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{word} = hard to understand, might be this

Let's round out this scheme of history. Has anybody ever seen -- or owns, perhaps a little chronology called The Little Ploetz -- famous German book translated into American slang. It is better than 1066 And All That. Who has -- who knows 1066 And All That? Only one. That's a -- humor, you see, humoristical world history. But a serious one, a skeleton of the events of history is just a list of data. That's -- would be a very great help, if some of you would buy this book by Ploetz, or take it out of the library, so that some of you can consult what really happened in history, date year by year, because what I am now -- I can't do this in this course and I shall tell you why. I -- we have now to round out now the whole era of history, the whole times of human endeavor into the impossible, into the surprising, into the unexpected, into the unnatural. This -- not simply a question of dates. We have -- I hope -- I have made you -- understood that we shall distinguish in our own era three different endeavors. The church, to create a free people that can, in freedom, get into space, and can get freedom determine its times for every member of society. Spaces and times. In the last thousand years, we said, from the Christianing of the Icelanders to the days of circling the earth by guided missiles or in -- 96 hours by a stewardess, we have conquered space. Will you kindly note that I said we have. Space is conquered. And I said to you, everybody who now is out to conquer space belongs to the past. Our kids play with space and the spaceship, et cetera, because children always play with the past of adults. One of the great fictions in this country is that children are ahead of their parents. They are always behind. That's why they are children. They are not yet in history. You prepare yourself for your life. That's why you are in prep school or in a college. And one of the great heresies of America, why it has no relation to history, is that you have been told -- has been really dinned into your ears that children are ahead of their parents, that they are the future. Gentlemen, I assure you, when you look around, of most fresh, vigorous people, their children are the handicap. Most children of leading people, like James Roosevelt are handicaps to their parents. They are far behind.


This is serious, gentlemen. You are not ahead of your parents, because you are born later. But that's what you believe. You're far from this. You haven't even caught up with them. You haven't founded a family. You haven't sent a boy to school. You don't -- are not in history. You're playing with everything. And these playboys are told in this country, which is really the end -- that's why this world at this moment comes to a very quick end, why America is played out in pol- -- Welt-politics, because you think that you are, because you are younger than your parents, that you are ahead of them, just automatically. But gentlemen, obvious-

ly the story of history is that here you are born in a cradle, guinea pigs of life, or pigs, { }. And then we try to lift you up hard upon that level upon which decisions are made and real events can take place. And you are over here at this point, and most of you try never to enter this point; but just get a job, an irresponsible job somewhere and escape this responsibility. So here you are, on this way, from non-history, from pre-history, from nature, into non-nature, where something is done, some inventions are made, discoveries are made, resistance is made. Where people, when Pearl Harbor is bombed, just say, "Now we shall throw out the Japs," and when Korea happens we decide that we will not allow the Russians to stay there. That's nothing -- not playing with life, but that's entering a new era. Making an epoch-making event come true. You can't do this. Far from it. Now you believe because you are born into -- in 1935 that this is a reason to think that your parents are obsolete and you are modern. Gentlemen, because you haven't even ever reached this level of performance, you are the drawback, the dead weight of any society. The children are, because it takes a terrible effort to lift them up to really doing things. All the young gentlemen, all the people of age are under the tutelage of the older, and they have to use -- waste most of their time in getting you going. But as long as you believe, gentlemen, that people, because their date of birth is Arkansas No. 1, with this new -- you know, these new numbers that they give everybody, and that people who didn't fall under this wonderful law by which every American is numerated, you see, are obsolete, are mistaken, gentlemen.

At this moment, there are very few people do -- making historical decisions in this country. You can count them by the finger of one hand. There are hundreds who try to prevent the United States of making historical decisions. And there are millions who just haven't reached that level of maturity at all. Well, this is important, gentlemen, because you understand perhaps now that while the children are {stee- } playing with the stratosphere, the people in government, our secretary of agriculture, for example, Mr. Benson -- is forced for the first time to time harvests outside the harvest season. That's called planning. You know what happened to butter, and you know -- see what happens to coffee. And we have just gone on luckily for 200 years without ever planning any such thing, because there was a bounty. But, gentlemen, at this moment "plan" means to establish some time limit beyond the stock exchange rate of every day and bring on the harvest of the -- in August, and the -- July. And planning is one expression of man's sudden fear that he comes too late with everything, that he has no time, that he has lost time. This world plan, whatever you may think of it, gentlemen, means one thing, that man has lost time. And therefore, at this moment, wherever you look in political decisions, what people try to gain is time. And the third millenium is with every political responsible body or man who tries to gain time, but you gain -- try to gain money. You try to gain things. You try to gain cars. You don't try to gain time. You think you have plenty of time. You have no time,

gentlemen. It's later than you think. Time is lost. Time is wasted. The more people work, { } the less time they have. The more they think everything has to be done today or tomorrow. To have time means to feel that what you do will take effect in a hundred years from now. That would have -- mean you have gained time, see? Now, give me one man in this country, except myself, who at this moment thinks of the year 2050 in earnest. That's forbidden in this country. He's an idiot who does this. And they say you can't do it anyway. I assure you, gentlemen, I can. It costs a certain price. But it's very important. It means that some people should do that. I'm not interested in you, unless something of what I tell you will reach you in the year 2050. Then you would help me to gain time for this great country. And otherwise, if you don't want this, ju- -- there will -- this will be a very small country. Somewhere completely eclipsed outside the rest of the world, like modern Spain. Just accidentally still there. Can happen very quickly. Some atom bombs thrown on Pittsburg, and the steel output going down, and it's all over. But on this no human race can live, on such externals, you see. But if you had some faith in the importance of reaching the year 2050, which is very short, you would be real people. You see, all the medieval cathedrals were built without any foreknowledge of when they would be terminated. And most of these cathedrals took 80 to 90 years to build. So here were people who began to do something and were quite sure that their great-grandchildren would still continue to build these great cathedrals of Chartres, or of Amiens, or Strasbourg, or Paris. And they did. For a hundred years, they had unanimity of purpose. You haven't even unanimity of purpose with yourself for the next two days. Something else happens, and you say, "Oh, I just forgot it." Make an appointment with a professor and next day, you don't go there, because you had something more important after that coming up. You don't even say, "Excuse me." You just forget it. { } whole life. It consists of organized forgetfulness. That's what you are. Organized forgetters.

But you should be organic begetters. Have you thought what you should -- what your grandchild should inherit from you? Well, with the inheritance tax, you say, they -- he can't inherit anything. You have no ambitions, gentlemen, which is very nice, in itself, but it is outside history. It is an amusement park. It's Coney Island. Therefore, you are in space. You go on an island, you go on a trip, you go to Europe, you go to Brazil, you fly -- somebody told me -- wanted to sell me a ticket to Bermuda the other day, and that's where you all go. But that's just going places. And going places always leaves a sour taste in your mouth when you return. Nothing accrues.

Gentlemen, this problem of timing then is already -- is already with all your responsible leaders. And it isn't with you. Take the tax system. At this moment, the last free democracy of the world, the United States of America, abolishes citizenship by having this man, this incredible man put over this machinery of

tax-paying without the individual -- 35 million American citizens having to report their taxes themselves. So gentlemen, the factory, where you work, or the bank, or the insurance company pays the taxes instead of you. It's a head tax, which is levied now on the great corporations. You have no relation to your government anymore. Now taxpaying gives the vote. So very soon, the corporations will say, Dear government, you have first learned -- freed yourself from all this paperwork. Mr. Andrews promises, you know, great relief in expenses, in not getting these income tax returns, you see. He just gets them by indirection. And he leaves them to the manufacturer to turn in these tax computation. Well, very soon, I'm sure, within the next 10 years I would say, there will be a law which says that 10,000 employees of General Motors pay a head tax of so much. An average will be fixed, you see, for the different classes of employees. And no name will appear. They -- people will not have to go into the detail of these deductions and special cases, you see, illness, et cetera. And so for every employee, General Motors will pay for -- to the government let's say $500. That's the next step. Now gentlemen, if this goes on for another 20 years, you have lost your vote. That is, you will be manipulated, because that's exactly corresponding. You don't pay -- no longer your taxes, but now you will begin to tax -- this year, it's very strange that the Republican administration should do this, you see. It is the most anti-individualistic measure against free enterprise that ever can occur. I've seen it, what made Hitler come, exactly the same tax law. The Weimar Republic made exactly the same foolish thing. I protested, I protested here, but of course I had no power to make myself heard. You will see the end of the dictatorship of the corporations or of whomever. But not -- no longer can you govern. Because you have been made once removed from the -- from your communication with your government. You are no longer a person talking freely, because you pay taxes, you see. You won't talk any -- say anything, as you already begin in your fear of the FBI. And you will sit back and say, "Somebody else is paying my taxes for me." And you do not even sit up and take stock. And you talk about great issues. Gentlemen, this is a great issue. Is it mentioned by anybody? By the tax expert? By the political science men? By the religious -- religion-men? About what do they talk? Things 500 years past. They -- are these the big issues? This is a big issue with your own life, gentlemen. You will no longer be privileged to send in your tax returns. My own father has brought me up with the conviction that a citizen must be proud for paying taxes, because that is the basis of his political status in a free country. And that was in Germany that I was educated in this spirit. He always has told me, when I was a boy, be proud when you are able to pay taxes, because that makes you a power in a country. And that's the only power. And that's taken away from us, and nobody says even "Snap!"

There you see what happens when people are just treated not as great agents of the future. You are not treated as the ancestors of the human race. You are not treated as the beginners of the new civilization. You aren't treated as the great-

grandfathers, or great heroes. You are traded -- treated as cogs on the wheel, { } as some element in space that has to govern or, so to speak, organize into some spatial arrangement, the big machinery of commerce, and trade, and manufacturing. You are all in space, gentlemen. And you have no future. You have a predictable future. Most of you I can already now bury and give then the appropriate eulogy. Yes! When I was young, gentlemen, then it wasn't so very different. When I went to school in the big city of Berlin, and when I was asked what I was going to do, I said, "Certainly I'm going to leave Berlin."

They said, "Why?"

"Because," I said, "in this big city ... " it's the same now in New York, "...I can write already now" -- we were -- I was 17 -- "the birthday address for the 70th birthday of all my com- -- chums in school. It's predictable. One is going to be a lawyer. One is going to be a doctor. I foresee everything more or less. The apartment in which they are going to live, you see, around the corner in the next block, et cetera. And that's too much for me."

I don't want to know so clearly in which pre-fabricated environment I'm going to be sunk. So that's why I'm here. It is certainly unforeseeable that I should end up in Dartmouth College. But it's quite interesting.

And under the circumstances, I think I have more of a future, because I am -- from that time on, from { } a boy -- I wasn't older than you, when this dawned on me that the whole problem of the human race, beginning with the first Russian revolution, 1905, which I experienced when I was younger than you, that ever since I have made this resolution, the only important thing for civili- -- mankind is to gain time. And you have lost time -- had no time since 1890, and America lost its freedom of time in 1910. And for the last 30- -- 44 years, this country and Europe both have been without time. They were kin behind the events. If you think of the Depression, and if you think of World War I and II, you will admit, Pearl Harbor and 1929 bear out my contention that this country is running behind in its timing. It has no initiative. It has no freedom of action. It is trying always to cover up one hole after another. When it is over in Korea, begins in -- where? Indochina. And when it's over in Indochina, it begins in Ceylon. And on it goes. And we're always running behind and we're always trying to hold the thumb under the pump. But usually the water isn't stopped that way. It's a very funny country, gentlemen, this country, in which everybody knows everything. We are the best-informed people, you see. We have the Associated Press. And we have the commentators. And whom don't we have, according to information, you see? But we have no idea what happens tomorrow. The Russian people have no information, but they know what happens tomorrow, I can assure you. That's their only one advantage. Because they have no standard of

living. We have the standard of living, so we stand. We stand like the oxen before the new gate.

This is all literally so, gentlemen, and I think I have a {total} right to tell you this, because I really -- it's no boast of mine. But it's just my vocation. I have not done nothing for the last 50 years but try to think out this change from 1000 years of space discovery to the future of time discovery. This is very serious. I'm not the only man who has done so. Bergson in France has done so, and there are many people who are thinking in these lines today. But you don't here this. All the thing you hear is of the moment. Nothing is of eternity. I would be very satisfied, gentlemen,if you would begin to think that 30 years is already a small eternity. Hundred years is a magnificent eternity. And the eternity of which you hear in church doesn't exist. We know nothing of eternity out of time. There is no such thing as eternity for human understanding. That's pious fraud. But we know of history. And we know that life on this globe must return by our own creation, and that 30 years are more difficult to gain than one day.

So now, let's go back and place this tremendous miracle of man having stepped out of nature and done everything unexpected against his nature for the last 2,000 years and ask us, how did this begin? There is of course, an era before our era, which we shall call, "Before Christ" or antiquity. We call it also B.C. Looking backward before man becomes one people, one space, and one time, you see, there is -- are eras in which people speak many languages. In other words, where there are many peoples, where there are many spaces, and where there are an infinite number of times. Gentlemen, antiquity is in no way different from our time, except that everything we have unified, there exists in multiples. Every ancient empire thought it was identical with the whole world. That is, in India to this day you can find people -- the strict Hindus -- who believe in many worlds. The discovery that all the world is one, is a discovery only of the last thousand years. When you read Mr. Nehru's strange glimpses of world history -- who has seen this book? Nobody? I thought you were all interested in international relations, or what -- how you call it -- inhuman relations, I think. Everybody in this country seems to know Mr. Nehru personally. However if you look into his book, you find that he is crazy. He is, because he combines the Hindu view of history and the Christian view of history in a hodgepodge and that's not feasible. They are contradictory. The Hindu view of history is that there are many worlds. And European, and Western and Christian view of history is that there is one world, see? The Hindu view of history is that every world has its own calendar, its own time, its own rhythm, its own gods. The Christian idea is that there is one God, one world, and one era. And now this poor man -- therefore he has called it "glimpses" of world history, because it's really a combination of disorder with some Western influence that there might after all be one civil war. To take advantage of us, you see, to fool us. There are no history. But he

can't find it. So he jumps. The book is a very tragic book, gentlemen. And it shows you how difficult it is for people outside the privileges of America and Europe to believe in the Christian era. And you people who are already through with the Christian era and think Christianity is obsolete, you can learn from Mr. Nehru's book what it means for a Chinese, or for a Hindu, or for an African negro today to become a Christian. Only through Christianity does these people understand that there might be one space and one time. Because the Hindus believe that there are many spaces, many worlds.

So gentlemen, that universe in which we have lived during the last thousand years, is a discovery in which nobody in the year 1000 quite believes. They believed that there were many worlds, that -- God was residing somewhere outside the planet Venus. And if you could make it and travel to the sun you would find again another world, you see, with other laws and {other rules}. We don't believe that anymore. Don't we all believe that there is just one universe?

So we come to a definition, gentlemen, of the past. In pre-Christian days, there were many peoples, many worlds; and now we'll see that there were many times. We'll call therefore our space, this universe of ours, that's the world of all possible worlds, out of all worlds, a world of worlds. The Church has created a people of peoples. And society, gentlemen, you see, must be -- suddenly a time of all times. Out of all times, or it will not fulfill its purpose of unifying the times. Unifying out of all times. So we learn something by looking backward. People of peoples. Because we learn what happened in the past. What was created in the past was not one people, but peoples, in pre-Christian days. There may have, as we will learn, may have been spoken at one time 100,000 different languages on the globe. And every one language, of course, belonged to a different tribe. And we'll call any group with a special language in antiquity in this course we'll call one tribe. And we'll say, gentlemen, that in the future, this society will be a -- the tribe of all tribes, instead of having this rather fantastic expression, the time of our -- all times. We must con- -- found a society, gentlemen, in which every tribesman can find his appointed group. Everybody must be allowed to speak his own language and to time his own life, and yet it must be in some way one. How to do this is the great problem. We haven't solved it by a long shot. But in the antiquity, people were satisfied if everyone belonged to one tribe, so there were innumerable tribes and, put it down -- one man belonged to one tribe, but there were many tribes. In society, we shall belong to many tribes, you see, but they all must be contained in one society. So gentlemen, the problem is to change the man- -- place of the many of the one. In antiquity, once you were a --Apache or a -- Sioux, then you were this all your life. This was what you were. Or you were Egyptian, or you were a Jew. No change possible. You remained it all your life. You had no access to any other order. In our society, gentlemen, you can shift. You can change your profession. You change your place. You can change your

language. You can change your denomination. You can change next to everything, you see, but all the denominations, and all the activities, as we have seen, belong into one unit, the great society of the future. So unity is placed elsewhere, now as it was in pre-Christian days. The same is true, gentlemen, of the worlds. You lived either in the Roman Empire or the Persian Empire. There was around China, as you know, a great wall, and that was China. And that was a world by itself. And outside there was just, from the Chinese point of view, something negative, something, you see, worthless, something to be avoided. The desert, or the Mongolia, or the nomads, you see, or the enemy, the same with the Roman Empire. You may have forgotten it, but sometime in school, you must -- may have heard that around the Roman Empire, there also was the so-called limes, the big wall, you see, with stations around, running through -- across Europe, and England, too. Half of England was omitted from the limes, you see, and twothirds of Europe was omitted because the Romans also had the bright idea to declare that their world was, you see, Roman. And the rest of the world was another world, another universe in which other laws applied.

So many worlds, gentlemen, and forgive me, I use this word "world" explicitly to remind you that it is not natural to use to word "world" in the singular. That's an artificial Christian belief. An historical belief. You and I believe that the world must be treated as one. But every man who's parochial tries to prove to you that this is -- cannot be done, you see, that in Wisconsin, that's a world by itself. And every moment, the worlds try to go out -- get out of hand. Every part of the globe all the time declares that it likes to be a world by itself, if you don't prevent it.

Now, as to the peoples. As you well know, the Church has been preceded by the Jews. The Old Testament is the promise of the New Testament. The Jews are the people of promise. That is, the Jews invented that life which is more concerned with the future than with the present or with the past. A life which to you which is so normal that you think you are apt to live it. You are all progressive; you all look forward to something. And you are always in great hurry, because the best is still to come. In this sense, the Old Testament has had a tremendous influence on the Puritans, as you know. They came for the future. Well, this in antiquity was created by the chosen people. But the chosen people, as you know, waited for the other nations to see the light. So even in the existence of the Jews in antiquity, there is this acknowledgement that there are many gods, and that they still are not superseded by the unity of one people. The chosen people, you can also say the promised people. We'll see how true this is, literally. You will read the 96th Psalm and you will find that it says so, even literally, that the chosen people are the people that do not exist yet, but that are to come. That's the true meaning of "chosen." Did anybody go to my chapel service on Tuesday, by any chance? No. Well, there I talked about this.

So, gentlemen, the pre-historical times consist of the creation of all the tribes, of all the worlds, and of the children of Israel. That is, the pre-historic history is the history of many, many tribes, and many, many empires. Now you'll understand if I make a bold statement that in this sense, if mankind moves on these three levels -- tribes, empires, people -- that we have a pre-Christian history down to the two world wars. China was an empire of antiquity in 1911. Christianity hadn't made a dent. And therefore, gentlemen, your whole picture of history is so completely frustrating and distorted because you misunderstand the Christian era and say that something happening in China in the year 1700, let us say, is an event in the Christian era. Of course, it is not. It is still an event in the pre-Christian story. Now, it isn't. Through Communism, the Chinese for the first time have entered the Western idea of one history, you see. And therefore at this moment, there is no longer a specific pagan pre-Christian Chinese history. It would be quite wrong to say that, you see. Now it is within one historical stream -- for better, {for good} -- that doesn't make any difference, you see. Destructively or constructively. You may approve of it, or you may admit China to the United Nations. That makes no difference whatsoever, of course. Your personal opinion about the -- China. But the China after 1911 is a part of the Christian era. And the China until there was -- as long as there was a son of Heaven, couldn't be a member of the Christian his- -- story, because the condition of the Christian story is that there is one people, you see, and no -- and one world. Now if you have a son of -- Heaven in Peking, you see, that meant that they had a special heaven, so they had a special world. Therefore they didn't belong into one world, you see. They didn't recognize even that they should belong to one world. They declined.

Now, if you would think on these terms of history, then you would see, gentlemen, that what we call the Christian era so far, is the gradual entrance of prehistoric groups into one stream of history. So that the history, which we call the history of our era, which I put up here, means the gradual threading-in, the threading-in of pre-Christian stories into one stream of history. So we would say that China entered world history in 1911. That's not arbitrary. That is simply so. India probably entered it with the occupation by the British, you see, and the French in the 18th century. Not before. But a little earlier. That's why India's fate is so very different from Chinese -- the Chinese story. It is much longer already, although a colony. But it is in part a oneness, gentlemen, and don't look down on colonies. You are a pagan country. It's better to be -- become a colony than to become independent. Nothing could -- worse can happen -- worse can happen to countries than to be independent, you see. It's not a good idea. You first have to be inside history, then you can -- perhaps become autonomous and independent, you see. But the Puritans, when they came here, they would have been scared dead if you had told them they were independent, you see. The last thing they wanted to -- they wanted to be Europeans, Christians, you see, loaded with the

old tradition of the Old and the New Testament, wouldn't they? Otherwise they would have gone crazy. They would have, like the Indians, moved in circles.

So gentlemen, the people in 57 know how difficult it is to understand this term of independence, of how complicated the American independence is. The compli- -- American independence rested on the certainty that the -- America was within the stream of one world history. Otherwise these people here, you see, wouldn't have written in the Declaration of Independence -- what did they write? When ... wie?

(The course of human events ...)

That's the course of events, gentlemen, and the course of events are not American events. They are the course of events of one's history. They are therefore a decent respect for the opinions of mankind, you see. That's the recognition of the universe, of people, of space, and of time inside which this step has to be justified. The poor Chinese, the poor Egyptians, the poor Aztecs of Mexico, they had nobody to whom they could appeal with, you see. They couldn't appeal to the opinions of mankind, because they were a world and a law unto themselves. See the difference?

So, will you kindly begin to understand that what I call "Christian era" is a freely forged chain of surprises of surrenderings, of people turning towards one history, one space, and one time, voluntarily. By {connecting them}. So every step in the history of the last 1950 years has consisted in the fact that the Chinese, for example, in 1911 said it is more important to belong to the world at large, to have one history with all men, and to recognize the notion of one people than to stay separate. So the three elements of our history, gentlemen -- one people, one space, one time, or one church, one universe, and one society -- is the way by which all the pre-historic elements of life enter the unifying influence of the Christian era. Nobody -- neither you nor I -- no Malayan, no Hindu, no Chinese can escape this sequence. First you can only enter the universe of science, of technology if you recognize that one -- we all have -- are of one mind. You cannot build a steam engine in China or a dam in India without recognizing the universal science, you see, which is the product of one people of God, of one spirit, you see, one truth for all. A people, gentlemen, says this is good, and this is bad. Another people says something else is good and something else is bad. If you form one people, it means that the same thing is good for you and the same thing is bad. Now all these Easterners, all these Southerners, even the people I think in Argentina want to be participants of the truth. So they do form, even Mr. Peron, one people with us, with regard to these things that they consider to be valid. What I have -- what is so often forgotten -- difficult for you, people are today down on missions. They say Christianity has forfeited the privilege of

preaching the Gospel. And you think you can bring people -- machinery and -- industry as articles of export. And take -- can do business with Arabs, for example, by selling them -- taking their oil and giving them gold. This you cannot do.

I'll tell you a story which I think illustrates this whole point. That for 1954 years, the world has only been allowed to unite in the sequence: Church, space or state, society; and that no other sequence is valid. We have this Aramco. Everybody knows what Aramco is, is this? Do you? Who doesn't know what Aramco is? Well, it's the Arabian-American Oil Company. They pay $750 million every year to this scoundrel, the -- emir of Arabia so that he can buy airplanes and bomb the Zionists in Palestine next day. This is what we're doing. On the right-hand side, we are supporting the Bronx, and on the other side, we are supporting the Arabian preparation for war. If -- nothing so silly has ever happened. Seven hundred fifty million dollars one of these potentates alone gets in cash. It is flown in in planes with the gold bullions. I have a friend who has to count them, in Jiddah. He goes nuts, because he knows that this is a crime. He is our diplomatic agent there. But what can he do? That's the contract with Aramco. That we give a robber, a pirate, a nobody, the money to arm and to disturb the peace in the Near East. You call this commerce. Some people call it capitalism. Some call it trade. But it is certainly stupidity.

This goes on under your noses, and your children will bleed for it. Now, what have they done? These Aramco people erect schools, hospitals. They are very well-meaning. They are as well-meaning as any lady in New York City. All out for charity. And so they also erected a great tent city for the workers. And on the tents there is flowing the flag, "Allah is great, and Mohammed is his prophet." That's paid by the American money, the flag of the Arabian infidel. And that's tolerance, isn't it? Or it's good business. It is very, very criminal. I came to the -- into the Egyptian desert, gentlemen, one day, you were with us. And there was a Frenchman exploring the desert. He was a real hero. Any Frenchman alone is a great man. Only when you take Frenchmen together they are unbearable. It's the same with you, gentlemen, you see. One American is a bore. Ten Americans are very nice. With the Frenchmen, it's the other way around. One Amer- -- Frenchman is interesting. Ten Frenchmen are intolerable. Doe- -- have you never heard of this cliche which says that one man in the nation is very different from the nation taken together? You must have heard this story. One German, a scholar; two Germans, a glee club; three Germans, the world war? Well, one Englishman, you see, a missionary; two Englishmen, a football match; and three Englishmen, the greatest nation on the earth. And one Frenchman, a hero; two Frenchmen, spirit -- a spirited conversation; and three Frenchmen, a mess. And one Italian, a singer, a tenoro; two Italians, a duel; three Italians -- who knows? Three Italians, panic. But they were -- it's with every nation. That is, gentlemen, one, two, and three of the same branch constitutes something utterly different. Can you see

this? The only difference are the Georgians. One Georgian, one prince; two Georgians, two princes; three Georgians, the Comintern.

Now I wanted to say that this Frenchman therefore is a very important specimen, because as I think really, this is my firm conviction, and if a German tells you this of a Frenchman you may think that this is quite serious. And I think that every one Frenchman is an enormous creature, is really a specimen of the human race. The more he is alone, the greater he becomes. This you cannot say of an American. The more you isolate an American, the more terrible he becomes. You know how our American people behave in the West Indies when they think they are out of bounds. They are just shameless. It's terrible, the women even more than the men. Because an American is no good as soon as he is without Americans. It's very interesting. I don't know why it is, but it's a fact. No indictment. People are so differently organized. Now a Frenchman, as I said, look at the -- France as a whole. It is just terrible, you see. But not the single Frenchman.

I come back to my story in Egypt. Therefore this was a very great soul. He had nothing to live on. The Americans in Luxor, Thebes nearby, lived in luxury, and with all the vitamins and calories you could get, and he had no bread, and he had no fresh meat. His next space from where he could refuel, so to speak, and -- get his, get his victuals was a day's, a day's journey away. He was visited by an equally spirited French lady, a reporter, and I was also impressed with her great superiority of spirit and courage -- two noble people. And these two people showed us the ruins and the excavations, and we got talking about the Aramco business, with the tents, with the flag of the prophet flying there, paid by American taxpayers' money, by alleged Christians.

And he bro- -- burst forth and said, "Tell the people in America that they must not do this. This is a crime. I'm living here among Arabs. You must stop at the decisive point. You must not commit yourself to the sham and fiction that you seem to abdicate. At this moment, where you abdicate your Christian background, you abdicate every right of justice, even of -- just being treated justly. They -- you abdicate your rights of commerce. The fact that you do this means that you will lose your concessions. It's the most stupid policy there can be. It's cowardice! And it's forbidden under God. It's blasphemy, of course." But who -- which businessman in this country believes in blasphemy, when it seems to be good business. But gentlemen, blasphemy always kills the idolater. The temple of the idolater will always be destroyed. And all the Aramco business will go down in sulphur, brimstone, and you always laugh about Wigglesworth {Fullman} with brimstone and hell. Gentlemen, there is brimstone and sulphur. It's in this world. The judgment comes. You will lose every bit of investment in Arabia. We must. We have no right to keep it, because we have, you see, forfeited the background under which these Arabians kowtow to us and say, "You are the people

who make for one world for one time." Yet only under one condition: that there is one people {today}. That the neighborly love, you see, is a reality { }. And that we preach it and praise the Lord for this unity of the human race, and do not go off a tangent and play somebody -- and pray -- and praise somebody else's god. Fantastic! But people laugh.

Gentlemen, a friend of mine is the vice president of { }. And he went to the -- state department people nearly down on his knees and said, "We must not do this, ple- " -- he's in Aramco, I mean, they are one branch, one of the four investors. This is a very fine man. His boy, by the way, went to Dartmouth. I had to bail him out because he got drunk. Well, this man -- father -- the son is very stupid -- but the father is in a responsible position, and is in history. And he knew, because he has a very excellent background, that this was condemning our future in the Near East. That these Arabs would despise us for doing this, because they would say they still had a place, and we had none. And perhaps it is true that we have none. But then we are out of history, gentlemen, because the authority to ask all men to enter into one space, can only be based on the dogma that you are all brothers. Otherwise, the one space is the only -- an invitation to rules then, you see. Then -- that's just the law of the jungle. And that is there, the law of the jungle.

It's very exciting, gentlemen, if you can -- you haven't -- you have not lived enough in the rest of the world to understand that such a story is much more important than all the things in The New York Times, just as the story of your tax return, gentlemen, is much more important than all your resolutions on the freedom of speech or whatnot. Who cares for your resolutions? But everybody must care for his communication with his government. Only to bring back the fact that these are the items, gentlemen, by which is determined at what moment in history we are at this moment living. And we are living at a moment where the conquest of space has blinded greedy people to such an extent that they neither want to know where they came from, nor where they are going to, you see. They are just in Arabia. They are just like this terrible man who tries to smell gold on this Orozco mural. Gentlemen, the sense of smell is given us for timing. Odor, smell, scent, is the greatest sense in the world. It's the political flair. It's the sense about the future. This picture of Orozco is so dramatic and so serious because it shows you that in this country people have tried to find smell in gold, and therefore they have lost direction. Because you and I, gentlemen, you know very well that what doesn't smell good, don't go there. Smell gives us direction. It's the greatest sense. Eye is misleading. Never fall for the eyes of a lady, for the looks of a lady, I wanted to say, pardon me. They may be painted.

So gentlemen, this is the burial in space, this mural of Orozco. That's why it is such a great picture. It is the end of a thousand years of conquest of space. No

future in the picture. He doesn't know anything about that. That wasn't his business. But gentlemen, go here, next door and look at the mural. And this is just corresponding to what I tell you what is happening at this moment in Arabia with the American people building tents in honor of Mohammed.

The pre-history, gentlemen, of the Christian era, then consists of three chapters -- but we'll see there is to be one more chapter. The tribes of antiquity, that is, the India- -- red Indians, the Germanic tribes, the Celtic tribes, the Italians, the Greek tribes, all what we call the tribes, we'll have to consider as the elements out of which the future society will have to be built. In the future society, our people on the reservations, all the Irish policemen of New York, all the people in the Amazonas basin, they will all be part of it, must they not? I mean, if there is to be one cooperative society in the future, all these groups that are smaller than nations, you see, but that are somewhere -- are integrated will have to belong into this. The second part of our story of antiquity is how is -- was any one of these empires created? China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Peru? And the third story: how did the Israelites get out of these {two} {too} chaotic, multifarious, you see, empires and tribes. How did the 12 tribes and the kingdom of Israel, you see, learn to behave as the people of the future?

We'll see, gentlemen, that any tribe looks into the past. A tribe is always built on ancestor-worship. Ancestors. Any people is based on the future, the free future. That's Israel is the first free people, because it has the Messiah complex. It is a kind of complex, only to be interested in the future. And what is a world, gentlemen, what is the Aztec world? What is the Chinese world? It's a cyclical world which is only interested in the present, in eternal presents. So we get in antiquity three different problems. How you create a tradition of the past. The tribe is backwardly minded, looking this way. Any empire is present-minded; it looks -- is cyclical. You know most people today think in cycles again. All the businessmen of America are Egyptians, or Chinese. They think in business cycles. Everything returns. Booms-busts, booms-busts, booms-busts. And the -- here, the people, the prophetic group in any country -- the artists, for example, the poets, the prophets -- they look into the future. And so we'll have to deal with the Jews as the creators of the future.

Now I have to -- had to say so much, gentlemen, to give you a picture of the history which I am going to tell you. Any one empire, and any one tribe of antiquity can get its own story told as though it was not one out of many stories. I cannot tell you first the story of China, then the story of India, then the story of Egypt. But we must take one of these specimens and then you must allow me to believe -- to say that this is a fruit of the tree of empire builders, you see. Empires look that way. And then we must look into the tribes and get as much evidence as we can. We'll do this first. And again, if we were in Dartmouth Hall, it would

be very simple. There on the left-hand side of the entrance, on the left side, on the northern side; have you ever -- you have gone to Dartmouth Hall -- there hangs a pedigree of the languages. Have you see this? This tree? That's very much what you have to keep in mind if you understand why if I give you one experience of a tribal history, the creation of one tribe, we have in a way learned the existence of all the tribes. You will also understand why there is a tremendous variety of tribes, why all these tribes went wild and created, as I said, a hundred thousand different languages. Why did they? That has deep reasons. Why are there still so many languages? And why must we keep them? And why must you go against any world language, and against all basic English? Why is it a crime in history now to destroy the last remnants of this great creation of the many languages? You see, America is so feared in the world, because it tries to abolish Welsh, and Celtic, and the people in Wales, as you know, they want to speak Welsh. They want to speak the {Walesian} language. Gaelic. You must understand that. You must become proud that there is in New Mexico, some people are still allowed to speak Spanish.

Why that is so is a very mysterious reason, you see. But it would be the end of the world if all people would have to speak one language. Then there could be no family life anymore. That's very profound, gentlemen, very mysterious. But you people -- who has acted in the Shakespeare play? None of you? Not one? Not even with the lightning or the decorations? No? Nobody has participated in the players? Who has participated in the players? You have, I know. Who else? Please go and do. Much more important than any course you can take. Why, gentlemen? Because then you will understand what language is. That language is something without which you cannot live. It's a victual. And therefore as all victuals, it cannot be manufactured. Once it is killed, it is killed. It is as delicate as the -- as the vitamins. So when I always hear the chambers of commerce in this country boost the one language and the one calendar, I know that we are on the way out, gentlemen. We'll see that empires live by the manifoldness of the calendar, by the respect for free times, for different times; and the tribes, the groups, the families of man live on our respect for the difference of language. These are two very serious items. And at this moment, you know, we are back at that moment -- { } with the green flag of the prophet, I'm afraid, where we surrender all this and where the chamber of commerce can come forward and say we should have a calendar in which Easter can be predicted for the year 1975. Now gentlemen, the frei -- the free migration of the date of Easter is the victory over the Egyptian cycle of the Egyptian slavery. That's a symptom of it. We'll have to learn this. Every empire is known by its own calendar. It's a fixed calendar. Every tribe is known by its own language, you see. And the church -- Israel is known by its Psalms, by its own prayers. Israel has no fixed calendar and Israel has no, you see, fixed language. Jews speak -- {always} the language of any country in which they live. But they have one prayer.

So we have three connotations, gentlemen, of the three equipments. How is a language created which binds together the ancestor and the posterity? That's a people -- a tribe. Not a people, a tribe, we'll call it. An empire that is strung together by the same calendar. And the people are together -- tied together by the same prayer, whatever this prayer is. We pray for the standard of living. That's our prayer. That's why we are one people. It's not very much. But actually every American prays for that, or at least we are told by the businessmen that we have to.

So you see we have to do with three miracles. Any one language is an unexpected miracle. One day it didn't exist. Next day it exists. From then on, there is a variety of languages possible. We'll see why one language could never satisfy men by the very fact that one language wasn't good enough, there was -- would be competition, you see. That is, the first era of our history, gentlemen, is competition between tribes, competition between tribes. The second is, competition between empires. And the third is the exodus from empires and tribes. Now gentlemen, there's one group that doesn't fit into this scheme of the three great chapters of pre-Christian history, and the three great chapters of our own era.

[tape interruption]

And after then the empires were put into this, the first era covers perhaps the years from 10,000 B.C. to 3000 B.C., the era of the empires covers the time of 3000 B.C. to 1911 of our era, as I tried to tell -- show you. In the years between 1911 and 1918, five empires were destroyed: China, India, Germany, Russia, AustriaHungary. So the last empires went, you see. There is no emperor of India anymore. There is no emperor of Austria. There is no emperor of Germany. There is no emperor of Russia. There is no emperor in China. That's quite a story. Only to show you that I am really in tune with the big events. You never hear that in history that the world wars really were fought to force the last remnants of preChristian orders, you see, into the common history of the human race. That's why the empires, the different worlds, had to go. So we have no sacred cows any more in Boston. Unfortunately they have no cows, either.

So we have two stories. 10,000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.; 3000 to 1900, but that isn't quite true because, you understand, many tribes were created much later, after 3000 B.C. For example, the American tribes probably only get over here, let us say 1000 B.C. That's as you know still controversial. It doesn't matter. Already were empires rising, while there was still going on, you see, the expanse of tribes, too. They didn't follow each other auto- -- mechanically. But the waves of tribalism were still going strong and already people had discovered that they could live in a different manner in a world by themselves and -- as empire builders. When this had happened, gentlemen, there was one group of people, the Greek tribes,

who were exposed in the Mediterranean to the view of the Babylonian empire, and the Egyptian empire, and the Hittite empire, and the Persian empire. That is, these traders, on their quick boats, the Greeks, in the Mediterranean, in the eastern part of the Mediterranean, were tribesmen from the continent of Europe who were suddenly brought in contact with the Egyptian empire, especially, but also with the Babylonian empire and the Persian. As you know the great battle between Persia and Greece is the story of Greece itself. It's the freedom of -- the battle of Marathon. You may have heard of Aeschylus or you may have heard of Epaminondas -- 50 years ago all your forefathers here in this college would have known by heart the great sentence about the Spartans, the Lacedaemonians, when they were killed in Thermopylae. Has anybody heard the great verse? Three hundred Spartans defending the straits of Thermopylae, and the stone only reads: Stranger who passes by, go to Sparta and tell them that we are lying here, faithful to their laws." Or, even better, "that we are lying here as demanded by their laws."

Well, this is the great story of Greece springing up in resistance against the empire. But these people, these Greeks, gentlemen, made a compromise between tribe and empire. We'll learn that the Greeks form a chapter in pre-history, that's why it is enough to know of Greeks. That's why you still read Plato and Aristotle, because in all Greek things, you have as much influence of the empires as you have of the tribes. Anybody who knows Greek, gentlemen, is in touch with the whole pre-Christian story. And your abolition -- abolishing Greek, your not knowing anything of Greece is very dangerous, because you no longer have any yardstick, for example, for these { }. So that's why you are great despisers of Christianity and say, "That's an old story," because you don't know how young the story of Christianity is. The Greeks tried to do a compromise between tribesmen looking to their ancestors and empires living in the present, without the promise of the Old Testament, without the coming of any messiah, without future.

So we have in Greeks and Jews, gentlemen, two people who form a kind of summary of antiquity. The Greeks are the blend of the tribesmen and of the empire. Every one Greek city, as we shall learn, constitutes one such little political, you see, blend. That's why we call today still this whole science, you see, of life in the past and the present "politics," you see. And in church we call the life to come. That's the Israelitic branch of our existence. Politics is that what the Greeks have taught us: that you have to compromise between the tradition of a group, of tribe -- a tribe, you see, and the geographical claims of part of the universe, you see, of some space, which we call today the boundary of a state, for example.

So we have four chapters in pre-history. This is all I have to say today. One,

the many tribes. The second, the many empires. The Jews, an attempt to rid themselves -- and mankind -- of the many-ness of the tribes, and the many-ness of the empires. The Greeks trying in every moment to get a synthesis, a compromise out of tribe and empire. So we will have four chapters for the pre-Christian story. Thank you.

Here is somebody. Did you already give this list? About the reports -- they will be ...