at this moment in the American Army. { } think of it, {management}. Probably the { } corps, and a { } corps.

This goes very deep, gentlemen. Ask yourself in any minute: where does the term which you use--or which you hear used in public is still under underlaid with the acknowledgement of the 39 percent, and the { } of religious belief, or whether we are godless people, who just bandy around their planning -- planning and their will, and their intelligence, you see, and their feelings in this { } will, feelings, and intellect.

The Greek--this -- take this down, gentlemen--the Greeks' man thinks he consists of will, feeling, and intellect. However, the soul of Israel knows that she loves -- lives by love, hope, and faith. Will, feeling, and intellect, gentlemen, are out of time. They are a purely { } in space. "Here I stand, and I will to know this." Or "I feel you as being antagonistic." Or "I intellectualize, I { }." The will defines -- the will wants; the intellect defines; and the feeling--what would you say?--sentimentalizes your {environment}, your { } {environment}. The will wants, exploits, buys, sells. It can { }. Will { } {makes} the world; feeling sentimentalizes the world; and intellect refines the world.

Ladies and gentlemen, from -- the Greek mind becomes therefore world. The Greek individual moves in the world. And the only reconciling race {that we know of, at least} -- in the Greek is that he will recognize that other human being as we have the same predicament, and the same solitude, and the same captivity, and the same prison in incomplete form of political or national circumstances.

So you have the two things, gentlemen, in humanism. Mutual recognition, and the taking stock of the world by will, intellect, and feeling. On the Jewish side, however, gentlemen, you have the immersion of the soul in the stream of time. The s- -- human soul of the prophet, of the man who waits for the coming of the Messiahs, is between hope and faith. Hope is the depicting of the future in terms of the past. Faith is the power to put the future above the past, and thereby to divest yourself from all definitions.

You see, if I have hope, then I hope for something I can already conc- -- conceive. I prolong my -- not my desire, but -- my appreciation of the world { } and say, "I hope it will come out well." If I have faith, however, I say, "If God comes in the form of battle, in the form of death, I still will believe that it is for the best. I don't know { }." But faith, gentlemen, always destroys our {concepts}. Hope always prolongs our {concepts}.

You never make any distinction in this country between hope and faith. Every American has only hope, and never faith. This is a hopeful country, but not a faithful country, because you always think that the future should look according to your desires. That's hope. Futurama. Bigger and better elephants. More and more people. More and more cars. More and more refrigerators. Faith says, "Perhaps { } {destroy}." But { } of faith in the Old Testament is: "It enslaves me, yet shall I { }." That's faith. But hope says, "Oh, if we -- if you wait another hundred years, everybody will have more cars in his garage." That's hope. Can you see the difference?

Now hope is the most human of the three supernatural virtues, gentlemen, to the { }. And it's the only virtue you have, as a country, as a nation { } is imbued with hope. There is no more hopeful country than this country, even today. You go any other part of the world, you will find it very depressing, because people have very little hope. You say -- they aren't hopeful. They aren't optimistic. They aren't bursting with energy, "Oh, everything's wonderful. Tomorrow, around the corner," you see, "silver lining," et cetera. No. The other countries live by faith. The Italians, you see, live by faith. { } very little hope { }. But they think that they are immersed in the bosom of God as His creatures, and He will, { }, and { }. Faith is something utterly opposite from hope, gentlemen. And the third quality--love, gentlemen--is the arbiter, the arbitrator between faith and love -- hope. If you will think too much in terms of the past, you will be lacking faith. If you think only, as a fanatic, about faith, you see, in the outcome of a revolution, you will dismiss too many values, as the Russians do at this moment.

Therefore love, gentlemen, is the only balance, the { }, which you -- tells you how much. See if you can abide { } hope { } faith. That is, all the time, as on a decimal scale, on a deci- -- on a scale, you see, when you move the weight, love {moving}, and tells you how much you can go forward, and how much you have to abide by -- with the past.

Now this is Israel's message. Israel's message has balanced the naive hopes which every human being has, you see, that the tribe will persist, that the ancestors will always be honored, that the -- { } always { }, that's all just hope. But by overstating faith, you see, a {balance is reached}.

And that is the essence of the -- of the Jewish discovery of faith, that -- divesting man of his own definitions, of his own will, and of his own feelings, his own sentimentality.

So gentlemen, the Jewish soul and the Greek mind are very clearly defined entities. The mind consists of will, feeling, and intellect. The Jewish soul consists of faith, hope, and love. And that's a much more real thing, because hope has intellect; faith has intellect, and love has intellect. You see, they are all three ra- -- reasonable. You must make the difference, gentlemen, between rational and reasonable. Love is reasonable. Hope is reasonable. Faith is reasonable. The intellect in other words, gentlemen, { } the real test is nothing you can separate from his feelings or his will. But gentlemen, where you say "will," the soul says "love." Will deals with things outside. Love deals with the next people, the people to come. Love wants children. Love wants the future. Love wants to sacrifice your own existence for the existence of this country {a hundred years from now}.

You can put it down, gentlemen: the heresy of the Greeks is to subdue, or to include into the definition of "will," "love." That's the greatest heresy from which you suffer. If you read any psychology, they always say that love is just a subdivision of will. Now will and love are mutually exclusive. Because will supposes the mind to be single, as the thing willed { }. To be bought, or to be encompassed, or to be dominated, you see, or to { }. Love means to dismiss yourself, to dissolve into this other person. It's the antith- -- opposite. If you want to see in a -- in a seam, it's very simple.

As it { } the outer world, we will. I will -- I will space around me. I will this dress on me, I wish to have food. I wish to be sheltered. I wish to be honored. I wish to be promoted. I wish to have money. I wish to have people who adore me. Every one Greek is a god, who wants from the outer world submission, obedience--in other words, power.

Will {leads to} power, gentlemen. And everybody in this country officially worships power. But of course, you can't live on power. You can only make a living on this. But to live, gentlemen, you must live forward. And there you never find will. You only find love, as making you over. The jet propeller is hope, because that comes from behind and says, "I had always a good time, let me have a good time tomorrow." But love goes into the unknown and say, "I don't know what a good time is," you see. And faith can put up, and wait until love is coming. You can't love any minute. There is nobody to love. You have to wait. A girl has to wait perhaps five years before anybody turns up whom she might consider to be her husband. What is she doing during these five years, you see? Most American girls are using lipstick and hope. But a French girl is in a monastery at that time, and has faith. That is, she is not trying to sell herself to the world, under false pretenses. But she's waiting in a much deeper sense, you see. Faith can wait. Hope is impatient. Love is today, is making the bridge between the two.

It's very important for you that you should see this, gentlemen. It belongs into the history of mankind. The Greek strand, the humanistic strand under which you are today murdered and killed--especially all the girls in our girls' colleges--they are murdered, because the soul is denied them. They are told that they have will, feeling, and intellect.

As soon as a person begins to believe this, a woman can no longer be a woman. Because that's only for roaring lions and bulls, to deal with your environment, as though you must will it, you must feel it, and you must intellectualize. Any good person, gentlemen, is neither defining the world outside. If I go today to an {orchard}, and want to write -- become a poet, I'm not going to define the {orchard}, but I am the {orchard}. I am a part of it, going into this { }, and I am the moment of this {orchard}. I am the element of time, not an element of space. You all want to be just in space; then you can't write poetry.

Everything said, gentlemen, in truth, is only possible if you go and become the mouthpiece of this living being which we call an "orchard," or a "mountain," or a "landscape," or a "river," you can speak for some part of the created world--for your child, or your sweetheart, or for your country, you see--if you are taking the lead in this movement forward by the great love { }, to, so to speak, develop this beloved something, this creature, and -- by giving it its highest, and most sublime utterance, and breath, and inspiration. You inspire, because you are inspired by this. Love is mutual inspiration. Will is nothing of the kind. Will is not mutual inspiration, but it's management. Nothing in -- that a manager fears more than to be inspired by his workers. You wouldn't know what a { } inspiration he has between his closet and his office. He has many files but certainly not -- nothing -- none for "inspiration."

This is very serious, gentlemen. Today there is -- from the army and the general staff in this country, down to this classroom, there is a complete confusion between the world of power and management, and the world of love and leadership. And it's all because of the American confusion between the supersurface talk of the Greek mind, which has come to us from antiqu- -- from Homeric man, and the inner core of the American tradition, which is the people of God, the country -- God's country, the soul of a man.

And today, the crisis is here, gentlemen. Homeric man, and -- alone -- is going to kill the soul of all the women in this country. Because in Homer, gentlemen, the women have not yet a voice. If you read Homer, the women are more or less represented by their men. Penelope is all the time there, but Odysseus is the man who tells the story. { } says very little. She cries, she weeps. And { }, you see, right through.

Now today, gentlemen, with the American women talking, and talking, and talking, the redemption of the American woman is made impossible if she is subsumed, subordinated to the Greek idea of the Greek man. And the Greek man could have will, intellect, and feeling, gentlemen. Why? Because he took upon himself his relation to his wife inarticulately, {implicitly}. It wasn't especially said that Odysseus was married to Penelope, so to speak, {when he spoke}. But he was. And he showed it by his faithfulness { }. The family ties of the Greeks, gentlemen, were so strong that whenever the conquering man speaks--this Aristotelian or Platonic man--he still speaks for the women and children, too. He simply -- he still is it. But the Greek reception in our own modern times has denied { }. He has the Jewish tradition of people. And therefore from Greece, we only took the { }. To you, the Greeks, the humanists { }. To the Greeks themselves, that wasn't so. In Homer -- if you read Homer, there is behind Odysseus, Penelope, and behind { }. And behind Achilles, there is his mother Thetis, who comes { }. And his friend, { }. And wherefore { }, you see. But the formulation goes in this way: the formulation of Greek { } -- the Greek mind is one-sided individual{ism}, as though man moves singly. And you know why. Because he { }. Because he is not at home with two { }.

So he has to take it with him -- in a -- in a pillbox, in a -- in a capsule, so to speak, his { }. And so he -- he is only told will, intellect, and feeling are enough to support a man--although { } home. All -- the Greek mind is man away from home. But the women always { } hope. The -- the Jew of the -- in the Old Testament, he is at home in his people, and he wants to -- to -- to say that this is the -- daughter-{like}, and the bride, and the mother -- these are the prominent features of the soul, that they s- - make the feminine part of us {speak}. That's why bride, and daughter, and mother are the--and virgin--are the prominent features of the biblical tradition. Man is in fragment- -- is a fragmentation bomb in -- in the Bible. Look at all these men. They are all broken up. God is in their weakness, not in their strength. But because otherwise the real humanity of their relation to God cannot appear.

It is therefore, gentlemen, at this moment, in the year of the Lord 2000 of our era, that our -- the family is {in crisis}. The Greek mind as today used seems to exclude man's relation to his family. So the women get their divorce, and their vocation, and their profession, and their college, and go crazy, and become aggressive. And the men are all afraid. { } girls, who have no faith. If you feed women on the Greek mind, gentlemen, you get a generation of vipers.

It must happen, because gentlemen, the Greek mind was developed for the man away from home. Now if you develop this for the woman, she's also away from home. But the men returned to home, in Greece, {in fact}. He came home to his Penelope. But today, if you take the woman and develop her faculties as though there was no home, there is no { } waiting for this type of { }. She never gets home. She never has a home. What we develop today is an uprooted person, who is a secretary and types, and believes that the typewriter is her home. She's only a carbon copy of the -- home.

(How did the Greek establish { }? I mean, if he didn't fall in love when he married, did he?)

No. Love came later, which is -- more true than you would believe. You see, that is -- there is {some love} that develops, {really}, { } more than you would believe. { }. But love { }. But it just with a different { }, was not in the { }. You are quite right.

({ } understand their homosexuality?)

Well, well -- I can't go into this. Didn't I speak of this before?

({ }.)

Very good question. But please write it down. I -- I -- in my { } course, I spoke extensively about it. I -- if I had time, I would love -- you have -- the central question there. The suppression of the consciousness of the feminine, and the preoccupation of the Greek thought--with will, intellect, and feeling--led to this {explosion} of love, you see, in the form of sharing with the other man the things of the spirit. You see, they don't wish to court their women -- they -- they didn't woo them, you see. They wooed their men. If you go to an English -- an English college, in Oxford, you find still the same atmosphere of -- of charm, man to man. Quite unknown here, you see, the tremendous amount of homosexual feeling in the -- without any great connotation. Even if the men are not physically homosexual, but they have deprived their women of most of the flirtation. In England, the men flirt with each other. They are a very virile nation, but they won't talk with their women. Most English women 30 years ago { }, because they were just physically connected with their husbands, but the rest { }.

I -- I have always thought they had a wolfish look, these women, as though they had woken up after their first experience with a terrible shock. That their -- part of their men, the -- the imagination of their husbands was not with them. It was with their -- with their fellows, you see, and in -- in Cambridge or Oxford, or the army, or whatever it was. In England, you have a very strong Greek--how do you say?--Greek infiltration, so to speak -- Greek traditions of flirtation between men.

And where does this happen, gentlemen? When you have a philosophy which is based on an individual, on this Aristotelian man of will, feeling, and -- and intellect, you see, then the -- the brother-scientist, the brother-student, the brother-teacher, the brother-monk -- parson, you have the brother in speech, the man who does the same, and has the same animus--who is unanimous, you see--is your only beloved counterpart. People have said -- the psychoanalysts, as you know, distinguish between animus and anima. You have two ways of loving: love your -- the person who is like you, and love the person who is as different as possible from you. Your animus looks for the duplicate, for your duplication. That can be a girl or a man. It is -- you choose the partner because he's very much like you, or very much like the person you would like to be--that's usually what they -- you take, you see. Then it's animus. It's not real love, but it is -- has a -- is -- has something of the homosexual. People -- I know many people who -- who have their friends this way. And they should. I mean, don't -- don't be mistaken. The homosexual is nothing vicious. It is only vicious if it is the only love a man indulges in. It's terrible that you only have this word "homosexual" for this -- for this friendship business. {This write} -- find often as a -- as a word of vi- -- vituperation. It has nothing to do with { }. A person who is -- can love...

[tape interruption]

...encyclopedia, and { } is there. It is terrible. It is perverse. Why? Because the { } doesn't have its proper place as a second rate { }, as something that comes after you have loved.

So may I approach now this -- the theme of today on this way? That the -- the Jewish faith in the future is the main quality of the soul. The Israelites stand in antiquity exclusively for the life of the soul. The mind is power in -- over environment, over nature. That's what the mind thinks, gentlemen. The three qualities of the soul are, as I told you: faith, hope, love. The three qualities of the mind are: intellect, will, feeling. The virtues of the mind are: {this mind is} prudence. How about the other -- in Plato? Who knows? Courage, justice, and what's the last?




Temperance. Now gentlemen, these are the three heavenly virtues in our tradition. And these are the three, the four natural virtues. You -- { } of course the supernatural. And that's a Greek language. From the Greek point of view, prudence, temperance, justice, and courage are understandable. Faith, love, and hope are un-understandable. So they call them "supernatural." If you study theology, you hear of the supernatural virtues: faith, love, and hope; and of the natural virtues: temperance, justice, prudence, and courage. { }.

The time has come -- it's very important for you. In the year 2000, we cannot allow the Greek mind to be called "natural." The Greeks are unnatural. It is nonsense to say that courage is natural, and faith is un- -- supernatural. Any child of 3, if it isn't ruined by the Greek mind and by the college education -- is just as much {native} to a person to have faith, love, and hope, as it is to have a reason, and will, and feeling.

So gentlemen, destroy please the adjective "supernatural" and "natural" in your vocabulary. Never { } that faith, love, and hope is supernatural, or you'll get lost in scholasticism, and Thomism, and Aristotelianism, all the -isms of the last thousands years. Free yourself of any admission that the Jewish biblical tradition is mystical, supernatural, or unnatural, and the Greek tradition is the only normal one. We do now know that the Greek tradition is quite abnormal, because it's developed for people away from home. It is developed for the {student} mind, the {vagrant} mind, the roving man. And the -- there are -- the { } of this whole course, gentlemen, is centering on this point which I try to make to you, that the Greeks have ruined your relation to speech, your relation to the created universe--or Heaven and earth, making you into observers instead of into observance, dismissing the calendar instead of an action of duty, {in} the division of labor into a mere curiosity of an encyclopedia. And that it has destroyed your admission that man was created a living soul.

The Greek mind, gentlemen, annihilates your endowment. And the victory of the Greek mind comes when you call this destruction "natural." When you say that a man "is "by nature just," and "by supernature, has faith," you have surrendered { }. And that's what people have done in our schools during the last 150 --. That's just what the Declaration of Independence did. It overturned the vocabulary. Where the Puritans said that the human soul believes in God, you see, the grammar school teacher in 1800 began to say, "You have a clever mind, {you are smart}." And { }. And then they even psychoanalyzed it. Always { }. If you begin to talk Greek, as you all { }, you accept as a natural that which is highly artificial, that which only comes after a man has left home, and { }. And far away from home, he tries to be the { }, so to speak, of {his better self}, you see, by saying, "But I still have will, feeling, and -- and intellect, and reason." Whereas if he is at home, he has a sister, and a mother and a daughter; and a brother and a father; and that takes care of his relations, because he develops faith, love, and hope. And he gets up in the morning not because he's an intelligent man --. Who gets up in the morning because he's intelligent? But because he's full of hope. And why does he work? Because he loves his family, and wants to support them. And why does he go into politics? Because he has faith in the future of his country. Why does he go to war? Gentlemen, no act of yours has ever been explained by anything but faith, love, and hope. You may not explain one movement of your { } by will, intellect, or feeling. Nobody can act. An Aristotelian man, gentlemen, whom you worship, is the man who cannot lift a finger, because there's no motivation for him. He's a { }, and the man under the knife of the dissecting psychoanalyst, or psychi- -- -ologist.

Psychology, gentlemen, is the dis- -- the dissecting of a man who has no {home}, in the laboratory.

({ }.)


(But yet he is drawn home by { } faith, love, and hope.)

{ }, the moderns, the man in Greek -- that's why I asked you to read Homer, and not Aristotle, you see. In Homer, it's still genuine, a going-out, and a return to home. In Homer, it is--after all written in 3000 B.C., written by real people. It is only a {movement}. But today, you have made out of it a dogma, you see. Odysseus is not the man who has to return, you see. But he has become the philosopher, the clever man, the smart man, you see, the man -- the robber baron, the man who dis- -- conquered { }.

({ }.)

No, I have -- I mean -- no. You're quite right. The modern clich‚ of the Greek mind -- or the -- the Greek mind in as far as it has been operative in our own {schools}, the borrowed Greek mind. You're quite right in making -- it's very important to make this distinction.

({ }. Therefore { }.)

Oh, he had more. But we, so to speak, have made him the norm, the natural man. When you read today about the natural man, it's always only this aspect. Can you see this? This errand boy.

So gentlemen, { } therefore the investigation of the Greek and Israelitic past has as its result, gentlemen, to force upon us a different use of the word "nature." The word "natural" and "nature" today chokes all theologians. Even my friend Niebuhr {is hanging thereby}, the use of this word "natural" { }. What is it called? "The nature and destiny of man"? That's still a Greek book.

Now I have never accepted in my life--although I had be- -- begun -- began my studies with the classics, and I was a great worshiper of the Greeks--but from the very first, I have objected to this surrender of real man to the classroom man. That's what it really is, you see, because in the classroom, where you all sit here, just away from home, away from your real human relations, you see, we can probably only agree, without be indiscreet, you see, on will, intellect, and feeling, because you won't say who your greatest influence and to whom you are { }. That would lead to names. I { } -- you would have to say, "I never could love a boy," and the other would have to say, "I love a girl," and the other would say, "I love my mother." We would all blush, and the classroom, you see, would become a confessional and that cannot be done.

In public, gentlemen, and outs- -- away from home, we cannot confess our true soul's secrets. We just can't. Therefore, the Greek nature of man is an over{laid} nature, which you take on as your tattoo, when you are away from home. In society, in the men's club, and in your fraternity, of course, you won't {drag in} your real secrets. And therefore, gentlemen, the natural man is a man without his real secrets. It's another definition of "away from home."

You must come to know, gentlemen, that natural man is an extrovert. This man as he can and will to be looked upon from the outside. That's what natural man { }, a man as he can and will { } be looked upon by his fraternity brothers. Then they'll say, "He's really smart." Then they see he has really great -- he is decent. And then they say, "He -- he is powerful." Now nobody in his five senses can live on these three qualities himself. They just don't make any sense to yourself. It is very nice if other people think so.

Therefore, na- -- the natural man, gentlemen, is the man whom we would -- { } in terms as we want to be looked upon by the world outside. It would be very agreeable if { } only be judged by your {will}, sentiments, and prospectability, and -- and -- if -- and energy. That's what you would like. But only as the world looks upon you. Your wife -- you see, you are lost if you want only to be admired for your intelligence. She must love you although you are as asinine as can be.

You see, love is only possible on the basis of our deficiencies. Nature is only possible in humanity on the basis of our advantages, of our good nature. Humanism, gentlemen, is based on positive qualities of man. Love, faith, and hope are based on the deficiencies of man. The humanist is always based on having been rich, having been -- having credit. I mean { }, going abroad, you have to have a letter of credit in order to survive. You must have capital in order to {trade}. We must have set upon {the world} in order to be received. You cannot lose its temper. Temperance is a very useful thing for a businessman when he tries to sell Fuller Brushes to a housewife. But he -- he himself cannot live on this quality. And { }. They are all only external things which the world ascribes to him, and says, "Therefore, we can't get along with him. He -- he doesn't ask us to be inside of him. He's { }. Can get along with him on the outside."

Gentlemen, Christianity is there -- that institution which has tried to reconcile the Greek mind and the Jewish soul. Christianity is a synthesis of antiquity, and it had to reconcile tribe, empire, Homer, and the prophets. And therefore you find in Christian theology the tradition of the three natural and the four -- the four natural and the three supernatural virtues. The first reconciliation in Greek -- in Christian theology was between the Greek tradition and the Old Testament tradition, by simply putting one--how do you say? next to the other -- aside of the other? Wie? { }. A juxtaposition, juxtaposing, { }. Can you say that? But I tell you: today, that's unsatisfactory. It's not good enough by --.

The Christian theologians, gentlemen, of the last 2,000 years have to go. They are obsolete, because they have accepted the { } of Christianity out of this disparity out of Greek and Jewish tradition. We today have to create out of the Christian experience the mind and the soul's experiences. But not building them up from -- from scratch out of justice, and faith, and hope, you see. but going the other way, so to speak, and explaining that a man away from home, of course, wants to behave like a Rotarian. That is, like a -- like a billiard ball, smooth. But he will not accept the smoothness as natural. He'll say it's a result of this man's { } in the society, and therefore having -- having to adjust himself. But who is adjusted?

So we must first begin with the real man, and then we can speak of the environmental man. The Greek, from the modern Christian point of view, gentlemen, is the adjusted man, the man who makes adjustments to a -- the world. And if you wish to know who man is before he comes into the world, you can only start outside the world.

The -- the Christian viewpoint therefore is, gentlemen, the opposite from the Jewish. To do this, which we have to do now furthermore by abolishing these connotations, and which began only 1900 years ago--it's is a very short time--the continuation, gentlemen, of Christianity today lies in building on the first premise of Christianity: that man comes into the world. The whole secret of Christianity is a simple tenet, that man comes into the world from outside. You remember perhaps that the Jewish tenet is that man goes out from the world into the Sabbath, to God. The dialectic between Judaism and Christianity is in this: God creates the world and man in it; and man is the only creature who can come to God by the Sabbath, by resting with God.

So man in antiquity reaches his highest point when he can return to God at the end of the week, at the end of his life, at the end of seven years, at the end of 49 years. The Jews leave Egypt and go to God, the Exodus. The whole problem of Christianity is opposite, gentlemen: incarnation.

As long as a man is alive, according to Christianity, he is not a Greek adjusting himself to the world, but he is still a soul coming today out of the hands of God again to the end of his day. Jesus was born on Easter as much as on Christmas. Would you take this down? That's the essence of the Incarnation. It's a very simple dialectics between Judaism, Greek -- Greece and -- the Greeks, and Christianity. The Jews leave the world. The Greeks adjust themselves to the world. The Christians come into the world.

Now the condition of a Christian, if he -- has the guts to come into the world is that he is reborn every day. Therefore rebirth is the center point of Christianity. But the meaning of rebirth is not what you always think: penitence, and contrition, and -- and -- and sinfulness. That's all nonsense. The Greek -- the old Christians were very cheerful people. They didn't care for -- for Salvation Army { }. {Don't believe that}. It's all nonsense.

What is rebirth, gentlemen? Literally to be born every day, and yet to come into the world incarnate as a -- a thought of God, coming into this world every day once more, again, as though it had never {lived} before. The birth takes place till your dying day.

Therefore gentlemen, a Christian's birthday to Heaven is his first -- is his dying day. A saint is worshiped, as you know in Christianity, on the day on which he dies, because then finally he has come into the world.

That's dogmatic tradition of Christianity. The Christian comes into the world till his dying day. Can you take this down? The Christian comes into the world till his dying day. The Jew can go out of the world from the beginning. That's heredity. As a Jew, he is not an idolater. He is not an idolater. Not to be an idolater means the power, you see, to get out of the world.

For the Christian, that's no question. He inherits the piety of -- of Israel. He should, at least. We have of course many idolaters among so-called Christians, who worship glass windows and incense. You can't help them. But -- they are pigs. The Christian is born every day. The Jew leaves the world every day. The Greek adjusts himself to the world with the help of mutual recognition.

({ }.)

Well, when we talked about Israel and the Jews in the first hour of this course, you may remember that I told you that the great discovery of Moses is the anti-astrological attitude. The stars move all the time, incessantly. They never stand still. Sun and moon rise and fall, diminish and increase, night and day. Everything is in a juggernaut of movement. Yes? The creation that -- the Bible begins with the triumphant howl: "On the seventh day, God rested." And of course, it speaks to people who already worship the Sabbath. Genesis of course is written for the people of Israel who already cultivated this cult. It's of course an inner Jewish book, therefore when -- the Jew reads in Genesis in the year 1200 B.C., if you read this story, that God rests and He says, "{ }." That is, gentlemen, the human being discovered Israel, that he was the only part of the universe who could stop everything else in the { }. Then -- the word is constant change. Ja? Man, by his faith in God, can stop { }. Most of you don't. {Many of} -- a man who cannot stop, gentlemen, is godless. { } cannot stop. They're terrible.

I knew a man in Boston who was a superintendent of a -- of a trolley car system, a subway system. And he wouldn't take the Sunday off. And you may be sure there's something wrong with him. { } actually except for -- for a leave of one night in summer, every day. { }. { } somebody else would look at his { }, and he would -- would find him out. But { } cannot stop. You say -- turn down one { } to turn on the other. { }. You can't work without { }. These are {idiots}. They are lunatics { }. Because they depend on the constant movement of stars, moon, suns, hours, telephone calls, radio -- you see. You -- you come to a -- these people's house, and you say, "Oh, at 6:30, Lowell Thomas," you see. Well, why { }. But Lowell Thomas? I don't know why { } -- why is Lowell Thomas { }? { }? They are all crazy. Baseball results. Somebody has to { }.

You are all crazy, gentlemen. You are all Egyptians at this moment. { } it's a great fashion to be an Egyptian. You -- and the powers of darkness, again are preeminent, because you can -- who some- -- who knows what it is { }. You think { }. { }. They did it, gentlemen, what { }. A man who cannot stop may well think about the Atlantic Charter, but it will remain on paper as the Atlantic Charter. It's one of the greatest hoaxes of mankind, the Atlantic Charter, as you know. The last betrayal of modern man, { }. Not one of these tenets was meant seriously. It was given out as news. Freedom of speech, freedom of religion for people who make this kind of noise. Do you think you can speak, think, or have religion in a noisy civilization as ours?

Freedom is a very serious thing, gentlemen. Freedom is based on absolute {silence}. If you can't pray, "Holy, holy, holy," you don't know what freedom is, gentlemen. { } the first freedom is freedom of yoursel- -- from yourself. If you can't be free from yourself, yourself is just a {pig}, a piece of nature. The rolling stone follows the law of gravity. Your own self, gentlemen, represents inside of you that unceasing juggernaut, that unceasing movement, that unceasing change which the Jews combated when they celebrated the Sabbath. You -- your own self is the sun, moon, and stars inside of yourself, inside of your own -- soul.

Therefore gentlemen, a man who follows self and self-interest is { }. You aren't free. Have you ever thought, gentlemen, that this -- we live in a funny moment of sophistry, where the people tell you that { } follow your selfinterest which you { }? That's -- cannot be done. Nobody who follows the self- -- -interest is free. And nobody is free because of his self-interest.

If you -- free to follow your self-interest sometimes, and sometimes not. That's freedom. { } you { } existence. You come to me and say, "You are a Christian; you have to turn the other cheek."

Well, I { }. I slap you -- in the face. Because I would have to prove that I am a free man. Do you think you could base on my good nature the -- your abuse? I'm incalculable. I'm free. { } by predicting what I'm going to do to you. As soon as you say, "You have to forgive me," I'll say, "I won't forgive you." But if you come and say, "You can't forgive me," I say, "I can."

Isn't { }? Force another man's hand, and he'll do the opposite. Freedom means therefore your freedom from self and others. I -- must be just as much free from my selfishness than from hatred to you. At one time, I will follow this, and another, other. But I must be free, gentlemen, free. That is, I must come into the world as though I was created at this moment. That's freedom.

Now the Jews exert on man this pressure to leave. And the Christian exerts the pressure to come. The Christian has to do with Advent, which is coming of the Lord. And the Jews have to do with resting in the Lord, peace in Lord. Their idea is peace, { } Jerusalem, this city of peace. "{Solomon}" means "king of peace." The peace that comes after the turmoil, the cessation of hostility. The Christian comes out of peace, into the turmoil of the world, bringing his {peace}, you see, into the world.

So gentlemen, there is a dialectic, a -- triangular dialectic between the Greek, and -- Jewish and Christian mentality. The -- Greek mind stands on adjustment, or adaptation to the world. And you can only adjust yourself if -- the other people -- if the other society around, who also know that the society's imperfect, and said, "We all just -- adjust ourselves {to this}. Don't mean it." The whole thing is -- becomes a game. The Greek adaptation is only possible in a world whose parts don't take themselves any longer as {absent}. The Jewish mi- -- soul, however, says, "It's still { }: we have to side with God against the world. The world is no home for us." The Greek mind adjusts himself away from home. The Jew makes his home with God, with the creator. The Christian takes it upon himself to return to this world, and to encounter it. That is, to become the new { } of the creator, which he's now { } the next { }.

These words, gentlemen, you only use today "adjustment," because you are only Greeks. You say, "A wicked human being should adjust himself." You are very wicked. I don't see why any of you should adjust himself. { }. To whom? To somebody else who's also { }. Who is cheating whom? Everybody is cheating everybody. That's { }. You only have, gentlemen, alternatingly the Jewish and the Christian attitude. That's why Chris- -- Christ { }. That's why it takes the whole { } connected { }. Just -- nobody can always be a Christian, and nobody can always be a Jew { }. Christianity and Judaism are mutually interdependent. You have to get out of { }. And even Mr. Merton is not spared this. After becoming a Trappist, he has to write a book...

[tape interruption]

...{ }, incarnate { }. Only then can you, so to speak, integrate the diabolical { }, which you { }. That is, you know that you are not { }. You can draw on the diabolical if you { }. Otherwise, most people, as you know, are { } in the { } devil { }. Most people would remain divided. Many more people are { } than you think today. { } it { }, gentlemen. Most people are either both devils and {good} angels, or { } angels -- or { } devils and { } angels. { }. { }. And nobody { } otherwise { } faithful and intelligent man. And then his wife died. And he became { }. The { } has, you see, has -- has ceased for him to be a { } devil, because his own devil had died. He had to be angelic at home, and so he took it out in his -- in his {government}.

You will be surprised to -- if you once see this, gentlemen, how divided we are. Then all these religious and philosophical questions will become to you very practical. The question is always: where to get the man { }, the whole man; all of him. Now you are { }, you are a cosmic part of the -- your land, and climate, and heavens, and stars. You are a good fellow with foreigners abroad. And you are a soul, worshiping the true God. And it's this division, gentlemen, in us, which, if you live longer, will take -- the Greek has no explanation for { } today, except this adap- -- adaptation. { } external admission that he is divided. Of course you have only to adjust yourself of course because you are { } also yourself half-world, half-home. {You are}. -- Just as a Jew takes { } {step} of his { } success { } political { }, and waiting for the true prophecy, and the true coming. The Christian takes upon himself his cross, and says, "I am divided, as much as { }. But I take a new shape every day," in which all these forms are glued, or { } together.

So that is -- I wanted to bring out today, gentlemen, the situation of the Christian as to the last two ancient forms. Against pre-Homeric man, gentlemen, the Jew -- Greek -- the Jew and the Christian know already of the plurality of life. The tribesman has the ancestor. Nothing but. They are absolutely one. And the Egyptian is absolutely just an Egyptian, nothing but an Egyptian. That is, gentlemen, the two ancient men, who are pre-Homeric, know of only one allegiance. The Greek knows of a {former} allegiance and -- of adaptation, which is no real allegiance, you see, but a going-beyond your -- your allegiance, you see; friendliness, {humanis- -- -ity}, understanding, recognition, adaptation, adjustment, behavior -- abroad and at home. But it goes already beyond the unity of home, the -- primitive integrity. The Jews say, "No allegiance on this earth, because we are all idolaters. And { }."

So you have in antiquity, gentlemen, single allegiance in tribe; {single} allegiance in empire; allegiance {plus} adjustment in Greece; no allegiance except un- -- except to the -- the Sabbath, to the day of days, {in unity}, the Exodus, the emigration from idolatry, that's the Jewish position. It's { }.

There is always the question in antiquity, gentlemen: { } allegiance { }, { } the whole, kills man's { }, kills man's freedom, you see. And yet without allegiance he cannot live. The paradox, gentlemen, of man is: he needs allegiances, but if he falls for one allegiance, he becomes an idolater, he becomes a heathen. He becomes {dead.} He is the sacrifice, a victim of his own allegiance.

Christianity, gentlemen, says that we are born every day again. And thereby {saves} allegiance and non-allegiance. Christianity is the peace, or the unity between allegiance and non-allegiance. It admits that a child should be educated by its parents and obey its { }, you see. But it insists that you have to hate your parents, and your sisters and brothers, as {Jesus says} to His own mother, you see, or you cannot enter the kingdom of Heaven. The same Jesus who is brought up by Mary with this -- with this great love, defies her and says, "I hate you; I have nothing to do with you wi- -- woman." The paradox of Christianity is a problem of allegiance and non-allegiance. On this { } {last time}.

But I wanted to simplify your -- the whole human story, gentlemen. Man begins, because he has allegiance. Without allegiance, there would be no man; just { }, you see. His great art of creating allegiances {leads to disaster}. It has to be checked. The Greeks and Jews try to check it. And the Christians have made a perpetual revolution out of this. Since the coming of Christ, every human being, gentlemen, has -- {is faced} with this. Let me finish this. I fear {I} { } 60 minutes. The modern intellectual scorns any allegiance. He says he's superior to allegiance { }. The essence of an intellectual is that he can get rid of any allegiance by some kind of rationalization. And the legionnaire and the Volkssturm man, and the Hitlerite, or the Communist--or whomever you take--primitive man, cannot do except with one allegiance. The division of one {small} man is always: one allegiance, or no allegiance. The problem of life is always, gentlemen: the paradox that a man must have loyalty, allegiances, and never have -- have them so that they frustrate the invasion of his soul by God. God must still be able to create him.

So gentlemen, on the human level, allegiance. But on the level of the divine--what's the -- not "invasion" -- the divine breaking-in--how would you call it?--the divine interference, intervention, so to speak, every rule must be broken; every rule must have an exception; every rule must be -- every law must be superseded by { }, as the Christian theology calls it. There is just no law, according to St. Paul, whose validity must not be challenged by the { }. On the other hand, woe to the man who challenges the law, you see, unless he must. When does he must, gentlemen? When faith, love, and hope are come -- play -- come into play. Faith, love, and hope are superior to any allegiance.

The whole relation, gentlemen, of -- of our era to antiquity is based on this -- this very simple problem: one allegiance, antiquity--heathen man, pre-Homeric man, you see; criticism of allegiance, Jews -- -daism and Greece, you see; permanent challenge, allegiance and no allegiance, constant electrification programs, so to speak: that's Christianity, that's our era.