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Universal History (1956)

Lecture 9 (1:31:13)

We are in the midst of a tremendous, real universal history. Who cares for the French history, or for English history? A secular story. They are of no importance, if you compare them to this tremendous 2,000 years of organized life in the form of the Holy Spirit, of this power to connect more than one generation of man in the same spirit, to bear fruit, where one generation sows, and the other harvests. This has not existed before, and it is threatened today.

—May 8,1956


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{word} = hard to understand, might be this

[Opening remarks missing]

... church of the kings. Charlemagne and King Alfred are, of course, the outstanding Christian kings. They { } much time { } 250 years, by and large, which this pioneering runs. That is, when the martyrs have died, the fathers begin to live. When the monks have made the inner declaration, the inner -- interior declaration, so to speak, saving the ancient culture into the new world, the kings do the outer work and conquer, and make all these tribes behave. So if you see the strange story, it is first death, securing the future of the Church in a hostile world, { } you see, inner and outer content. Here are the frontiers. So this -- it seems to be a law, gentlemen. Nothing important happens if nobody is willing to die for it. We wouldn't be here if in the Second World War not some people at least, even in this country, were -- had -- had been ready to die for the future of the Western world. There would be then a hi- -- a Hitler world at this moment.

Now the strange story of the second millennium is, I told you -- the topic is the world. And again you find four groups of people. Mr. Eisenhower wrote a book called Crusade in Europe. That is, he still remembered that the second millennium began with crusades. So the first people who conquered the world outside this little remnant of Christianity in Central Europe, where as you know, the Frankish knights who went to Jerusalem, and began to out- -- round out again a world in which the Cross could be lived. And so the type of the Crusaders, gentlemen, is an eternal type. Some people still crusade, but obviously on the other hand, the time for the Crusades is over. The -- the Christians no longer conquer Jerusalem. They even have been so generous to send the Jews there -- back to Jerusalem, which is quite an achievement at the end of the second millennium. I think of -- of epoch-making importance, the founding of the state of Israeli, with the help of the Christian nations. That is the fulfillment of the oldest prophecies of Romans -- of the Letter to the Romans by St. Paul. Then, as you know, the Knights of Columbus still think that Christoph Columbus came as a crusader to America. And he, in the certain way, even thought of himself as a crusader. Yet, you would hardly call him a Crusader proper. He doesn't go to Jerusalem. He discovered. And the second phase then, is a discoverer. We have, after the world was discovered, two more types of people who have unified the world: the explorers, and we still have them with us; and the -- last, the inventors, because the inventors also discover part of the world, but in the interior, in the -- at the bottom of the sea, at the bottom of the earth. A man who -- a geologist who in- -- who finds a ways and means to drill oil, would come in this last class.

So we have a parallel, gentlemen. The Crusaders had to be willing to die. And the discoverers certainly discovered a way of life. And the explorers went in the external world, but usually without danger of life, with a certain hope not to fight, but to -- have -- be -- well -- enough equipped, to take measurements as in the Antarctic. And the inventor is, as the word "in" shows you, going in to the interior of the world, and refines our knowledge of it, after it's already outside, outwardly known.

Now these four people -- four classes of people, gentlemen, are the secular form of the same process which the martyrs, and the fathers, and the monks, and the kings fulfilled in the Church. With regard to Church history, you have these four types of people. With regard to world history, you have these four types of people. The pope, who blessed the first Crusaders, called them "martyrs," and promised them martyrdom. If you read Dante, Dante's Divine Comedy, he's very interesting. He's very proud that one of his ancestors is Cacciaguida -- I think is the name -- and he says that he -- is a martyr of the Christian faith, because he went on a Crusade in 1147, with Conrad III, the king of Germany, and the king of France -- Louis. And so at first even the title "martyr" was given to the Crusaders. We wouldn't call a Crusader a martyr, because a martyr doesn't kill other people. But Crusaders fought very viol- -- valiantly, and that's not a martyr, properly speaking. But they at first felt that they were identical, you see, in their purpose with the martyrs of old. I think that's quite pertinent, to show you the unity of the whole process.

A crusader is a man who exposes his life -- and very few came back, as you know, from the Crusades, alive -- or they stayed there and were swallowed up by the Moslem re-conquest. A discoverer is still a military man. Columbus had guns on his boat, and he subjugated these poor natives here -- Pizarro, Con- -- Cortez -- but there was nothing of the direct service to the Church involved, and so they are military men. One, still thinking that he was serving the Church when he actually served conquest of the world; and the discoverer is clearly secular, military, and in the process discovers new continents, and new oceans, and new islands. Very different from an explorer, gentlemen. An explorer usually goes without guns, and without ammunition, and without -- certainly without soldiers on board. And the fact that Admiral Byrd is down in the Antarctic and has the title of Admiral doesn't {alter} the fact that he is a very -- a gentlemen from Virginia. He is not an admiral while he is there exploring the Antarctic. Heaven forbid, because otherwise he would come to blows with the Russians in the Antarctic. They are all disarmed there.

Now nobody ever thinks of putting four -- two and two together. And it is quite unknown in your textbooks, because your textbooks, you see, have this absurd history that there is the Renaissance, which makes a total break. And

what you have in your minds is a hodge-podge of a history. You have a -- here, the Greeks, and then you have the Church, and then you have the Renaissance, or the modern nations, power policy -- I don't know what it's called. But the funny thing for you is, of course, that from 500 of our era, to 1500 there were the famous Dark Ages in which nothing reasonable for an American man happened, which is utter -- the utter negation of history.

I got a paper to- -- I gave a paper back today. This gentlemen has this -- this same notion that there is no history, that it's always the same. My whole devo- -- devotion to history comes from the fact that I wanted to heal this gap in your own consciousness, between 500 and 1500, between the Greeks and the Renaissance, and -- it is very hard going with you, because you still have this superstition all in -- everybody in America -- that from 500 to 1500, the world went backward. And one hasn't to know these things. Things become interesting again and progressive in the secular age of the Reformation, or of the Renaissance, or of some such like, or the discovery of America. I hope that if you really take to heart these eight people, these groups of characters, that you will see that man has been very creative, that he has found for every 200 or 250 years a new type of man to signal the task. In this country, we worship invention. We worship physicists at this moment, and so on, you see. But that's a very temporary matter.

For the last 250 years, the inventors have come into their own, so you forget the bloodshed and the wars that have enabled now the inventors to invent. Only in Saudi Arabia are we a little bit aware of the fact that after all you can't have oil and -- without a little bit of power politics. But the -- aspect, as with the Egyptian, or with the Jewish Bible, I -- I tried to show you that every one great task in humanity offers different aspects and asks for a different emphasis at a different moment, although the task remains the same. Egypt is Egypt, whether Osiris is worshiped, or Horus. The Jews are the Jews, whether Moses writes the five books of Moses, or whether the last prophet, you see, proclaims repentance for the imitation of the Egyptians inside Israel. It is the same problem to keep Israel as a witness to the real God, and to the real future of mankind alive. With the Church, the same thing, gentlemen. King Charlemagne, in his day and age -- of 800, or King Alfred -- were needed, as much as St. Stephen was needed at the moment when the Church was not visible, because the Lord had gone, and people yet had not found the form of expressing the existence of the Church. So he went and said, "You have killed the Son of God." And they stoned him. And it says in the New Testament, "Whereupon the Church grew and scattered all over the world."

Can you see this, gentlemen, then you have learned to have a little faith in history. If you stick to any one of these types and say, "My ideal is only a martyr,"

or "My ideal is only a monk," or "My ideal is only St. Augustine," or "My ideal is only Christoph Columbus," or "My ideal is Mr. Einstein," you are a secular mind. That is, you have cut yourself off from the river of life, from the tree of life, because you see only -- what is secular, gentlemen? Something that is by itself. "Secular" comes from secare, be- -- being of just one time, and being cut off, like sex. You see, a man has sex, because he is just cut off from his fulfillment by the other half of his -- of the human species. The word "sex" is a very trivial word. It means being halved, being cut into pieces. In Plato's myths, it is very nicely said that the people were originally round, and then they were cut into two parts, and he says we have the navel for this reason. You see, that we had to be sewed up after we had been divided.

So the secular view, gentlemen, and the spiritual view of history will always be antagonistic, because the -- a secular ma- -- mind thinks that "there are discoverers. I like discoverers. I hate crusaders." A man of spirit cannot afford this. He knows that the discoverers stem from the crusaders. They are all there. One begets the other, may be. But you cannot have -- the one thing without the other. But you are all secular, and so you think you can just indulge in your favorites. But you would never get a president if every of the 48 states only had a favorite son, and wouldn't vote for anybody else. But most -- it's -- most modern men are so very boring because they have hobbies in their mind. You all have just tastes, predilections.

I had a f- -- a young -- a student once, who was a Communist. And I sent him to a school to -- to just inform himself what was going on. And he happened to go -- get into the -- instruction of the Catholic priest, in -- in -- in religion. And the Catholic priest taught that -- the children on that day the famous command, "Thou shalt not kill." It was after the First World War. And my young Communist, who was a carpenter in his -- in his private life -- and already married, had a very nice child -- came to me in -- in great disgust and said, "That's incredible. He teaches `they shall not kill.' He has no right to do this. These -- the Catholic Church has blessed the First World War. And the weapons have been blessed by the priest. I -- they can't do this."

I said, "What shall -- should they teach? What should they teach?"

Now, he was very angry with me, and so I finally said to him, "To you, everything that exists seems to be obnoxious to you. Would you kindly tell me what you understand by capitalism?" Because he also said the priest was just a servant of capitalism.

And he simply said, "Capitalism is everything I dislike."

He was honest. Now in the same sense, we have, for the last 10 years, indulged in this wishful thinking and said, "Communism is everything I dislike." It's the same thing, just the other way around, you see. And that's secular thinking. That is secular thinking. Organic thinking means that you must understand why you are guilty for Communism, why without Communism this country would be sound asleep and dissolving at this moment, disintegrating. It has kept us alive, our enemy. It's -- always does, and in Christianity, the enemies are to be loved. That's not secular thinking, gentlemen. And all these people, you see, when they came into being, they had to oppose another way of life. But they -- these people did it lovingly. They knew that the others were right, too. And yet they were not the only way of living, you see. St. Augustine would have achieved nothing if he had insisted on being a martyr, under Julian Apostator, or some other -- some other still-pagan power. And they had to do in life what these people did by their death. These people -- monks had to copy stolidly, one manuscript after the other, you see, after -- and they had to be satisfied. That was their life. I may venture, perhaps, to give you an example of the man, who -- who to me has always appeared to be a very great witness of this strange tragedy, or strange fate. Well, every one -- we live it, you. I have to teach you, gentlemen. I'm not prepared. I was educated to teach adults. Now here I'm a schoolteacher, in a so-called American low school. After high school, you know, we have this wonderful arrangement in America that after high school follows low school, called "college."

I'm not your teacher, gentlemen, by birth, and by -- in- -- in- -- intention. I have to do it. But it's the wrong arrangement. But this is the time, the machine age. It's the best we can hope for. The time is gone for another type of education. I think we'll get more and more this modern mass man who -- who doesn't care, and is indifferent, and says, "Oh, everything's the same, why should I learn all these diff- -- distinctions? Why should I learn these names, these epochs?" Most of you think it is just nonsense. Or if you don't, because I have convinced you, the mass of the people today just say -- think it makes no difference.

So Cassiodorus, gentlemen, was the chancellor of the western Roman Empire, under a Gothic king, Theodoric, the famous Dietrich of Bern. Theo- -- Theodoric was a Go- -- Goth who -- who governed in Rome around 500. He's quite famous in the -- in the epics as Dietrich, Theodoric. Ravenna was his residence. You may -- it's a very -- I told you about Ravenna, how important it is, last time. Didn't we talk about Ravenna here? And there is his tomb. And Charlemagne was so impressed with this king that he brought his -- his statue to -- to Aix-la-Chapelle, to Aachen, where Charlemagne then is buried. So Theodoric was the king of the epoch right through. Cassiodorus was a famous Roman patrician, and he wrote the -- all the documents for the king. We have them still, and they are models of grand- -- the grandiloquent style of state documents -- everything like the Get-

tysburg Address, you know. And that's his first book. Then he wrote -- then he -- the Gothic kingdom was smashed, by the -- Justinian, and the last Goths were all killed -- Totila, and Teja -- at Naples, around the Vesuv. And Cassiodorus was one of the richest men of his time. He owned tremendous estates in southern Italy, and retired there, and hired a number of people for copying manuscripts. And at first he was writing -- riding quite high, and he was 45 whe- -- by and large when this happened. And he lived another 50 years. He got 99 -- to the age of 99, and he ran this -- this printing press, so to speak, of the time, copying now and saving the heritage of antiquity. His first book was a comment on the New Testament, a theology of the New Testament you may say, an exposition of its doctrine. The second was an emendation of the Psalms. And on he went with his writings, gentlemen, and when he was 92, he wrote a little book on right spelling. That is, this great chancellor of the older world of antiquity, of the pagan world of antiquity, a man -- equipped like St. Augustine, to teach educated people -- had come down after 50 years under Germanic occupation, of tribal occupation, to be satisfied to teach his monks how to spell in the manuscripts, and not to make any mistakes.

And there you see the dignity of such a fate. He did it with good humor and with good sense, and he did it. And we owe him, Cassiodorus, and this -- his famous center of Scyllaci in Southern Italy, in Calabria, we owe the most precious manuscripts of antiquity we have. But this story is a living-backward. And you who are so terribly progressive, gentlemen, it's very hard to understand how a man first can be chancellor, and then he can be a theologian, and finally he ends up in a spelling bee. But that's the true history of the human race.

It's very hard for you to understand that the going backward, seemingly, is just as much in God's will as the going forward. And as long as you think that running, running, running, running, knowing not quite where to, is the content of what you call "progress," you are quite mistaken. There was just as much progress in the later age of Cassiodorus, and perhaps even more than in his early age, when he was na‹ve, and just continued, you see, what had been done before. None -- nobody had asked from the richest man of his time, to keep -- give any care for spelling, but he discovered that he better -- had to, otherwise nobody would. And since he had the means to run this great printing -- this copying shop, where he must have educated hundred of scribes to copy, he said, "Well, I have to do it. I have to write now a book on spelling." Don't you think that's quite a story?

Now, I would think that, gentlemen, that if you think of Cortez and Pizarro -- Pizarro, it is obvious that an explorer is a much more -- less colorful character in a way. He doesn't subjugate and -- the Mexicans, and he doesn't execute Montezuma, but I think in the long run, you will admit that the explorer is a more -- is a

better person than Monsieur Cortez. And -- but he owes Cortez the right -- the power to explore at all, because as long as the world wasn't known -- that it was a globe and was round -- of course, exploration cannot take place, because exploration explores more inside already, you see, a living concern, a large world. But they discovered -- they just didn't know where to go, and therefore the -- the order here again is one of larger -- intimacy. The inventor, who is satisfied to bring down a 2,000-feet oil well on -- in Bahrein, or Kuwait, in the -- in the Arabian Sea, you see, owes everything to the explorers, to the discoverers, and to the Crusaders, whether he knows it or not. But we think he is a civilized man, and he is a Quaker, and he thinks, of course, "No bloodshed," you see. But he can only say, "No bloodshed," because somebody else did it, because otherwise, obviously you and I wouldn't get any oil now from Bahrein.

So I think that is quite impressive. I hope you see this. The development -- I've written up -- of these four types, this constant change -- shift of emphasis, is written up in my maps in the book, Out of Revolution. The first book is a religious map of the world, and then it goes -- gets more secular. And if you look today at these terrible maps which we get in our oil -- filling stations, they're just road maps, you see. Nothing. That's the globe today, just traffic. There are no mountains, hardly rivers, and no vegetation. And they call this a map, too. The first Crusader who went to Jerusalem thought that he went to Jerusalem, because the world had been given to the 12 Apostles. I think in my volume, The West- -- The Driving Power of Western Civilization, there is this map, isn't it? Is it in it? And therefore, because St. Thomas went to India, and -- how is this division? -- Philli- -- Jaco- -- James went to Spain, and Paul to Greece, and Peter to Rome. That's why the world might become one. So that's still strictly, you see -- the Crusaders had in -- in the -- a map of the world that was purely secular. A modern map is one of oil wells, of geolog- -- geology, of roads, of communications. The explorers had a very different map. They had a so-called physical map. And these discoverers -- discoverers, of course, they had maps very carefully about where to expect some shooting. Where, you see, that's -- was important. They had -- Cortez had to know where he would have to have -- meet armed resistance. Again, a -- quite a different map.

Only to show you, gentlemen, the world is known today through maps, but the content of a map even has changed in the last 900 years. Has anybody my book here in class? Well, the -- the map of the 12 Apostles dominated the scene -- the thinking of moder- -- of Amer- -- of the Western world, gentlemen, for 500 years. There was no other world map, but the map which showed that from Jerusalem the 12 Apostles had divided among themselves the u- -- the universe. And you know, there are Thomas-Christians in -- in India to this day, where the Apostle Thomas, for example, went. And I mentioned to you that Matthew went to Abyssinia, and Mark to -- to Egypt.

So you can look even at the world with very different eyes. You have the idea that the world appears the same to all people, gentlemen. It doesn't. I mean, you will not make me believe that the sun is just what the physicists today tell us the sun is. The sun is much more. Poets have known it, and religious people have known it, and I think in your five senses -- at Easter sunrise service, you still know it -- that the sun is not what the physicists tell you it is. That's only a little part of the meaning. It's a perfectly arbitrary way of looking at the sun. In splendid isolation of their own -- all they have in their brain is -- is quantity. Now the sun is not just quantity. The sun has a quality of his own. And qualities are not to be discovered by astronomy. I only want to show you that, that even the -- what you call the "scientific mind" is a very limited mind. It's {only} one aspect of reality. And God may save you ever from being looked upon only through the eyes of a -- scientist, gentlemen. Then you are lost. He'd use you for an -- his experiments.

If you have not a -- woman who loves you and says, "But he's not just a bundle of flesh and bones, but I love him," then you can't live. And if you haven't in the scientist another side to himself, where he says, "He's a human being, I cannot experiment with him," you are lost, too. So the scientific view of the universe isn't just the passing view, gentlemen. It's by and large the explorer's view, or the inventor's view.

And we enter today a third millennium. There's no doubt that in -- by the year 2000, gentlemen, the world will have to have a religion or it will not exist, a different form of our religion. Mankind, society demands -- another group of leadership. You can't live by discoverers and sci- -- inventors, if you want to organize peace. Sheer nonsense to go to Chicago and read the -- read the at- -- atom -- atom bombing peace movement there. I mean, these Chicago scientists. I mean, that's a desperate attempt to pull yourself up by your own bootstraps. First they make the bomb and then they tell us that they're sorry. It's very popular in this country, because you're all a nation of inventors, and you all believe that the inventor is the highest type of humanity. He's just one type in humanity, gentlemen, and he wouldn't exist today if other people hadn't first laid the ghost before.

Now you'll remember, and this is, of course, my task today. I'm not going to deal today with the story of the great upheavals of the last thousand years. This is written up in my book, and I only speak five minutes to this topic. Everybody who wants to know what really happened in the second millennium, in the light of universal history, may read this. What's the principle, then gentlemen, in the second millennium? How have I connected the crusaders, the discoverers, the explorers and the inventors? How do they make any continuum? You think in secular terms, and my friends in the history department see no connection. They

say there were the Middle Ages, and then there were the modern times, and you don't know the Middle Ages. You dismiss them, and you only want to know the modern times, and the newer it is, you think you -- more interesting history is. Gentlemen, that isn't true. History is only interested when it is continuous. Your idea that newer history is more interesting than older history only shows that you don't know what history is. You would be just as interested in any event of the year 12,000 B.C. as in a modern event if you knew what history is. I have tried to show you that they are just as interesting as -- as the crimes that fill the headlines of our papers today. What's interesting in a crime? Most uninteresting thing, I think. We know this, that people deviate, and that they are all the same. The minus in man is always the same. We all have to eat, we all have to shit, we all have to -- to marry, we all have to sleep. Gentlemen, that's not history. In this respect, Mr. {Green}, all people are the same at all times, obviously. No -- nobody has ever doubted that man is an animal that has to be fed. Otherwise he gets very angry. But that's not history.

History is only interested in the transformation without which life cannot exist. And this life is a great life. We call it "great," because it is not the usual life of the isolated man, but it's the life of creating the community, gentlemen. When God had created all the animals, He said, "Now I must have larger units." The animal in itself is -- the lion and the lioness in a pair are complete. Man is not complete as a man and a woman, gentlemen. Man needs bishops, and seers, and prophets, and lawyers, and carpenters, and blacksmiths. That is, we begin only to be men when we do a little more than being ourselves, gentlemen. As far as we are ourselves, we are the same. But as ourselves, we have nothing to say, gentlemen. We -- speech is not given to the self. We only speak in society.

I've tried to show you that speech is between people of a different kind, between the dead and the living, for example. And he -- there is no speech within yourself. Don't try to speak to yourself. You'll go crazy. And don't meditate about yourself. Get a friend who tells you off when you are wrong, and tell him off when he's wrong, and you know each other. That's the only way to live -- of living. Any attempt for self-scrutiny leads to the psychoanalyst. And the whole psychoanalyst is a very important man. He replaces your friend. Since you have no friends, but you go college instead, you have only roommates. So roommates drive you nuts, so you go to the psychoanalyst. But what does the psychoanalyst? He listens to you, so there is somebody to whom you can talk, and that's the whole value of the man. If you would have friends, you wouldn't have to go to the psychoanalyst. But since you have no friends but just, as I said, are chummy with people, you'd better go to the psychoanalyst, of course, because he proves my point, gentlemen, that life begins among humanity only when man ratifies, diversifies, and creates higher units. We are now trying to create one man out of all these millions of men. And we try to graft our- -- our-

selves on -- from the tree of life without which not one of -- all these things which we are talking about would exist.

A holiday is not a man -- a day on which one man celebrates. But a holiday, even the 24th of June, Sir, is a day in which people celebrate together, although they are different. And that's the miracle of a holiday, and that has to be re-created. Nobody can celebrate a day himself. All holidays group people. And they group only people temporarily, because all groups, if they are not treated right, are abol- -- perish. The United States will perish, too, with you people filling the colleges now, indifferent, callous, and perfectly I-don't-care attitudes. How can you have -- keep the United States going? You cannot, because gentlemen, holidays form groups.

If I haven't said this before clearly enough, I'm very sorry. I'm quite upset today because I got a paper in which all this is denied, what I've tried to teach you today -- in this whole course. A holiday is a day of a specific group. And the group is held together by the holiday. Isn't this obvious? Easter is the holiday by which the members of the Church recognize that they are members of the Church. There is no other way. Anybody who denies that Easter is a holiday has ceased to be a member of the Church. You can't be a Christian without Easter. So most people go -- once a year they go on Easter. It's a good day for the ministers. In our church, then even the gallery is packed. They remember on that day, that they do something to themselves -- unless they -- they go there. It's a decision on Easter not to go to church. My -- the rest of the year it's a decision to go to Church.

The reason is, gentlemen, that God created man as the corporation-forming animal. All the bodies of the history which I have given you is the formi- -- forming of bodies, forming of the tribe. One body, you see, with a totem pole, with a tattoo on every body he -- be- -- every member of the tribe carries a sign that he belongs to something bigger than himself, to the spirit of the tribe. In Egypt, the temples show that the sky is like a -- like a blessing, but also like a magic, which limits and cuts out this piece of land as Heaven on earth. In the Church, as I said, it's our -- our admission that a death has created us into life. We are not people in our era who live by ourselves, by our own taste, as we were. Every one of you has cost a lot of suffering. And the essence of a Christian era is that we base our existence not on your inheritance, and not on your fortune, gentlemen. What do I care for the social register? I don't care when you arrived in this country, whether you are already Mayflower people. That's all unimportant. I care for you because you have been dearly bought by the blood of martyrs. You are people who have already received something without any of your merits. Long before you were born, people have already thought of you. That makes you a different people. You are not -- you -- you do not stem from

your loins of your parents, gentlemen, or the womb of your mother. You do not. You are -- come from the spirit, because you have already received direction, you know what's all about, not by your own merit at all, but because somebody took the trouble to die for you in advance. And then you tell me there is no history.

So we form bodies through time and through space. Today one kind of people found the United Nations, the biggest corporation, they think, over the globe. Gentlemen, I think that's a mis- -- a misunderstanding. The first units will be very small, that have to reform. They will be units between gen- -- two or three generations, because that has been destroyed. And that's what the -- our American youth does today. And it's a great -- with great reverence that I bring -- to your attention that you at least at this moment are, without your knowledge, serving the spirit, the Holy Spirit, by founding these large families. That's a new thing. It goes against the statistics of the world historians.

As you know, the spirit of the world said that in America by {1955}, the majority of the families would have died out. They would have no children, and the older people would outnumber the younger. And you also know that they were fortunately defied, these pro- -- predicters of doom, and that in America, there is this tremendous increase in -- in childbirth. And there are 4 million people born in the United States at this moment. Gentlemen, that's one of those miracles of recovery of the spirit. And that the family is a spiritual unit is proven by the fact that it has absolutely nothing to do with the will of man. The will is always unspiritual. Or intention. But it's a different climate. If people in big corporations work, they must have some space where to love -- live and love, and create something. So they create these large families because their job is so boring.

And so the answer to the world history, gentlemen, today is a new history of human society. And I do think that we will, in the next 200 years, have a tremendous, new problem. On the one-hand side, there will be the world historians and the world thinkers who want still to have the United Nations. It doesn't work. It's a paper thing. And on the other side, will serious people who -- like the hermits, or like the martyrs, or like the -- go into a small -- in a small way forward and say, "How can children and parents be of one spirit, although the woman works in one factory, the husband works in a bank, the son goes to college, and the girl wears a bikini?" What's the spirit between these four people? They're just a bundle of people who don't belong. "My family cramps my style." That's the { } today, gentlemen. Get -- just separate. It's the best advice one give -- can give to most families in the '30s. And they did separate. It's called "divorce." The family was an absolutely meaningless thing, because it was considered a contract between two contemporaries, gentlemen.

Now the family, the tribe, the society of the future, which is the Tribe of tribes,

has only one first interest: how can parents and children be of one spirit? How can a mother and a daughter be of one spirit? How can a mother and a son be of one spirit? How can a daughter and a father be of one spirit? Gentlemen, as you know, nature has provided a secret there. It is easy for a father to get on with his daughter. And it's easy for a mother to get on with her son. That's nature. But what nature cannot give is one spirit between a father who is a banker and a son who is a professor. Or one spirit between a daughter who is married, and a mother, who is Mrs. Luce. That's difficult. Emancipated women and their daughters -- that's quite a problem. What do you do with mothers who went to college and have destroyed all faith, no longer teach their children how to pray, and think they are very wise? Gentlemen, the children must pray. If the mother doesn't teach it to them, they'll run away from their mother and curse their mother. And if you have now large families, with these college graduates as mothers, you'll run into quite a problem. All these girls -- the little girls will come to their mother and say, "My dear mother. I want to go to church." And the mother will not know what to say, because she has no idea what that is all about. She has learned that it's all nonsense.

This is the modern problem, gentlemen: that the parents are unbelievers, and the children will believe. Where there are four and five children, the spirit must be re-created, because five children cannot be children if they have not one spirit. If the mother works and the father works, you can't have five children. The spirit has to be testified to, in one language, in one prayer. You have to have the same good and evil, the same future. What is spirit, gentlemen? To have the same future at heart. Now how can children have the same future with a man raised -- for their father who only is going -- making money and the mother who is only the clerk of the {Ski News}? It's impossible. So they have their own spirit. They begin to form a -- a tribe. That's what happened in Europe with the youth movement. They became tribal without their parents. That's Hitler. Hitler is not an accident, gentlemen. Hitler is the answer to liberal parents, who wouldn't speak to their pa- -- pa- -- to their children about God, or about the future, or about anything. They were -- they were golf club Christians, or country club Christians. Here in this country, in Kansas City, I went to Kansas City. I just told it Mr. {Mellon} at lunch that he -- I -- I was amazed that God has still pity with Kansas City, because there is a country club with a church inside. That's the limit. You can only be a member of this church if you are a member of the country club.

(Sir? Is there enough problem, say, where you have a -- the spirit exists in a family. And the daughter goes off and marries a man, who in other words -- starting another spirit which is in conflict with the first.)

All right, Sir. As long as there as there is spirit, it can be translated. Spirit is al-

-- kept alive by translation. In every generation we re-translate. When Emerson ceased to be a minister, he became Emerson, you see, a transcendentalist. He translated the spirit of the Church, you see, into humanism. And here you are in the college, a good Emersonian. A college is, the -- hundred years later, the outcome of Emerson's conversion from, you see, being a minister in Boston to being a seer -- a sage in Concord. You have heard of -- of Emerson, have you? Now, if this --


Well, you never can tell.

And therefore, if this girl has experienced the spirit of their par- -- her parents, nothing is wrong. She will re-translate it. But if she has been brought up in a dispirited home, in a decadent home, in a degenerate home, in a divorced home, you see, then she has to rediscover the spirit, and there's great danger that she has to become a Jehovah's Witness, or Christian Scientist, or any such cheap thing, just for the moment, to have something immediately. Gentlemen, the spirit is only true when people of different sex, and different age, and different mind serve in this spirit. To do the same thing is not to be of one spirit. The whole problem of the organic life of mankind is that while I do one thing, you can do something else. That's the important problem of creation, gentlemen. We are made over by the people who depend on us and on whom we depend. All the time we articulate. And what is "articulate," gentlemen? You say, "I'm -- I'm inarticulate." Of course, you are inarticulate. How can you expect, in a century of equality to be anything but inarticulate? If all people are equal, they have nothing to say to each other. Everybody thinks alike. Everybody has -- at -- at luncheon in the -- in the -- in the Hanover Inn, they now serve a pure protein plate. So instead -- one having chicken and the other salmon, they all have protein plates. Now that's science, you see. But -- and that's equal, and that's boring. And suddenly, if I eat protein plates, I have nothing to talk about anymore.

Gentlemen, equality makes all people superfluous, because if we are all equal, then one is more than enough of the whole species. The others can be wiped out. Equals are not necessary, gentlemen. Every one, however, wants to be necessary. And he can only be necessary if he is different -- he fills a different gap in the armor of time of his society. Every one of us craves to be a little different, so that you -- you get your own name. You are unusual, if the last -- first thing you have to tell -- a girl, so that she may listen to you. If she's just one of the girls, she's not interesting. You have to tell her that she's different.

Now gentlemen, this -- all this was hidden in the last 40 years, because people had two or one child. If you have one or two childs, you -- the -- the people --

these children were very poorly off. They were decadent, and they stammered, and so on. But they are one individual, and so the problem of the spirit was not burning, but 10 years from now it will be very different when in every home you have the problem of four, five, six brats howling.

And they have to ha- -- either one spirit, or form no family. And it will be either curse or blessing. And I think we will enter a -- a time of terrible -- terrible things. Juvenile delinquency will sou- -- seem very little, because there will be many abortive such attempts of having large families. The chil- -- the parents just aren't equipped to do that.

I warn you, gentlemen: your greatest task is not to make money. And your greatest task is not to get on in promotion. They'll take care of that, because they are so afraid of you. But while the big corporations are stifling all your ambitions and imagination, in most people quite instinctively the interest has -- has shifted toward the family, to the raising of a large family. And the problem is: what is then the life in such a family, you see, that binds these people so much together that the parents can, for example -- bear children again with a firm faith in our family there are no divorces? There will -- we will -- will have to be very catholic, very universal, and very generous in this respect. I had -- always like to t- -- I think I have told the story about the lady in Pittsburg, the couple in Pittsburg, did I? Wie? I did. Well, that's an example of the spirit, because where there is the spirit, it is possible that the husband works at home and the woman makes the money in town, you see, because the spirit enables, you see, these people to love each other, although they do not fill the required position -- he of the breadwinner, and she of the housewife. He -- although they exchanged their roles in this case, you see, and she went downtown because he couldn't take it and he worked at home, they were still husband and wife. And there was still a family. You find that in every family -- many children, where there is a great catastrophe, where the father has to go to jail, or something terrible like that, there is usually a great spirit. Catastrophes do not interrupt family feelings. Money does. Cocktail parties do. All the ways you live, gentlemen. They des- -- you destroy your family. But not -- not -- criminals, or sick people, or -- or unemployed people, or poor people. They have a glorious time. The only thing that fami- -- the spirit cannot stand is riches. Wealth is the death of life. Security is the death of life. Don't ask for it.

But we want recognition. That's not wealth, gentlemen. Everybody wants to recognize -- be recognized by his friends. Children want to be recognized by their parents. And the greatest problem is: can ch- -- parents be recognized by their children? Sometimes I think this is the most cruel country I know, because parents are not recognized by their children. I think that -- this is -- may hit the surface of things, and that gratitude is not so rare as it would seem to me after 2-

-- teaching you for 23 years. It is a fact that no student ever returns to me, but they all returned to their classmates. They have been my friends, and they have not been the friends of their classmates. But they only return to see their classmates after 20 years. They never come to my house, because the social routine is so organized that they must see their pals. They must keep up their social contacts. But for gratitude, that doesn't exist.

Now gentlemen, there is a strange prophecy in the New Testament which is still unfulfilled, and which I think is the theme of the third millennium. And it will be a long story.

The last prophet of the Israelites saw very clearly that it was miraculous, a social problem, to bind the children to the faith of their parents. As you know, the Jews have, for a -- thousands of years, done just that. You were a Jew, as much as your parents, although you had a direct relation to your maker, you pray to Him not through your father at all. But, just the same, they were in li- -- kept in line. But the last prophet was a man called Malachi. You may not have even heard his name. The smallest, and the last of the prophets. Is only three chapters, I think, or four chapters, of his text in the Bible. But it is the 24th book of the Bible -- of the Old Testament, and it contains therefore the program of the New Testament. Now one-half of this prophecy was fulfilled with the coming of Christ. The other half is yet -- as yet unfulfilled. That's very strange. We have still something to live for.

(What's the prophecy again, Sir?)

I haven't said it, yet. What a bad conscience he must have, because he has slept!

Well, it is very strange, again, since everything is done in church to break up all continuity. And -- they always make sermons on two verses, which is perfectly meaningless. They never tell you any connection between the Old and New Testament. The Apos- -- Matthew however, wrote then his whole new -- Gospel, as you know, as an explanation of Genesis. He begins, "The genesis." That's the first word of his -- of his -- Matthew. You cannot understand the New Testament without the Old Testament, because it fulfills the prophecies of old. And so the -- Malachi said very simply, gentlemen, "I shall turn there -- I shall turn the hearts of the parents to their children, and the hearts of the children -- of the children to their parents. If this does not happen, the world -- the earth will be cursed and will perish."

Now when Jesus came, He was the first whose parents turned their hearts to Him. He allow- -- Mary allow- -- that's the story of Ma- -- the relation of -- the

cult of the Virgin is nothing sentimental. I'm sorry to say that most people today have denaturalized her. It is the greatness of this mother that she allowed her son to convert her, to make her a member of the Church. It's a miracle, that the mother is taken where the son goes. In your case it's all the opposites; you stay where your mother is. But she went with Him into a new realm. She didn't remain an Israelite. She is the mother inside the Church. That's her story, but -- and -- with great fight, as you know. First, she thought He was insane, and she wanted to keep Him away from His message; and she wanted to prevent Him, as good mothers go. Then she came around and became the mother of His brother John.

That's the story, gentlemen, of the turning of the hearts of the parents to their children. That has been fulfilled. I think that in the 19th century, you can say that -- as I told you about Mark, arriving in China, in 1685, because there was another empire to be converted. People had ever heard of Judaism, of -- there was -- were no Jews in China. So Mark could be preached in China without the Old Testament, so to speak. In the same sense, gentlemen, the 19th century has only become the totally Christian century, because I think Joseph and Mary were the normal type of American parents in the 19th century. Without their knowing it, the sacrifices to which your parents have gone to put you through college are just amazing. And what does it mean, gentlemen? When a parent who does- -- isn't gone to college, a businessman, or a janitor, or a railroad worker, or any little clerk or worker, sends his child to college, he loses this child spiritually. The child gets emancipated. The child has different ideas, and therefore, the parents have only the hope that they may, perhaps, go with the child into this new world. But they can never hope to have their son, or even their daughter, you see, in the same spirit back again. You have never thought of that spiritual agony. I don't speak of money, you understand. I don't speak of -- of you not taking over the father's business anymore, the farm, at home, and they -- you becoming a lawyer or -- or something else, you see. I mean something much more seriously the divorce. The spiritual divorce.

For the last hundred years, every boy who came to college was jettisoned. That is, he would not go back to the small town, and he would not be -- again be a Methodist -- a Methodist faithful. He would join the Unitarian Church, or the Episcopal Church, if he went -- became rich. There has been going on a tragedy for the last 150 years in the Ch- -- in this country, because the parents have turned their hearts to their children, but not vice versa. Not at all. It was unknown, the father -- the -- the -- the whole enlightenment thinks the progress consists in that the children no longer believe what their parents believe. Isn't that so the story? It is the normal course of events that the parents have still some remnants of faith, and the children have less, and then the grandchildren have still less, you see. At the end is the cremation. And it's mechanic. And you -- you

-- you are cremated, and they still lie on their old cemetery, your grandparents. That's progress here in this country. It's a funny kind of progress, this running away of the spirit that has begotten you and has sacrificed for you.

Gentlemen, that's very serious. It can't go on like that. Your new founding of families is an argument and demonstrate that you feel that it cannot go on. Anybody who is already thinking of getting engaged at this moment, gentlemen, knows that he does not want his children to run away from him. You have been to college, and you know that it is very empty, and that if you want a child, you get more empty still, you will have invent even something more absurd than psychoanalysis to cure them, because psychoanalysis is just an attempt to -- to do something about this ridiculous disunity between the generations. Your parents have become a woman and a man, instead of being your parents. Where there is one spirit, gentlemen, nobody has any Freudian complex. Freud is only possible where there is no family. It's -- I think -- but it has been said, I mean, he is the -- just the ghost of late capitalism, because it's just a disintegration of the family which he glorifies, and says "that's normal."

Now how does one -- second half of the prophecy, Sir, who asked me this? -- you -- then runs: can you turn the heart of the children to the parents? As you know, our Lord did just this. He said, "I cannot become the Son of my Father in Heaven, before I have not fulfilled all my duties against my parents as Jews on earth." So He went to the Cross, because His people on earth -- the older generation -- demanded it. And before you can afford to become a son, you have first to fulfill the requirements, so to speak. Pay the penalty. That's not certainly the -- the positive solution, but He showed very seriously that it isn't so simple to be -- to be a free agent and to do what you think is right. First you have to pay the toll, the mortal toll of still being the son of Israel. The per- -- His perfection, by the way, shines out in this -- in this double game that He's the first whose heart is turned to the parents, and in this sense, He has anticipated the year 2000.

Gentlemen, if there is -- the world is discovered; and it is, despite the satellites, and the march- -- Martian men in 1984. The world is discovered. And the Church is known, and it is split into so many little fragments, that you can't do very much more about the Church. Then obviously the human society is today a tremendous and dignified task. And therefore you are the first generation, or your children are -- it depends on your own decision when it will happen -- in which there is nothing gained by running forward -- wildly, madly. There is nothing to be gained. You know it all. It will be less and less Church, and more and more free-masonry, and more and more philately, and more and more Cadillacs. It's so boring, you know. There's nothing -- no future in you. The miracle which you have to perform is to recreate the spirit with the people ha- -- that have gone before you.

Progress is out, gentlemen, in your sense, technological progress. Frontier is out. You cannot invent anything in the world any more of any great interest. The only interest, the only field of action, the miraculous new foundation of the universe can only come when, against all expectations, some among us have the power to wait until they can act in two generations. I think anything today decays which one man in one -- his own time only wants to undertake. It's not important. He can do it, he can not do it. He can hire a -- rent a desk in {Fiveth} -- 5th Avenue in New York as they do, you know, for a big thing -- "Reform of The Universe," or "Association against Vivisection," all these societies which we have to fight, and to promote, and to reform city government and so, to me they are all children of doom. They are children of the world. They are children of one generation. They are children of the spirit of the times. Gentlemen, a man becomes interesting to me if I see that he has that much faith, that he is convinced that what he has to do will have to be done by people in the next generation as well. That does not mean that they have to think alike, I assure you. But the spirit has to be the same.

I've given you an example of this transformation of the spirit in the external act. It doesn't mean that people do the same, but that they continue. One of you ...

[Tape interruption]

... founded the first modern hospitals in the heart of Egypt, which at that time was of course a run-down country, with a terrible Turkish government, and nothing of any hygiene or medicine. It's in Asyut. It's still flourishing. And the man lived there from 1874 to 1910. Became very famous, and he demanded that his son again should become a dentist. The son wanted to be a full-fledged doctor. And so when he was a dentist, he was very successful at the court of the king of Egypt, and he had all the modern diplomats there. He told me about all the leading people in diplomacy who had been his clients when they -- when serving Egyp- -- in Cairo. And since he hadn't become a doctor, he one day gave it up and became the representative of {Socony Vacuum} in Cairo. And I've been to his house in {Mahadi}, the sub- -- fashionable suburb, the Scarsdale of Cairo, and -- and the people are just as terrible there, as they are in { }. And that's the second generation. The third generation, his son, after the usual divorce from his fourth wife -- first wife, became married again, and they set out to go to Jiddah, this devil's port of Saudi Arabia, as the agent for our government, as a diplomatic agent. They had some flowers sent to them from New York -- artificial flowers, of course, because no real flowers can survive in this heat there. And he has to weigh every week the $4 and-a-half million in bullions which we send to incite the next war in the Near East; the payment for the oil, we say. So he is in- -- the to- -- involved in the total folly of the world, just the world. The -- the most silly

thing that happens at this time is what the Americans have done over the last 50 years to prepare their own defeat. And now comes the story.

The father who founded Asyut was very sad that his boy went into business. He still saw this happening, and said, "But that's not the spirit in which I came to Egypt. I didn't come here to make money, but to bring the Gospel."

The father said, "Well, but I'm not interested in being a dentist. Therefore why shouldn't I make money and have a nice house in {Mahadi}?"

And so the son went in diplomacy, as you all want to go into the foreign office -- foreign depart- - what do you call -- how do you call this? -- state department. And that was the gospel when Mr. Dickey became president: go to the state department. That was Christianity in American terms. Foreign policy. GI, as you know. The Great Issue came about in the same way, state department. Now Mr. -- Mr. Henry III, of whom I'm speaking, was exactly in line with this way of thinking. The country must be saved by people who go into the state department. Gentlemen, there's nothing to save in the state department.

When I came to the state department after I had been to Germany, I reported there. First day, I only found a lady who served at the typewriter. The rest of -- the gentleman was absent. They always are. And the next day I went there to report -- tried to report on my trip to Germany, and we -- we talked for half an hour, and at the end, the man said to me, "Tell me, are you going or are you coming from Germany?"

That's the state department.

It's a mistake, gentlemen. It's the world. World history has taken over even the missionaries at this moment, and so now I've got to give you the details of Mr. Henry, the man in business, and Mr. Henry, the -- the man in diplomacy.

When I met Mr. Henry, Sr., the man in -- in the -- in -- in {Socony} first, he and his wife declaimed that the son was on top of the world, his career was made, and it was a wonderful thing. They are very pro-Arab. They hate the Jews, and so the Henry family felt very good that he was serving with this despot there, this Ibn Saud. And then, in the meantime I went to Luxor, to Thebes, and to Aswan, and they went -- flew from Cairo to Jiddah, across the Red Sea. And so, when I came north again, they came west again, back, and so I came to their -- went to their house again, had lunch there. I've never seen two such crestfallen people. These people said, "That's a scandal. Our boy is totally -- abused. It shouldn't be done. We shouldn't arm these scoundrels day- -- every day. He has to see it {with the seeing eye}. He has to give them the means of destruction. He

knows it, but he's just an employee of the state department, so of course he has to carry out their foolish policies."

And -- they -- they were just commiserating with me, about the calamity, that their good boy, with all his gifts, had fallen into this trap. Now that's the usual story, gentlemen, when the world takes over. You go -- the father is a missionary. The son is usually a college professor or something like that. And then Nelson Rockefeller gives the -- the son again a job in business, and then they go into diplomacy, gentlemen, and the fourth generation sees the next world war. That's not the way you serve the Lord. But you have -- thought that all automatically this can't be helped. When a man believes in one generation, the son must believe less. That was -- called "liberal." All liberal thinking in America is of this stupid stuff, that people are superstitious because they are old, and they are no longer superstitious when they are young. I've never believed this, gentlemen, and so I'm a little bit out of place. I'm a very unfashionable gentleman. I'm -- because I have never believed that there -- that there is such a trend to -- to enlightenment, you see. The problems are the same in every generation. Exactly the same. There's nothing to -- to -- to believe less in one generation than in a previous generation. You can purify your { }, but you have to believe more than your father, not less.

But that's a na‹ve superstition, gentlemen. In every family, where there is still world -- the world history going on in most coun- -- families in this country is -- but I do feel that as soon as a man decides to have four, five, six children, he no longer can afford this, this na‹ve belief. With one child obviously, the one child is -- feels superior to the two parents. But then you are -- have five children, then you wonder: what will make peace -- how will they be sisters and brothers? Why shouldn't they commit incest? Incest is very modern.

As you know, the tribes -- to come back to my universal history -- the tribes forbade incest. They discovered the intensity of all passion. And they said -- St. Augustine has wonderfully expressed it, "Incest is forbidden, because where there already one name for a person, she cannot be loved as love must love with a new name." If you called already a sister {"Sister,"} you can't go to bed with her, obviously, you see, because she is not a new person to you. You have already met her in a lukewarm state of affection, of warmth. So the new heat cannot be kindled, which is necessary for the propagation of the race. Now that means, gentlemen, that you have to have laws in a family, and a spirit of discipline. We have reached a state not only that Mr. Gide took his -- his -- his boy with him, his homosexual love- -- sweetheart to every party in Paris, but that Mr. Thomas Mann wrote a book in a private printing in which he described the incest committed by his own wife with her brother. I don't understand how any decent person can read Mr. Thomas Mann. But in this country, it's {wonderful}.

The more it stinks, the more you read it.

Incest, today, gentlemen, is the turning point. Homosexuality, too. If you become a homosexual, you are Greek. All right. Then you must know what you are doing. Just a Greek, barely, not a baptized Greek. If you are -- you commit incest, you see, you have reached the limit out of which all life in mankind had to emerge: the limit of accident, the limit of impotence. Gentlemen, the tribes knew, when they forbade incest, what did they know? I have saved this up for the end. I could have told you in the beginning -- that names must run like a shiver through us, of new life, when we first call out a name. When you meet a girl, she can only be your sweetheart if this is the first moment that you see her. If you have seen her all your life, you see, it's not the same thing. And St. Augustine said, "How can I marry my mother, or my sister? I have already called her `Mother,' and `Sister.' Therefore a name of love must be fresh, must be new."

Now gentlemen, if in this country, where everybody says, "I don't care," where you marry for -- get engaged in five minutes, and take six months to buy a car, when you want to intensify life again, you must draw the line between inside the family and outside. That's the first thing. How you do it, your business. But five children inside a family are not just five brats, five individuals. They belong to one body, with one language, and one tongue, you see. They can only be happy if there is an absolute distinction with being "my sister" and "the other girl." Now you may say, "Well, that's not -- no -- not a problem in my -- in my family. I've never run into incest." Gentlemen, you don't know this. Look in your literature. Look into Mourning Becomes Electra, by Mr. O'Neill. Look everywhere, every -- Oedipus complex. Incest is the theme today of destruction. That's why psychoanalysis is so na- -- so stupid, because Mr. Freud hasn't given one thought to the tremendous discipline of naming. He doesn't know anything about speech. He's ignorant. He's a natural scientist. But you all think that Freu- -- Mr. Freud is not a devil, but a great angel. He is not. He doesn't know what it is to hear for the first time a new name called over your head. And you -- be allowed to call somebody for the first time, and see into her what this name implies -- a novelty, an encounter, a future which has not existed before. If you cannot create a new future, gentlemen, you have no right -- no power to marry. You will be mentally impotent. You will have no authority over your children. And the two things go together, gentlemen. Only a husband who has the power to give his wife her own name, so that she feels that nobody has ever called her with her right name before can have the potency to be- -- stay the father of these five children. But you have to, if you don't want to make your ch- -- your daughters miserable, and your sons, even more; because these children depend on your power to bestow on them a spirit in which they speak. They have to learn English, and not basic English, gentlemen. Not basic English. But high English, the highest, the English by which they can invoke and implore another person to

join them, by which they can found a family again. Basic English is just devilish English. It's the Devil's English.

It's not consumer's English, only; it's also consumption English. You are all con- -- on the consumptive line of the spirit. Less and less spirit, you call this "liberal."

There you have the -- our connection with antiquity. All renaissances, gentlemen, must select. What the ancient tribes have done, we need: the spirit. How they have done it, we can't have -- bloody sacrifice. The old -- the Tribe of tribes, you see, cannot inherit bloody sacrifice. All tribes had the warpath. All tribes had -- altars on which they sacrifice. And you will find a great temptation. Hitler already began to make bloody sacrifices. Mr. D. H. Lawrence, who has written a book, The Woman That Rode Away, describes how a decadent American woman is used to re-invigorate the tribal life of a Mexican group. Have you read it? Who has read Woman That Rode Away? Well, it's a very -- eye-opener.

Gentlemen, when we renovate a part of the past, when we invented the Greek renaissance, we got slavery. We had to keep the capitol with the golden dome, and the Greek tragedy, but we had to throw out slavery. Yet it was in this country for 350 years. It was the price we paid for the renaissance of Greece. There was no slavery in the Middle Ages. The Renaissance was a very expensive thing, because we took the bad with the good. At this moment, gentlemen, Mr. Hitler, and the concentration camps of the Nazis, and the Communists show you that you can also go back to tribalism, you see, and get the bad with the good, because in a concentration camp, you treat your captives as they treated their prisoners of war. You slaughter them.

So that's the wonderful thing, gentlemen. Life remains as dangerous as it -- always has been. It is up to you discern the spirits, to make this distinction between what you can learn from antiquity, and what you must omit. If you want to stay in the Christian era, you know that the tribe has founded family, and we have to learn how to do it. But you also know that the tribes overstepped their mark, because they had infinite warfare and used every foreigner as -- just as captive, sacrificial flesh, as victim, on their altars. Therefore the decision is clear: we have to get the energy of founding families back from the rituals of the tribe, from the ways they got married, from the ways they -- the children and parents stuck to each other. We have to avoid all their pitfalls. But it isn't different, gentlemen, from all renaissances. When the Church took over the Psalms of the -- Israel, they didn't go back to circumcision. They didn't go back to the whole law. But they did go back to the best, the prophecy of Israel. They kept the pure spirit of the Old Testament. And it is still with us. And the same is true in this college. If you would under -- only understand that you are here to learn

{groat} poetry, and not -- as you wrote in the other course, in your papers, that nobody in -- in -- in -- in this college could be expected to be interested in literature, poetry. If you don't do this, gentlemen, you dishonor what we had from the Greeks, the poetical sense. We know what poetry is only from the Greeks. We know what prayer is only from the Jews. We know what a family is only from the tribes. The Egyptians committed incest. The Greeks had homosexuality. And the Jews were silent. But from the tribes, we know the poetry of the dance. Think of these wonderful dances of all these Indian tribes, you see. They know how to court -- what courtship is, and wooing. They are not interested {in blues-jazz}. They have much better things. They dance, really, because they dance the whole community dances, not just two, with cutting in. Dance is not competitive in such a group, gentlemen, in the -- in your sense of the word.

Now, so every one of these old forms, gentlemen, has to be restored, and selected, and purified. And every one of us can abuse it and use it right. The man who had slaves also believed like an old Greek, but in the wrong manner. And the man who philosophized, or wrote poetry, or read poetry, or built a beautiful statehouse acted right in his selection of the Greek values which we still need. And I invite you, gentlemen, if you keep your eyes open, you will see terrible things happen, and you will see wonderful things happen. Incest will be -- they will say, "Why not?" The psychoanalyst already says so. Why not? What's -- what? He -- he cannot argue, you see. He doesn't know about the power of speech. I have tried to tell you, gentlemen, that man begins where we speak into each other, into our mutual roles. When I call my sweetheart "my wife," and she calls me my husba- -- "her husband," then we begin to live. Before, we are nobodies. And this has -- is lost at this moment. "Honey, wash the dishes." That's what you can hear in an American household. That's the end of life. "Honey" and "wash the dishes" has nothing to do with each other, gentlemen. It shows that people in this country no longer hear what they say. "Honey, wash the dishes." It must end in divorce. Ja?

(Sir, this spirit that's {going to bind} the children by the parents -- is that a spirit of duty or is it affection?)

The spirit runs through all devotions, you see. First day, I marry for love, you see. And then a part of my functions in the house become my duties. But they all have as -- as their origin love, you see. All laws or -- are the remnants of love, if they are rightly built, you see. That you -- we go to -- celebrate Easter is law, is a duty. That we love Christ is not a duty. It's an experience. So duties are always a second step of a -- or any love. If you marry, you will undertake a number of duties, don't you, to support your wife, and so on. To stay with her, and so. So don't -- don't see this as an absolute outside. All second-rate ways of life can be lived if they are recognized as being later stages of the original -- genius that

begot them, you see? We fulfill nu- -- innumerable duties in the households, because we married for love. That's called incarnation, Sir. The process of incarnation transforms the ways of the spirit, all the time. The spirit begins in freedom. And it ends in law. That's just what it is. Ja?

Gentlemen, my whole story has been one of incarnation. When we speak, gentlemen, we call things into life. You don't believe this. That is your poverty. The modern man has lost the simple faith that the spirit comes down to earth. But he does, all the time. You say it first, and then things are created. The Bible begins, "Let there be light, and there was light." And that's simply true, gentlemen. There is nothing else to be said about the whole history of mankind, that first love, and freedom, and imagination say it, and then we do our duty to have it come true. And that takes suffering; it takes martyrdom; it takes fathers; it takes monks; it takes kings; it takes crusaders; it takes explorers; it takes discoverers; it takes inventors; and now it takes founders of families. Can't you see this, or is it too difficult?

So your question shows that you are still -- you do not see that all laws are the sedimentation of free creation. Anybody who has experienced love knows that it comes first; it's a new beginning. Just make use of your best experience in your own life. The highest experience cannot be used by the lower experience. If you ever in your life had a bright idea, or a new instinct, or a new change of heart, Sir, make this the cornerstone of your understanding of the universe and you will understand that the universe begins with creation. And it ends in incarnation, because that's the experience of every potent and creative man in the world. But you look outside and try to deduce by your little brain, not by your experience of your heart how the world begins, and how it should be run. You'll never solve it, gentlemen. You'll remain a selfish, inarticulate animal. If the spirit moves you, you will see how simple things are, gentlemen. Love begins, and hope keeps you going, and faith. And in the end, your grandchildren will bless you.

Thank you.