{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

(Student introduction: Philosophy 58, March 16th, 1954)

[Opening remarks missing]

... you understand --

[tape interruption]

... now I'm listening. During the next four meetings, we have four meetings to finish the empires. What leads to a different approach to life where the line is not drawn between the living and the dead? Where the hero disappears? Where the masks disappear? Let me say two things of the tribes that will explain the permanent, eternal value, and the permanent handicap of the tribe. The one is the saying by Zarathustra -- Zoroaster. You may have heard that Nietzsche, when he tried to go back before the Greeks, he wrote this book Thus Spake Zarathustra. And you may have heard that Zarathustra was a Persian who -- under the influence, as I think, of the Jewish prophets, under the Persian -- rulers at the -- in the 6th century B.C. gave to his tribesmen a religious book, the Gathas -- as they are called -- the books of Zoroaster. You read in the textbooks, which are mostly anti-Semitic that the Jews learned it from Mr. Zoroaster. I don't believe that. The dates are all against it. What matters, however, is that he summarized into one short sentence the whole problem of the tribe, the divine or the religious problem of the tribe, the political problem. He said very simply, in one of these songs: "Tell me," and he speaks to his great spirit, Ahura-Mazda, "tell me, Ormazd, wha- -- who made the son staying with his father when his father was absent." It's a very beautiful saying, you see. Very simple. Most people overread it today as unimportant. That is, Zarathustra became, in looking back, aware of this great mystery of the tribe, of this vow that the son should stay with the father. And there you have men going beyond the animals. That the -- son should stay with the father makes a father stay with him, you can also say, after the old man is dead. This is your decision, gentlemen. The first step of humanity is to stay with your father. It is not human to stay with your mother. That's just animal. Most of you stay with your mothers, and already think you deserve having to celebrate Mother Day. Mother Day's -- is a date that doesn't deserve to be in the calendar, because motherly love has no time, no day in the calendar. But gentlemen, in the great days of the tribe, the day on which you stay with your father has to be celebrated, because otherwise it doesn't exist. This is all mixed up today. You don't know the difference between mother and father anymore in this country. You have no fathers. The -- relation of the father is that he is allowed to push the perambulator. That is, he is just the -- the assistant to

the mother. That's all he is in this country. He assists the mother with her chores. He is allowed to wash the dishes and to nurse the baby. That's not the father's role, gentlemen. The father is your entering gate into history. By him, the whole past opens and you know that at one time you become like a man who has posterity, who has offspring, who is an ancestor. In your father you have all the founding fathers of this country. And you have all the founding fathers of humanity. Your father stands for the patriarchs, for Abraham, and for Isaac, and for Jacob, whether he knows it or not, whether he wants to be a Jew influenced by Judaism, or not. Because the father exists only as an institution as long as you believe that you need him to belong to the ages, so that he is there while he is absent -- although he is absent. This is all in this very small sentence, compressed very beautifully into the Gatha of Zarathustra. Or the sacred man is also called Zoroaster, when you read him -- of him in the books. A Persian of the -- probably written this -- this was written in 570 B.C.

The second thing -- that's the positive. Mankind has never lost this { } after that. The second thing is connected with this. In order to stay connected with your ancestors and with your fathers, people believe that they had to go to war. The vendetta is the name for the warpath in Italian. But the word "vendetta" is necessary to replenish your notion of the word "warpath." In your Western movies, you too easily see only the glories of the warpath, of the red man. But it is also the tragedy of those tribesmen, or the sadness that life cannot be had without death, without killing; that in order to defend the totems of your -- of your ancestry, your history, you have to allow this history to remain uncontaminated. Wars, gentlemen, are all of a spiritual nature. They have nothing to do with killing. We said this already before. But they tried to save that which makes man man. That is, that he doesn't live by his five senses, but lives in a larger continuum of seven generations, of paths hewn out in the fogginess of existence. That he has a consciousness, that he has speech, that he has beloved ones -- to -- people who trust him and belong to him. This is war, gentlemen. All this pacifism in this country -- we talked about this, I think, before -- is so terrible, because it individualizes the problem of war, as if this was your choice. Anybody who cares because he wants to murder somebody is certainly not a warrior. A warrior is a man who defends his having become a man. Before, you aren't a man. A -- a man is as little a man who can't go to war for a great purpose as a woman is a woman who declines to bear children. Both have to pay with their lives. If they won't, out goes the race. And as long as you don't know this, gentlemen, and it's a hard lesson for any American boy, he will not { }. So you will have to -- serve in the Army, and you won't admit it. And so these people come, as you know, back from Korea as spiritual -- how should I say it -- destroyed -- spiritual -- destroyed because they have this bad conscience that they did something they shouldn't have done. I know, you all probably know people who have come back from Korea in -- absolutely ruined, wanting to murder their mother.

I had one case where the man calls for the first six weeks in this country, always ran around and said, "I have to kill my mother."

"Why?" we asked.

"Because she is the one I love most." That was his way of taking revenge, you see, in his tribalism, the other side, since he wasn't -- hadn't been brought up right, and didn't know what war is. He thought he had killed. So it's a very strange logic, but perhaps you can fathom it a little bit. That I know another case where the wo- -- the man left his beloved wo- -- wife, because he loved her so much that he had to revenge himself for the disaster that he had been a jet flyer in Korea, by taking it out on the very person he loved most. That's how the human soul works. And why is that so? Because all these boys went to the little red schoolhouse in America and all were told that "Thou shall not kill" was an application of -- to war, and to the army, and to the uniform. Very simple. The sooner you -- you investigate this in your own { }, gentlemen, the better it is, because this country will be destroyed by this identity. You can't have -- that's why all this country here always talks about atom war, because it's the great hope that somebody else is going to throw the atom, and you may not have to be drafted then. All this new look -- is just a surrender to these damn mothers of America and their damn sons who do not know that they have fathers to defend, and their Constitution. It's not the business between the animal cub and the animal mare, or the animal cow. But that's an affair between fathers and sons. And that's historical. That's artificial. That's spiritual. Has nothing to do with anything you find in nature. But you won't have it. You must be natural. So your poor father becomes a daddy. And all -- we become just facilities. Teachers in this college have been called "facilities." Gentlemen, I'm the author of your thought. That's a little more than you know. Any teacher is, for that matter. I represent to you the whole past of the human race, and I'm not a facility, where you can put -- earn 45 bucks and then get what you can, as one of you told me, that he wanted to get something out of this course. Gentlemen, be glad that I put you into something here. I hope you'll never get out of what I tell you here. I put you here inside of something, in which -- to which you have not belonged, yet. But that's the frustration of American education, that we are not meant to do this. But you really think you sit here and get something out of what I say. Nothing do you get out of this! You just get out sweat, toil, and tears, responsibilities, duties, doubts, misgivings, hardships. That's all what an education gives a decent man. A burden is put on your shoulders. That's all. But you don't want -- you {won't pay}. I can't give it to you, gentlemen.

So the vendetta of the tribe, gentlemen, is the dark cloud which hangs over these tribes. In their small groups, they judge themselves, they condemn themselves to frustration, because anything outside the 5,000 is too much for them to

organize, to integrate with. And therefore you have the vendetta, and you have the fear that when you meet, a man of another tribe, you -- you run or he runs, or you have to kill each other. That's why -- I tried to explain to you that's why we have pacifistic tribes like the Eskimos, who obviously just went out of the -- of their way never to be inside this stream of life, you see, in which they would -- run into opponents. But gentlemen, you and I do not -- have not sprung from the Eskimos. We send our doctors, and our missions, and our stores and supplies to the Eskimos at this moment. And therefore, gentlemen, all this -- this wonderful enchantment by primitive man -- you must learn to look through it. You and I come from hardier tribes who remained in the middle of things and who said that their tradition was so great that they had to win over the others. That they had to spread the gospel. That the -- the -- they were carriers of a spirit that promised finally the unity of the human race.

Now the -- I could go on, of course, with many examples of individual tribes, but as I said, if we want to reach a certain completion here -- this is, of course, a course that should go -- and did go originally over a whole year. I have to compress things.

What is the next step, gentlemen? The next step is the disappearance of the mask, the lifting of the mask from the face of the sorcerer. In this sense then, gentlemen, the medicine man of the tribe is replaced by the priest. And the ruler, the first ruler wears instead of a mask before his face a crown. The crown is the lifting up of a man's role from his headgear, so to speak, before his face, from his masquerade, to his dependency on the sky. The crown are the rays of the sun that land on the head of the ruler. The spirits of the tribe are replaced by the stars in the sky. The tattoos on the bodies of the tribesmen, of the warriors are replaced by the hieroglyphs, the cuneiform script on the walls of the temples. The temples replace the tomb of the hero, and the altar in front of the tomb and the dancing green, and even the warpath, as we shall see in an extreme case, because all the buildings that now go up on this earth are in the image of the order in the heavens. They are a sky-world. They are Heaven come down to earth.

The whole revolution, gentlemen, of the year 3000 B.C. is in every way as dialectical as Marx could wish for. That is, in every way the new order of things which now combats the vendetta of the tribe and their -- the heroes of the many tribes, and the pluralism of the tribes, is dialectically sharpened; that every one feature of the tribe has to be outdone by its exact opposite. To give you a further list: the line between the humanity and the outer world, the created world, is now suddenly drawn quite differently. Gold and jewels, stars, sun and moon, marble, granite become the exponents of the life of these new -- these new people. The people suddenly introduce that very gold that, as you know, still poisons the veins of this country. The gold in Fort Knox comes exactly from this

strange idea of the peoples of -- who founded the empires of old: to have something everlasting, something that was so eternal that it could not die, even though it was never born. The whole problem of the new order of things is to find material which did not enter the tragic process of birth and death at all. And the more permanent a pearl, or the cyanite quartz, a granite stone prove, the better. Limestone wasn't good enough, so the first builders, gentlemen, of temples carried their stones 2,000 miles -- 3,000 kilometers -- from where they found them to build the pyramids of Egypt. That's just unbelievable, that the oldest stone temples around Cairo to this day can be investigated for their material; and we find that the people of the first dynasty went to the expense, and to the lengths of shipping the -- their material from the Nubian desert, where they quarrel now about the Sudan. Two -- two hundred miles to the river. No road, nothing. Blocks of four, five, to 40 tons, which we today could not lift on any truck -- truck, you see, of a building concern.

Again, you will see, gentlemen, that the buildings and the -- the jewelry of Egypt, of Babylon, of China, and of the Aztecs is un- -- insuperable. What these tribes did with their masks these people did with their buildings. When Napoleon sat at the foot of the Great Pyramid and -- had his more alert generals climb the top, he used the time while they were climbing the tip -- the peak of the pyramid to figure out its contents. And when they came down, the -- he was a commander of the French army in Egypt when he was still, you see, just military man, just before his great career as emperor, 1798 -- he was seated there and he said, "Do you know how many steins -- stones are to be found in the Great Pyramid?" And they laughed and said no, they didn't. "To make a wall 6 feet high around all of France." That's one pyramid. You can imagine what this means in organization. To build a wall around France of 6 foot height, around the whole country of France.

The -- we talked -- already about the walls around all the empires. This word "wall" is the right term perhaps to introduce you to the main principle of the empire: to interdict, to defend, to prohibit humanity from migration, to abolish that which has brought together humanity all over the globe in these hundred thousand tribes. China is called the union of the hundred tribes. That's a very good description of see -- telling you what the empires undertook to do. The empires undertook to settle. The idea of the empire is better translated by "settlement."

Gentlemen, in the rest of the world except America, human settlements have lasted in the same place for several thousand years. It's unknown, the boom- -- ghost town -- the boom-bust town idea, you don't have towns that have been relinquished as in this country by the thousands after several decades. Here, you know in Vermont, you go from cellar hole to cellar hole. In Europe, you go from

settlement to settlement. Why is that so, gentlemen? Because the religion of thousands of years, from the years, as I told you, 3000 B.C. to the year 1800, has been all over Europe the religion of agriculture. And the best -- translation of the word "agriculture" so you can understand what it means is settlement, permanent settlement. Nothing to do with agriculture in itself, because in these settlements, you had jewelry made, and you had buildings going up, and you had tailors, and you had tanners, and you had scribes. That is, these settlements, very little interest in a special economy. They had of course to eat, and to live, but the economic view of life is a very poor one, and it is -- mutilated as you do it here in this country so often, as though it meant bread and butter. Gentlemen, it meant the bread of life. Now the same bread is eaten in the Communion supper; the same bread is eaten at a -- as a -- in a wedding cake, the flour at least, the same flour; the same bread has to be distributed in -- in an army, because an army walks on its sto- -- army marches on its stomachs. And you can also offer it as a libation -- bread and wine poured out as a sacrifice -- or give it as a charity to beggars, to give -- show that you're sacrificing it as a surplus. That is, gentlemen, economy of bread is a very varied thing. The Egyptians certainly, the Chinese certainly cast bread on the waters. But as -- if you think bread and butter is what is meant as what you have to eat every day, that's never what these people -- first agriculturalists considered by -- by being economists of the land. They wanted to settle.

And how do you do this, gentlemen? I had an old lady friend in Germany. She was 87 when I came to know her. I was 30. So it spans quite a distance of time, now. In her youth, she told me, in her little village in which she grew up, there were cherry trees and apple trees. It's a very fruitful region. But it was quite impossible for any man who had an orchard to harvest all the cherries from the tree. One twig always had to be left in piety so that there might be cherries the next year, too. You do -- you laugh at this and you think you wouldn't do this, gentlemen. Yet this is the reason that there have been cherry trees around Karlsruhe in {Badinia} for the last 3,000 years. And because you don't do this, you have soil erosion in this country. You destroy what you have. Every -- thing is destroyed in America by exploitation. Your souls are eroded, the soil is eroded, everything is eroded, because you want to get everything at this moment. These people were settlers, gentlemen, and a settler is a man who, just as a tribesman, wants to have eternity. The idea of settlement, gentlemen, is the application of the totem, of the warpath, of the humanity, of the presence of the ancestor with the son, even though he is absent, written into the soil and the sky. It is the eternal sky on top, or above an eternal earth. This you must connect with this new great step. That's why China has lasted 4,000 years. That's why the Roman Empire has lasted at least 2,000. And that is why Egypt has lasted 3,000 years. In -- settlement is the eternity brought from Heaven to earth. It is not just Heaven to -- coming down to earth. But the great problem is: how do I eternalize the soil?

How do I make the earth as permanent as the heavens, as stable as the heavens, as repetitive? The problem of these empires is the eternal recurrence. You may have heard that the modern -- philosophical problem Mr. Nietzsche -- Frederick Nietzsche has brought up this idea of eternal recurrence. Well, we don't have to bother with the -- with the philosophical argument here, at all. The main point is that a whole group of the human race, all of the people who tried to divide the earth into non-migratory fractions, where there would be no migration, but settlement, had exactly the idea that they wanted to bring to earth the eternal recurrence of the sky.

So if you could, for one moment, gentlemen, see that the word "settlement" should in your mind attract this adjective "eternal," then we would begin to understand what I'm talking about. There is no word in the English language, except perhaps "property," which has for you the ring of permanency. Property at least with the Republican Party used to have that. I'm afraid even this is lost today, because people don't believe that they can, against the tax collector, hold onto their property very long. But eternal settlement. Do you know any ex- -- appropriate expression of this analogy? You have the hard time, gentlemen. Even the tribe is more accessible to you than this idea of a recurrent order in which people are so safe that they can abdicate their birthright of migration.

We talked in the tribe about the tragedy of vendetta. Let me call in the -- in the empires, gentlemen, in this new chapter, of the tragedy, or the loss, or the sacrifice every member of these new groups had to make. He could not migrate. He could not leave the country. He was inside.

Today the only group of the Arab world that doesn't migrate are the Egyptians. There is no pan-Arabian movement. That's all a hoax, because any Syrian is a trader, and you find many of them in the United States. He's allegedly an Arab. And the nomads can migrate, gentlemen, but the Egyptians cannot. They have lost it to the pharaohs of Egypt. There are perhaps 67 Egyptians living in America. You compare this with the numbers of people of every other nationality, you see, that have come to this country, you see that the Nile still holds its spell over the people who surround it now for the last 4,000 years. That's very strange. Or it is 5,000 years, as a matter of fact.

We know -- this is -- I gave you the -- some principles. You see immediately that since people cannot migrate, the ideal principle of imperialism, as you call it, would be that the whole globe is covered with eternal settlements, one bordering on the other, as on a chessboard, the checker, the fields. That is, you must understand that beginning 3000 B.C. man took a different view from his task on this earth. More and more people started in trying to collect humanity in such frames, such mazes or reservoirs, of empires around temples, reflecting in their climate

and place the eternal order of the sky. This is a principle, as you can see, and not before the Russian czar was dethroned, and the emperor of Austria-Hungary went, and the Aztecs were removed, and the Incas, did this whole era end. So you can say that by 1918 only, did the attempt end to define the man's mission on earth by the task of eternal settlement. And most of you -- of you in this country still have na‹vely the idea that everybody else should be settled, except the Americans. Then you would have be -- it would be able -- easy to keep order. You have quite a na‹ve idea that the Irish would be in Ireland, the Albanese in Albania; but the Irish are in New York and the Albanese are in Massachusetts. Because they just defy your idea of people.

This is very serious, gentlemen. We are today faced with a new consideration of these first principles of human establishment on this earth. And it is absolutely open to doubt what the solution ought to be. Certainly it cannot be that 155 million Americans deny immigration to the rest of humanity. That is the new imperial principle of the McCarran Act. It's very na‹ve, you see. The new sky -- eternal sky which you have established here is your standard of living. That's the sun and the moon and the gold in Fort Knox bears it out. And so you say, "We live here 155 million people. It is true that we came here into a void. But now we lock the gates, and the rest of the world has to stay put, in their place. And that's justice." And most people think it is justice. You know that I sometimes think it is justice, too, because I -- also would like to keep my refrigerator.

So we all at this moment, gentlemen, are the last imperialists of the world, the Americans with their McCarran Act. I mean it. I don't say this in persiflage, gentlemen. I ask from you to understand that we have here a tremendous principle, that for the last 5,000 years has worked. You ad- -- will admit that the Japanese after the loss of the war just had to do something to get rid of their 30 or 40 million Japanese. Heaven knows where they are, you see, apt to go. But they cannot be imperialists in the old sense. You abuse the word "imperialists," because you think that it is conquest. I'm speaking of the empire principle, gentlemen. Just drop the word "imperialism," you see. What imperialism is an attempt to find a sky-world in which there could be an eternal recurrence as in Heaven, be it on earth, as we say in our "Our Father in Heaven": Thy will be done, as in Heaven, you see, so on this earth. This is -- if you call this imperialism, imperialism is the quest for empire. But empire is limited, or determined, or confined, or defined by the idea that when you find a realm big enough, that there can be summer and winter, harvest and seed, you see, day and night, as the Bible says, in -- incessant recurrence, that -- that there can be peace. Because these people then don't have to migrate. They can receive their livelihood, and their mutual understanding, and their peace inside the Chinese wall, inside the limes of the American -- of the Roman empire, this side of the 54th degree of latitude, or wherever the Canadian border goes. And you see, it is typical imperialism, when

we drew the line at the 38th degree of latitude for these poor Koreans, and shoved them into two sky-worlds -- one Bolshevik, and one democratic.

So, begin to believe, gentlemen, the problem of eternal settlement is the question of eternal peace. If you cannot look through this problem more clearly, you see, all your dreams of peace in your time are scattered, are nonsense. Because it is always a decision of how much migration, how much new conquest, you see, how big the land to be so that the people inside there can see that God is in France, so to speak, as they used to say, you see, and that the spirits inside a certain fraction of the earth can move gaily in their chorus and dances without ever paying attention to the outside world.

The first date of which we know, gentlemen, that it started, this whole im- -- empire business on earth, is the year 2780. There may be a doubt between 2784 and 2778, but this is close enough to make you understand that we have here reached a point where history becomes eternal. Because with this year writing starts, and the writing in the most imperishable material, in granite. We can still read what has been written there. We have from the ancestors -- from the tribes no writing, but we tombs, we have graves, we have mounds. From the Egyptian and Babylonian times, we have script. And we have therefore an unbroken sequence of communications in speech, in so many -- not words, I shouldn't say this -- in so many sacred signs. The body of the earth is the new tattooed body. The Egyptians and the Babylonians, when they put these signs on the walls of their temples, gentlemen, felt that this was the skin of the sacred bull in the sky, of the sky-world. They used material so imperishable, that as the stars, the sun and the moon look alike, so the gold in the temples, and the inscriptions in the temples would always look alike, rain or shine. This is a tremendous imagination. And you see it's quite a new imagination. And you will learn here at this moment a great law of history. Where was this done, gentlemen? This was done in two countries: Mesopotamia and Egypt, first. Later in India, later in China, and finally in America.

What were these countries like? They were the countries in which it seemed quite impossible to live. They were countries of inundation. They were the pariahs. They were the sinners of the old order. As you know, there's always more joy in Heaven over one sinner than over 99 just. Now that's true of all history, gentlemen, that the bearer, the carrier, the cornerstone of the next order is always the outcast of the previous order. Why is that so? Well, you just look at the Americans. They were the outcasts of Europe. That's why we are still going strong here. This is not a moral principle as in the New Testament. Gentlemen, Jesus has never preached any ethics or any morality. He's perfectly amoral. He's not interested in ethics. But He has described laws of creation, because He is the second creator of the universe. So when He says there is more joy in Heaven

over one sinner who repents than over 80 -- 99 other people, He describes the process of new power, how new power is created. And He -- it is created, as you already know, with the new name of love, when this man, who has been called names in the old order, as a minus, suddenly feels that he is entitled to great honor, that brings out all his best.

And in this sense, gentlemen, the valleys of the great rivers were avoided by the tribesmen as dangerous. There was fever; there were the crocodiles, and the lions; and there was swamp. You got lost. So gentlemen, the non- -- bush, that which did not fit the migrating people, was the new center of the empires, the negative bush, that which was not fit to be treated as bush. When you go -- study the history of New Hampshire and Vermont, gentlemen, here -- while you are here perhaps you do this -- and you go and consider where the first settlement -- settlers worked in 1769, when this college was founded -- you will to your surprise -- find that Lewiston then was completely empty, that the -- the level of Norwich Village was completely unused, that the people over there in Norwich settled where now the old meeting house -- the first cemetery is, on top of the whole wall of hills that rise above the river, because there were no red Indians. There were no bears and wolves, and there was no fever. There was not the pest, the plague, you see. You didn't fall sick. In 1768, Norwich has been founded, a year before Hanover, '67, as a matter of fact. The meeting house was established on top of the hill there in -- at that time. In 1817, the people of Norwich moved to the second level, where they are now, where the grocery store is, and where the city -- or town hall is, and the bandstand, and the common. And in 1850, when the railroad was built, and the bridge was renewed, Lewiston came into being, where you now -- it is said that the Dartmouth boys who don't want to pay their bills have their bills sent to, because it's in Vermont and so you can't be arrested when you don't pay them. Is that true?

That's why there is a post office in Lewiston, you see. I shouldn't tell you.

So you see in this moment, in this country here, and at this place, you can follow the story of man's settlement, how he first just perches on the -- nests on the hills, high hills. And the old tribesmen, of course, moved on then, from one hill to another, and always avoided the depths. And how it was only the railroad that forced the origin of this terrible town called White River Junction, in Hartford, which as you know, was never meant to be a place to be lived in, but just to get drunk in.

So late, gentlemen, is the conquest of the valley -- I have to tell you this so that you do -- feel that you can understand the miracle of Egypt, and the miracle of the Euphrates and Tigris. That it took a tremendous change of aspect, of point of view, before the second man took up his life on this -- no longer on the earth as a

bush, but on the earth as a soil. If you put to the tribe as a label the treatment of the earth, you must call it "bush." Be bushwhacked. That's why we call paths, and trails, everything of a movement, he imposed on this earth. Warpath. But within the empires, gentlemen, the same earth is now treated as a gift of Heaven, as soil. It would be very important -- it hasn't been done yet, to follow into all languages this dualism of terms for the same thing, for the good earth.

What is soil? Soil is the earth given for a second time out of nothing, out of a flood. Soil is the watered earth, the watered bush, the -- the earth made fertile by the inundation. The whole story is reflected in the -- our testament, or in Noah. Noah is pharaoh purified. Noah is, so to speak, the gist of the Egyptian story without the superstitions. The Bible, you see, had to give a universal history of mankind, minus the terrors of the vendetta, that is, minus Cain. And you see in the first -- in the first chapters a thousand year of Adam. And Adam lives 924 years, so you see the old writer had a very clear conception that this was to cover a whole age, one millenium. The tribal life is given in the first chapters of Genesis. It is absolutely, simply true to form. The story of Cain is the story of the eternal vendetta, the man driven out, and the story of the altar on which Abel {burnses}, and the story of the incest rules, and everything is in this -- in the story. Adam lives a thousand years. That is -- wasn't superstition, gentlemen. It meant that his eye, his spirit was worshiped in the totems of the tribes for that time. Noah was the first man who lives after the death of Adam. That's very peculiar. If you figure out. He comes -- he is born when Adam is dead. All the other people between Noah and -- Adam and Noah are born still in the lifetime of the tribal age of Adam.

Noah -- the whole Bible is -- set against Egypt. The exodus of Egypt has, of course, made history for the Jews. Israel owes its existence, that it supersedes the order of the empires. That's his story. There are Jews in order to protest against this checkerboard business of Heaven coming to earth, place after place. It's a protest against the idolatry of Egypt, as we shall see. The temples and the priests of Egypt, the sorcerers of Egypt, the hieroglyphs of Egypt.

But so next time, you will kindly bring your old -- your Bible, and we'll go through a number of items in which the Bible opposes the Egyptians. And by taking this a little more serious than usually you do, you'll come to understand the glories of Egypt also a little better, because it is not for nothing that Professor Moses turned against the -- his Egyptian university, which was going strong in his days, you see, and said this is all nonsense. We have to start from scratch { }. Let's have a break.