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Student introduction: (Philosophy 58, March 25th, 1954)

[Opening remarks missing]

... don't know how long I have to {spend} now giving you the movement of the divine family in the face of the Egyptians, that is, what we -- you would call the history of religion, the history of the Egyptian religion. Today most people write histories of topics which they do not understand. It's very easy to write the history of France or of America. You begin somewhere, and you add some wars, and then you come -- go on from year to year. That's what most people today call history. But they never give you a budget of the elements that constitute, for example, America. And only as long as they are these funda- -- fundamental elements can you have a history of these elements.

Most historians today have their politics, and their own religion, and their concept of art from the newspapers. And that makes modern historians so absolutely incompetent. If you read Mr. Toynbee, he doesn't know what religion is; he doesn't know what politics is; but he knows all about the history of all the civilizations. But he has never asked himself, "What is the elementary budget, what are the inescapable minimum requirements of a going civilization?" Most historians just study some period and think they know all about humanity, and about the laws of a body politic. But they have never learned the grammar or the law, or the dictionary, the cookbook out of which you can only dish out life. I tried to show you some such household in the animistic organization of the grave, and the altar, and the warpath, and the dancing ground. And I -- tried to show you that there can be no tribe without marriage rules, without memory of the dead, without sacrifice for misdeeds, and without resistance against outer interference. And I tried to show you that such a tribe has therefore to have four directions and four places, or four meeting -- grounds, against which this group can -- must be considered as a going concern.

We come now to the economy of the Egyptian religion. Quite unknown to all the books on Egypt. Most -- books on Egypt are picture books. They are utterly ridiculous. But the same is true, gentlemen, of Rome or Greece. When you read these people who give you a history of Greece, they don't tell you what Greece is. But how can you give the history of something which you first doesn't -- do not understand its operations? The greatest Rom- -- historian of Rome said, "Nobody can study the history of a country who has not studied, for example, its laws." Now ask any man today in this college who -- speaks of European history how much he knows of the laws of these various countries. Nothing. Absolutely

nothing. And he thinks he can give the history of such a country. It's absurd. Today history has become a ghost, you see, a specter. You -- you tell the -- one event after another, but you don't -- cannot refer this event to an order.

Now, my problem tonight is -- today is -- well, in Egypt, day and night, as you know, have to be united, so -- is to show you that history means the shifting emphasis from one of the existing elements to another. If you get the history of Christianity, gentlemen, you can see that the last century has shifted the emphasis in the Christian faith on the life of Jesus. There is such emphatic interest in His life -- there is very little interest in His death, because this country doesn't want to hear of death, so they have even managed to bring the man who made death understandable and fruitful under the heading of "biography." Well, Jesus Christ, of course, has no biography. He has only a thanatography, He has a thanatos, meaning "death." We write the story of His death in order to understand our live. But the last century has perverted, or has changed, you may say -- you -- as you please: the history of the Christian religion ends in a life of Jesus. Gentlemen, it begins, as you well know, with an apostolic age. And then it comes to a patristic age. And then it comes to a -- you could call "marienological" age, or I don't know what the best term is; the mother of God enters the picture, and there -- is grave interest in the Mother of God, as you still see in the dogma proclaimed by the pope two y- -- last year, you see, about the bodily assumption of the Mother Virgin.

So obviously, gentlemen, Mary is the mother of Christ from the very beginning. The apostles are there when He begins His mission. John and Peter, as you know, are called out right after His baptism in the Jordan, to leave John the Baptist and to follow Him. Apostolic, yet it is perfectly true that there is one age in the history of the Church when the age becomes the apostolic, because the whole interest centers on the Apostles. You understand now perhaps that history is one great firmament, slowly moving like the Great Egyptian Year of 1460 years. There is, for example, in Christianity, Christ the Star, the morning star. But you can look at other parts of the pyramid. And history is the slow movement of all the possible constellations or emphases you can put on other parts of the Christian pyramid. But today, as Mr. -- Mr. Hitler has said, Christianity may be over if you think that the life of Jesus is the last emphatic interest on Christianity. It began with an interest in His resurrection and it -- you see, then came the story of the Apostles, who had been the children, the fruits of this resurrection, who said that they had now the soul of Christ, vivid in themselves through His resurrection, that resurrection meant that they were apostles, before they had been disciples.

So the Resurrection is the first light in this historical cycle; the second are the Apostles, the fruits of this resurrection. The third is the going-back to Mother

Mary, and the whole -- Old Testament, the bringing in of the liturgy, of the Psalms and everything that the Church holds to this day. Then you, as you -- I told you, can get another interest. You can stress the Roman centralization from -- for 500 years you may say the Church history is the Church -- history of Rome. Then you get Protestantism, and you get the interest in the Evangelists, in the four Evangelists. That's another side, you see, because the Gospel is translated. And you can also say, as I said, the last 200 years people have concentrated on the life of Jesus. And everything else was just -- went overboard. If it goes totally overboard, if Jesus -- the story of Christianity ends in this way, that you are interested only how to put Him into the American Encyclopedia of Biography, then out He goes as a religious power. And that would be the end of the history of Christianity.

Now in a similar way, I'm sorry to say, as such a cycle of shifting interest, the elements of Egyptian religion have passed before the eyes of the Egyptians, one after another. And the economy of Egypt, gentlemen, had four necessary elements. It had to have the court of the pharaoh as a movable thing. You remember the south-north direction. You had to have the movement of Horus against Set. And you had naturally in this valley of the Nile, which goes from s- -- north -- south to north, it had the problem of the stars from the east to the west, exemplified by two great stars at n- -- day -- at day, the sun; and at night, Sirius or {Sotis}, {Soptid}. So here we have the fundamentals. We have the court. We have the temple. We have towards the environment the fortifications, the fortresses instead, you remember, of the warpath, so that this Heaven on earth may not be -- may not be threatened. And so we can write here the four elements of Egyptian religion down also in such a -- in such a way that which is expected to return in eternal recurrence is not the grave, but the temple. The temple will guarantee the Great Year, the 1460 years, and the action of all the servant-stars, as they were officially called, of the deacons, as bringing back the loot, you see, as their lieutenants, the chief of the stars, Isis. Then you have, as defending the outer world, the fortress. You have the farm-, or the garden-, or the storehouseeconomy inside and I'd like to use the Greek word for this Egyptian institution of the oekos. Oekos is the same as in "economy." It's the Greek word which you have in "economy" and "ecology." And it's an important word, because it means the household with servants, and farmland, run- -- going on what we today would call a "business." The going concern on land, in land. It isn't quite right to call it a farm, because the owner of a farm nowadays may go to Florida during the winter. This an Egyptian oekos owner could not do. The economist of Egypt was a man who really had to be in the place, you see, and run. A husband-man, as we say, which also comes from "house." Husband -- "husbandry" is a very good word and it's simply the English word for "economy."

So, but the word ecos, gentlemen, is deprived of religious connotations. It's

not a temple, although the temple had economists to run their -- their own -- their land, you see, their property. And it isn't in a fortress with the military considerations -- prevail. You have, of course, foodstores. You have to have bread, and meat, and wine as -- in supplies in the fortress, but you don't consider the fortress to be just an ecos. It has its first, as we say, a fort. I mean, all the -- forts against the Indians you see, were -- they had storehouses, as you know, and they had -- they had traders in all these Western forts. It was very important that you could buy stuff there, at Fort Sumter, et cetera. But that isn't the -- the main point, of course. It was the strong point for military purposes.

Now gentlemen, the weakness of the Egyptian society, by which it led to its downfall, is exactly the weakness of the Egypt- -- of the tribal society. You remember the tomb, the warpath, the dancing ground. They in themselves are innocuous. But the altar led to all the werewolves, to all the vendettas, because that was expiation. That needed sacrifice, it needed victims. It was -- needed the shedding of blood all the time to correct the ways of old, which had been co- -- seemed to be corrupted by any innovation.

So the altar, with the human sacrifices, as you see them in the Orozco frescoes, who is the end, or is the limitation, or is the corruption of the tribe, is its incapacity of changing anything, is we -- weighed down by precedent. The Egyptian eternal present, as I tried to tow -- shell -- show you, is a little different. To the Egyptian the eternal present means not that an altar has to expiate change so much, but that anything that happened new could only, since they were not moving, but staying put, would come from -- in from the outside. Egypt has been dominated by foreign rulers from 900 B.C. to this day. The last king, Monsieur Farouk, was an Albanese horse thief. He came from a family of thieves of -- from Albania. And as you know, most Albanese now live in Lynn, Massachusetts. But some went to Egypt and became kings of Egypt. And -- and that is Farouk. And that is his dynasty. They were not Egyptians. The Egyptians have not had kings of their own descent for the last 3,000 years. And that you have to take into consideration if you understand the weak-willed -- wish to understand the weakness of eternal settlement. That which comes and moves around you from the outside, you can do very little about it. You have -- can stay put and stay in the fortresses, at the frontier, if you are lucky. You can fight -- defend your country against the enemy. But you know this mentality of modern man, also. He says, he'll only fight defensive wars. Well, if you only fight defensive wars, the time comes very soon that you can't fight any war obviously, because if you allow all the rest of the world to prepare for the war, and you finally say, "Now I have to fight for my life; they attack me," that's too late.

Now that's exactly what happened to the Egyptians. They had only one way, gentlemen, of knowing what was going on in the external world. You had to

take this very seriously, this being stymied, the -- Chinese exactly the same, by the outer world, which was forbidden, which was barbaric, which was foreign. It's the marketplace, gentlemen, the trader alone who can set foot into such a country in a peaceful way without destroying it, without conquering it, he can bring it commodities. This country has, as its great marketplace, New York. Here all the foreign ideas of the -- are traded. Greenwich Village acts as then -- as some such vaccination center of America. Otherwise this country, as a big country, as just an empire -- state, you know -- as a geographical unit, would have no connection with the rest of the world to speak of. Because simply even by reporting what happens elsewhere, you are not connected without the outer world. Something has to -- really to go on between you and the rest of the world. Americans are very glib about this connection. Everybody coming to this country and running away from another country, the people here didn't give much time to the thought how they would stay connected with the rest of the world. And they turned their back on Italy, or Poland, for that matter, and they lived here, happily hereafter. But in the long run, gentlemen, if everybody would only come to this country, you see, looking into Missouri, they would very soon be as stupid as a man from Missouri. He would only believe his five senses because the people of Missouri say, you see, "I have to be shown." Now that's a very poor education, because educated man believes what he is not shown. If you can't do this, you are not -- certainly have no spirit and you can't live. The Missouri people however, as you know, boast of this stupidity. Who is from Missouri in this class?

Well, I have always wondered that the people thought it was -- this low-brow expression was good. It is an -- expression of desperation if you say you have to be shown. You cannot live with a person who always has to be shown. No faith, no hope, no love lost on such a person. Love means, and faith means, and hope means that you can live with people without being shown. I mean, who could marry you, gentlemen, if you had to show -- that would take you 70 years before you could prove that you make enough money to support a family? In the process of living with your wife, you prove it. But she has to marry you beforehand, just on faith. So never take a wife from Missouri.

But gentlemen, that's the empire problem. So we put here, into the Egyptians { } the marketplace. Can you -- can you see it here? So we will say the cross of reality of any empire -- be it Mexico, or China, or Egypt -- will always be the relation of the powers of the ecos, where the wherewithal is earned; of the oriented economy; the temple, which establishes the eternal recurrence, the certainties of the era, of the eon of eons; the fortresses which defend in space the inroads of the enemy; and that accidental loophole into the created future in which, in disregard of the eternal recurrence of the temple service, in disregard of the calendar, the Jesuits come into China and are allowed in by the emperor.

From the point of view of the Chinese, the Jesuits, who in the 17th century, as you may have heard, went to China and nearly converted the whole empire in a magnificent campaign, from the point of view of the Chinese, they came -- didn't come as missionaries -- that was out of the question, because they didn't know what missions were. They were after all Chinese. They were not Christians, you must understand. To them it was a new commodity, something interesting from the outside, something that had nothing to with their rules of life, something you had to weigh and to look at from all sides and -- like you look at a foreign gem, at a jewelry, at a nice, interesting foreign thing. That's how you travel in Europe. I mean, you look at these people as objects of your curiosity. You can say, the American way of life is not so much the marketplace only of New York, but every businessman travels outside and buys some interesting human beings in Europe, whom he thinks are funny. An Austrian prince, you see, or an English -- Lady Astor or some such commodity, and brings it home and says, "You can go to the natural museum -- the Museum of Natural History now, and I'll pay for you for the rest of your life, because you are so funny." When you say of a person he is funny, you mean he is a commodity. He is something to look at, to stare at. He's interesting. Jennie Lind came to this country on this commercial basis. The first great artist, as you may have heard, who brought music to this, at that time terribly anti-musical, country a hundred years ago. And do you know who her agent was? Very typical. Under what class Jennie Lind came? Have you never heard of Jennie Lind? The Swedish Nightingale?

(Barnum. Barnum. Barnum.)

Well, that's a typical American solution of the -- relation to a foreign empire -- to foreign empires, you see. This country, being so much a world by itself, said Jennie Lind comes under the heading "Barnum." That's the circus. Apes, elephants, and Jennie Lind.

Now, I'm not joking, gentlemen. We have a picture of Egyptian old rule, where monkeys from Nubia and Negro dwarves are shown around at the temple -- at the open place in front of the temple -- exactly like Barnum today, or Ringling Brothers. That is, the circus, the fair was in the old kingdom already the way in which the Egyptians deigned to take cognizance of the existence of other countries. It's literally true. I don't -- think there is one picture even there, in -- in this little pamphlet, I'm quite sure -- in which dwarves and animals -- foreign animals are shown. So in this way, as a curiosity, the empires take cognizance of the outer world. Very much as you do. That's why curiosity in this country has this strange ring of something good. By curiosity, you come to know things that are otherwise outside the system of your own life, you see. Curiosity is the admission of foreign things that are not systematized. An omelet-souffl‚ is -- you look at it with curiosity when you go to the French restaurant, because here, you

see, you don't have it. Or pumpernickel, with your white -- terrible white bread and these damn crackers which you get here, which I really always want to -- would like to throw at -- at the waiter -- in the waiter's face, but then it wouldn't even hit him, it's so ridiculous. So pumpernickel would be a curiosity.

You live very much on -- in such an empire-island, gentlemen, because most things are curious -- you look at with curiosity. Anything you are not accustomed to, the only way you will be reconciled to my thing is if he's funny, this is a curiosity. I am a curiosity. That's why you tolerate me. Curiosities one doesn't take seriously.

Now we have discovered here something quite different from the tribal life. If you look at the faces of the marching tribesmen on the Orozco fresco, the future to them is to be redeemed. It is sad. They are melancholic. The Egyptians are very cheerful, because what they expect from the outside world are curiosities. Elephants, as I said, and dwarves, and Jennie Linds. Is no danger they really fear. The cheerfulness of the Egyptian scene has to do with their living in space, only, in an enlarged space, a space of 1460 years' duration and a new beginning after that. But still, the brightness of the Egyptian scene strikes you when you see their pictures on the temple walls; they're gay. They are -- keep -- they keep smiling, like the Chinese and like -- as you do. All the underneath sadness is denied. There is no dying. Pharaoh lives forever in his pyramid, as a star. The -- the living declare that there are no dead. If this all is true, gentlemen, if every empire for the last 5,000 years has made an attempt, as you see it today in America, to cope with one's own life -- here we have, instead of the temple, we have the stock exchange, and the marketplace we have, the telegraph, and the news, and the travel agencies, and your trips through Europe -- 26 countries in 6 weeks and ...


Don't laugh, gentlemen. I once tried to persuade a class that they shouldn't go to Europe to more than one country, and they should not take a return ticket. They should expose themselves to the danger of getting stuck there and finding it so beautiful that they could live there really, and make a real experience. I said, if you get a return ticket, you can't go to anyplace. A return ticket makes it impossible for you to experience anything there. So the result of my sermon was that after class, a boy came to me right away and said he was off to Europe and he would see 26 countries, and would I help him to see them all. I couldn't, of course. I said I didn't even know there were 26 countries.

So you see, gentlemen, the soul of man in an empire, or in a -- in a land, in a -- under a state-rule as you live in the United States of America, this -- the capaci-

ties of the soul that are developed, they are of a very special nature. The future is left to accident, to the latest news, to curiosity. The past is as you live, the academic year, the 365 days, the business cycle, the football matches in October, the baseball that goes on -- who remembers that football didn't exist in 1860- -- 55, if you think of an American today, he thinks football is a part of the American scene, and he will not admit that it ever has not been in it. Because what he calls America is that which comes back every year, you see, as -- certain as that you should flunk this course.

With this strange distribution of certainty, the future totally accidental, the fu- -- past absolutely recurrent, and our sport calendar -- has just this certain character, our military might -- air carriers, air bases, you see, so powerful that we have our tentacles so far out, you see, that we -- nobody really is afraid in America to this day of an outer enemy. No reason. And with a productive capacity that overshadows everything in any other country, we are very much like the Egyptians, because, gentlemen, the fruitfulness of the earth of the Nile, of this newgiven soil really is a miracle to pre- -- primitive man, as much as our capacity of producing tanks, or having oil in any, you see, in any quantities to heat our houses. The wheat production of Egypt had the same productive, miraculous character as our own production today. Obviously as long as there would be an Egypt, gentlemen, people had to worship the powers that constituted this tremendous achievement.

Therefore, I now propose to go with you through the four chapters, and they are not accidental -- let me keep this better temple -- the four chapters of Egyptian religious life. You can see that simply {for man's} sense for novelty the circulation of the religious emphasis -- or the circulation of thought, you may call it, with the title of my Philosophy 10 class -- the history of the Egyptian religion will be very much a circling, a focusing, alternatingly on one of these aspects after another. It will be an attempt to see, and to digest, and to love, and to worship, and to actualize one -- aspect or the other of these items.

And I open therefore -- I use this chapter, gentlemen, not so much to give you the history of Egypt. I do this in more -- I have more time in -- next year, I am going to give Philosophy 40, comparative religion, perhaps some of you are interested in that, and if you could say -- tell other people that I am going to give this course. There we -- we will have more time to deal with the history of this specific religion. I'm -- thought I should give you this here in Philosophy 8 -- 58 to introduce you to the real meaning of history. Mis- -- history is impossible if you don't have the subject of the history, the carrier of the history. Now the carrier of an historical development in human society cannot be a single man, because he dies too soon. So the history of a -- of -- biography is not inducive to under- -- to make you understand history. You can read the life of Washington,

and the life of Lincoln, and the life of Jackson, and the life of Horace {Greenley}, and the life of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and you still don't understand anything of history. Because life, biography, single life unfortunately split history into fragments. It would only be possible for you to use biography usefully, profitably if you could see into one man's life the whole history of mankind. Now in the life of Jesus, this is possible. And perhaps that's the step by which we will overcome this dead weight of a pure biography of Jesus, which has exploded all Christianity, and all Ch- -- belief in the Church, and all life of the Church. We perhaps can -- I perhaps can invite you to see in your own life the various stages of mankind. Perhaps you live through your own life the childhood of man, and the adolescence of man, and the manhood of man. Then you would see that your own life is symbolical, you see, and pregnant with the whole life of mankind, but that isn't done in your biographies. Your biographies therefore are very dangerous if you do not balance them with real history.

Now the history of Egypt is such a chapter in which you perhaps -- from which you should not just take the Egyptian facts, but remind you, if any history book you open today presupposes that you know the topic of which the history is given, and in 99 cases out of a hundred, you don't know the history -- the topical carrier of the history at all, you see. So they tell you a history, and that's why history today has no appeal to your heart. That's why it is such a stepchild in the -- on the modern scene, because how can we -- I'd be interested in the history of something, which I do not understand in its own workings. When is America a going concern? Well, only as long as it is a new world to Europe. So in order to understand American history, you would under- -- have to understand that for 300 years, people from Europe were magnetized, and attracted to America. In order to understand why they should -- be attracted, you must understand the relation of Europe of -- to America, and you would have to {shutter} your pride and would have to say, "America for the last 300 years has only been important because it stood out in the eyes of the Europeans as a new world." You have not been {abolished} in your own life. Ask your grandfather, who came here. He was interested in getting out of Europe. And here was an opening, and he could get here, you see. So gentlemen, mat- -- it matters very little what America was. It was very little at that time, you see, but it was very -- very much that there was too much of life -- and order and -- and ruins in Europe, so people wanted to leave it. You will never understand an American history as it is taught in this country, because you never hear what it meant that the Mormons recruited all their womenfolk in Denmark, and Germany, and Sweden. That's a Swedish event. That's a Danish event. That's a German event. Has nothing to do with America. But that's how American history for -- at this moment is written, you see. It is not written because you will -- do not wish to admit that to the -- down to the first World War, America was a dependency of Europe. It was spiritually the gold of the Europeans. People wanted to come here, so they carried it in

their hearts, and even all the bandits and all the harlots in this country didn't give a damn for their own country here, and behaved very badly; the Amer- -- Europeans who came here in growing numbers, they made something out of this country. And that's the story of America. It's a great story, gentlemen, but you deprive it of its greatness when you begin in even America. You must see it in its togetherness as a -- in a frame of reference in which America was the New World and Europe was the Old World. You see that I do not want to do anything against the glories of this country, but I want to -- put it in perspective, you see. I want to show the dynamic forces which led people into this country. And they are all cut off in your history books. Every -- all the history begins in the harbor of New York. That's impossible.

So you see, you must try to revive history. All -- ev- -- who has taken 57? You remember, this has been my -- the impact of our whole problem. Here I can use -- give you one example in which you see that history is something astronomical. The hearts of man move from one constellation to which they have to bow to another in various intensity -- just as in Christianity I told you, the -- the attention has gone from Mary to the Apostles, from the Apostles to the saints, from the saints to the life of Jesus, you see, to the li- -- now it goes to the liturgy, you see. At this moment, you know, we have a great liturgical movement all over the place, which is a new chapter in the history of the Church. It is stressed how miraculous it is that in centuries past people created the liturgy. And that seems to be the heart of the matter at this moment. And everything else, the dogma and so, is pushed in the background, you see. Ja? A question?

Here is my scheme. The first chapter is dealing with these gods, especially. The second chapter is dealing with Ra, the sun-god. And we'll see how strange that is, how absolutely is equal to Jesus and Mary, to Christ and Her -- His mother Mary, this change from Horus and Set to Ra. There are then, as we shall put on, other gods coming into the picture at each phase. The third phase is the stressing of Osiris, and his lady, Isis. And there go with it the god Amen and Aton. I just give them { } example. The last phase, that begins at the moment when the foreigners intrude and Egypt ceases to have a government of Egyptian blood, of Egyptian origin, you get the cult under which Egypt is most known, the cult of Serapis, in Alexandria, or the Apis bull. Again, there are other gods that go with it. The deity of Hecate, as it s called in Greece, the goddess of witchcraft, of writing, Hecate.

Now, to begin with the last chapter. In the form of the last religious phase of Egypt, Egyptian belief has reached us, the Christian world. When I traveled in Germany -- Western Germany, I came to the city of Trier. Trier is at one time the residence of the emperor Constantine, who be- -- the first Christian emperor -- and was the capital of Rome -- the Roman Empire for the northwestern prov-

inces. Was a very important city. There is still the Porta Nigra, the black gates, a Roman building standing in the midst of the city. There are old romanesque basilicas -- churches, and it's one of those really still ancient places. When you come to Trier, you feel very far from modern times. It's on the Moselle River. Now this city of Trier, the residence of Constantine, of course still holds many remains. And so excavations were going on in the year 1932, it must have been. Ja, '32. And I went to Trier. I came from Luxembourg, and was told that the excavations of the archaeologists were going on near this church of {Saint Seno}. And I went out and the archaeologist told me a startling story. He said to me they had dug out there an Egyptian temple of Isis and Osiris, and Serapis. And they had the vintners, the people who were the -- how do you say "vintners"? The people who grow the wine around -- the Moselle wine around Trier had, of course, flocked to this place and looked at it. And an old farmer, oldtimer, had spoken to this archaeologist and when they very learnedly had said, "This is a temple of Isis and Osiris, of the old Egyptian gods," he said, "Well, we knew this all along, that these people here around had a temple. There's a tradition in our community. We knew this. We could have told you beforehand. Here they worship the golden calf." Here they worship the golden calf.

That is, for the common man, in direct tradition from the Egyptian times, this temple must have been built, by and large, in 200 A.D., you see. It was kept open probably as late as 400 or 500 of our era. The -- the people in the region, who had probably worshiped there, and their ancestors themselves, still knew the golden calf had been worshiped. That is, the golden calf is Serapis, or Apis, the Apis bull. For what we call the bull in the Bible is the calf, the golden calf. In this latest form, you all know of the Egyptian religion. And I think it's always good to begin with the end, whenever there is such a tradition, because "golden calf" is condescending, is pejorative. You know all about it and you say we are rid of this civilization, you see. The golden calf civilization is gone, fortunately.

Everything, gentlemen, of which there is a direct tradition in history has always a bad name in the history with the -- the people who had to supersede it. The Jews and the Christians. The Jews in -- in leaving Egypt, and the Christian vintners, the Christian farmers in Trier now living there and having become Christians pooh-pooh what they have been through before with -- before. It's very important. You hear the word "feudalism," gentlemen, today used in the same way. People say it's terrible, feudalism. Gentlemen, feudalism was a glorious thing. Just as Egypt was a glorious thing. If you do not understand feudalism, you do not understand Mr. Wilson today, who's a -- typical modern feudalist. And all this cabinet of eight billionaires and no plumber. We live in the times of industrial feudalism today. You all are -- will be employees. What else are you then, but vassals? But nobody must say it, because with great adroitness the people have heaped all kind of -- of curses on feudalism. I'm all for feudalism,

gentlemen, if you know what it is. But you have -- say feudalism in a decaying state, when it had no function, when gunpowder had been invented, and we didn't need any knights living in castles, because the guns would break down the castles, the feudal knights were very funny. They were ineffective. They were just as a doctor of the horse-and-buggy days as compared to the Mary Hitchcock clinic. That's feudalism, an ineff- -- a system turned ineffective, and therefore now contempted, despised. Gentlemen, in its high days, glorious, very great, and very well functioning, for that matter. The same is true then -- that's why I begin with the end -- the golden calf of Egypt is that aftertaste which it has left behind. Something silly, something superstitious, something to be left behind. As we say, there are no sacred cows in Boston, meaning that we have shaken ourselves free of the sacred cows of Egypt, you see. But that doesn't explain the high days.

So, gentlemen, Egyptian civilization seems to end in the cult of {anims}. Since it does this, we are immediately reminded of the pre-empiri- -- empire states of the tribe, animism. Could it be that the Egyptian civilization, in its ending phase, slunks back to the pre-empire -- days and in order to satisfy the believers everywhere, in Trier, of the Moselle River, has to go back to a ritual which it really had superseded. If I read today some statements of the Vatican, I feel that it is very pre-Christian, that in a desperate effort to keep the superstitious people, inside the Church, the Church is going behind its own era, in an attempt to save itself. That's very true, gentlemen. It's a great temptation for any group to make concessions to the preliminary stages before its existence in order not to lose out totally. I think you may -- you -- there is great truth in this fact that today the churches are in a great temptation to go back to pre-Christian tenets. They either go Judaic, or they go Greek, or they go Egyptian today in their appeals.

Now the Egyptians went back to tribalism, trying to appeal to every man by the cult of animals, which reminded these primitive people of their own totems, of their own animistic philosophy. This obviously, gentlemen, became all the more necessary the more the cult of the Egyptian gods was carried outside the old empire of the Nile Valley. What could you tell a man in Trier of a river being divine by being flooded every year and racing from south to north, when the nor- -- Moselle River goes from west to east? And is a very winding river, has absolutely nothing to do with the flood, is -- these -- these very steep banks of the Moselle River know nothing of such problems whatsoever.

Now the previous stage, gentlemen, is a stage in which -- the cult has not been blamed as superstitious and to be superseded by Christianity, but in stage Number 3. Egypt has conquered the world. The farmers, the peasants of all of Europe, and Africa, and India to this day follow some ritual in their harvest and seed time of the Egyptian tradition. There is still a wedding celebrated of two --

toy -- how do you call them -- two doilies -- two puppets of straw, getting married in the field: Zeus and Hera, Isis and Osiris. That is, the -- what I told you about the sacred marriage of Isis and Osiris is still celebrated somewhere in the fields, in a Basque village to this day, or in Romania, or in Africa, or in India. The ritual of a wedding, made -- meaning copulation and fertilization, has been inherited. So they still have received it into the -- the womb of time of their own history, all these past. Mr. Frazer, the author of The Golden Bough has a very remarkable line on this. He said, "The Church and the Roman Empire have barely scratched the surface of these human souls, but the Egyptian tradition has. It has penetrated, because their work is still blessed by this ritual."

Now you see in stage Number 3, the one point I wish to make is: there is still something to learn from the Egyptians. And this was an article of export, I should say, beginning 1500 B.C. In a tremendous swing, China -- the Chinese received it, the Hindus received it, the Cambodians received it, and finally, here the Americans received it. But more than that. If you go to Tibet today, to the outskirts of Asiatic civilization, you will find there the Book of the Dead. You will find there what is said to the dying man, when he wants to go to the nether world, and to become an Osiris. The famous Book of the Dead is nothing but the text spoken into the ears of the dying Egyptian. And now you find it as far away as Tibet.

[tape interruption]

... Tibetan knowledge, you see. But she didn't like it at all that this was nothing but something landing at the outskirts of civilization from the Nile Valley, but that's what it is.

So gentlemen, there is another element, a religious element. Osiris is the god that dies every year and rises again. You remember. He is dismembered and he is put together again. He is deprived of his potency, and in the middle of his ruins, he rises again in his glory. Therefore, Osiris is the ideal of the dying man. In the third stage of this -- a religious development, gentlemen, of constellation, every Egyptian farmer wants not only to celebrate the settlement of the land -- Isis being the seed, and Osiris being the maker of the seed, of the throne, of the order, of the orientation of his yard and of his -- the water ditches, irrigation ditches -- they also want to share his fate. The god of the year, Osiris, becomes for every Egyptian at home the model for his own death. Every Egyptian in this third era, which we find from -- especially its first -- from 1800 to, say, 300 B.C. wants to be an Osiris himself. Osiris has now been -- been democratized. Whereas at first it is the whole country, now everybody says, "My own little oekos," ecos -- my own little economy must be symbolized by the relation of Osiris and Isis. So Osirises multiply. Every individual Egyptian now tries to be treated in his

funeral as an Osiris, which of course is absurd to think of, just as it was considered absurd that every Christian in the beginning would be a Christ. Today it isn't so -- absurd that everybody thinks he has a private relation to Christ and not a public relation. You know there are innumerable people who have their personal relation to Jesus, but they have no official relation to Him. That would be the same as the stage in which the Osiris religion felt -- found itself in late Egypt, when nobody paid attention to the foreign rulers, the {Ptolemines}, or the Persians, or the Ethiopians, or the {Hckseu}, or any of these foreigners who conquered -- Alexander the Great, you see, hated them but wanted to inherit the earth from Osiris, in -- within his little -- patch of {farmland}.

So in the third stage, gentlemen, we have something like the Reformation, where everybody reads the Bible; everybody can pray to God privately; and nobody goes to Church any longer. That is, by and large, the American scene of today. We are in the third stage where Christ -- that is, the risen power of the divine life in the form of Osiris at that time -- is entering into a personal relation with every Egyptian family. It is the same time, gentlemen, at which every Egyptian tries to have a private horoscope. As you know, you can now read in the papers these silly horoscopes. They make absolutely no sense, because we have new planets discovered and therefore nothing of the old traditions have any value, of course. It is just unbelievable how anybody can read this stuff. But in Egypt, the state of the democratization of Osiris was also connected with the democratization of the heavens. Man got a private relation to Heaven. In -- quite impossible in the beginning, you see. When you begin, we wait for the end of the world, as the first Christians waited, there is a world catastrophe for all. There is the eternal Jerusalem, with no temple in it, you see. There is the slaughter of the -- of the martyrs, of the elders for your -- for the whole Church's sake, there is no individual problem to be solved. There is only one, great universal history of Christ, with this humanity, with the human race, but with the Reformation and the pietism, and the Mennonites, and the Baptists -- they all want to be privately saved. Everyone wants to go to Heaven, you see, for his own virtues. And therefore, you get the idea of a predestination in Calvinism. Here are the elect. Now that corresponds to the idea of a horoscope for an individual Egyptian. It's a contradiction in terms, because the whole problem of Egypt had been solidarity, all having the same horoscope, all having the same seven lean years, and seven fat years. But you see, religion is very absurd. History is very absurd. The necessity of individuals, living under foreign yoke, to inherit something of the great bliss of the whole of the civilization is too strong. You can't argue. You can't say that's paradoxical, you can't even say you are ignoramuses. You must be glad that these people want to have one more spark of eternal light led into their own life.

And therefore the horoscope that you find in the Egyptian graves of the last

thousand years before Christ has something very touching. It means that the private Egyptians now defend the past of their country against the foreign rulers, who do no -- do not really believe in it. When a Persian, or when Alexander the Great, or when Sulla, or when Pompey, or when Caesar, or Marc Antony -- you remember Antony and Cleopatra? -- when they rule Egypt, woe to the individual fellahin, to the individual peasant. What has -- is his relation to these foreigners? He can only despise them. So he clings to the Osiris and to the horoscope. The -- his scribe tells him that he has a special fate meted out in the houses of the sky, and like Osiris, the stars become a private communication to this individual Egyptian. If you think of astrology, it is absolutely crazy to think that a horoscope, you see, can cut out of the firmament, or in its galaxy and its movement, any special destiny for you and me. First, you must -- would have then to believe that all the world's catastrophes, really big ones, are meted out in Heaven -- the world war, you see, which sends you into uniform. But to begin with the private horoscope is -- is against all the evidence. All our five senses must cry out against such nonsense, because we are, after all, all under one sky. And -- the same sun lights on you and on me. And obviously the difference is minor between your being born 24 hours before, and the other person 24 hours later. The main thing is that you are still living within the same year, within the same time, under the same sky. Isn't that true? But since we have no prognostication at large, the individual horoscope, as it prev- -- is still -- is sold over the counter here in this country is -- is a -- a merciless stupidity.

But I have explained to you how it came to pass, I hope, this anarchy of the Os- -- cult of Osiris in the old Egypt.

The second -- third stage backward, is the cult of Ra. Osiris is a usurpation of the imperial rule by the individual farmer. The cult of Ra is the condescension of the rulers to the plight of the common man. What -- do I mean by this? Ra is the sun. Now, the sun is over every Egyptian's head. Every Egyptian has in the middle of his possessions the Nile. I s- -- told you that this small ribbon of fruitland on both sides of the Nile. Every Egyptian has nearly daily for any bus- -- some business to cross the Nile from east to west. The ordinary Egyptian fellahin -- that has, by the way, even been investigated -- never sees more than a few square miles of -- around the Nile during his whole lifetime. But every one Egyptian crosses the Nile. In this respect, every Egyptian has as his main street the passage from east to west, or west to east across the river. Every Egyptian has one line of communication a ship, a sailboat on which he can cross the Nile River, and cruise a little bit, perhaps a little north and little south in the next village -- but mainly go from east to west. The difference, gentlemen, between the ruling class in Egypt and the settlers are: the rulers must go from north to south and south to north, over wide stretches of land -- the employees, the officers, the military man, the king, the priest. The living set- -- the settlers, the

peasants must be satisfied with the direction east-west.

Now the second phase of religious life in Egypt therefore, began to accommodate the great sky-world of the first rulers, which gave them the good conscience that they could break all the taboos of the tribe -- you remember, everything that we said before on this. I cannot repeat it today -- that these people went back and -- these rulers and said, "After all, we have to live with these hundred thousand fellahin, these hundred thousand peasants. These people do not understand our problem of Horus and Set, because it's only a minority group, the clergy, who executes this, and thereby gets up steam." The people on the river banks -- the {riverains} as the French call it. How do you call these -- inhabitants of the banks of the river? Any word for it? The people who live alongside the river, you see. {Riverain} is the French, a very good expression for this, because it's a special character that these people have alongside the Mississippi River, you see. The people who -- who ask, "What is there in Arkansas?" And Missouri?" you see, "And Mississippi?" and want to be shown, because nothing ever moves. That's why they say in Missouri, you see, "I have to be shown." They are the typical low-brow people who sit and wait till something comes to them. They do not move.

This is very important, gentlemen. In the second phase, the cult of Ra translates the new belief of the empire builders to the people who live under their rule. There has been much debate; it is absolutely now agreed that the cult of Ra is a late -- of late origin in Egypt, that it breaks in only in the fifth dynasty { } after 400 years of rule of a pharaoh over Egypt. Four hundred years is a big order. It is perhaps as late as the cult of Mary in the Christian church, which also is not mentioned before the middle of the fifth century of our era. There is no vestige before of any such thing. Why? Because the heroes, the martyrs, the saints of Christianity had to do the utmost to establish the new boundaries of the new faith, this worldwide faith which was indifferent to Jerusalem, indifferent to Rome, indifferent to the Caesars, indifferent to the patriarchs, and to Moses. That's the tremendous heroism of the founders of our Church. Now obviously, gentlemen, there comes then a patience, a forbearance, an acquiescence with the people who have not undergone this tremendous all-out movement, who live under the domination of these new faithful, and who accept Christianity without ever having changed their own profession, or their own way of life. All the inhabitants of the Roman Empire at one time or another said, "All right, all right. These bishops, these saints have broken down the idols. Admit it. Idols. They were idols. They have proved it to us. We couldn't get rid of them. They braved the gladiator games. They braved the lion in the circus. We crucified them. They survived it all. Here they are. Now we submit." Now in the same way, Ra comforts now these people who acquiesce in the new domination and says to them, "Oh, we have something in common," just as the faithful in Europe, and in

Venezuela, in Mexico, and perhaps in this country, understand Mary more than they can understand heroism, because they don't want to be heroes. But they want to be nice children. And so they want to have this poppycock, or lolly- -- what is it? Lollipop? -- of sentimentality.

So in the same way, Ra is accessible to every inhabitant of the Nile Valley and so people say, "Now look: the Horus, the falcon who carries the sun from south to north, and slays his brother Set, who unites the country, and his father Osiris, whom he empowers to rule the dead, whom -- for whom he builds the pyramids so that he stays in this country forever and can never migrate away, whom he satisfied by the pyramids to show him that he is locked into this eternal presence." These people -- you -- they -- you can understand them. They are the children of Ra. They are the sun-god's children. They come directly from his might -- majesty. The {riverain}, the man on the river doesn't ask for this problem from north to south. That was an apostolic belief of the pharaoh himself. He wanted to be justified, as Horus, of his divine powers.

So gentlemen, in the second stage, Ra is the communication of the astral faith of the Egyptian rulers and this clergy to the common man, to the members of the tribes now asked to understand, and to share the faith of the ruling class, of the clergy. Don't say "ruling class" perhaps. Say "clergy." Gentlemen, it's very hard for you to understand that in Christianity, the clergy is not something democratic, elected from the bottom up. In the mind of Christ, He is there. And He's the great magnet to attract the Apostles. And the mag- -- Apostles are there and attract the bishops. And the bishops are there and attract the priests. And the priests are there and attract the deacons. And the deacons are there and attract the laity. You do not -- cannot hardly think of this hierarchical origin of Christianity, but it's true. Christ would have never conquered if He had gone before the class in Philosophy 58 and said, "Will you kindly elect me your savior?" No majority principle in the Christian church. Where it is, it's an abuse. But you believe this. It's very hard for an American { } to see that the Church has come down from Heaven above, down to earth. But that's the truth.

I once attended such a modern minister's church meeting where he said -- first had us first sing, "The Church is one foundation, is Jesus Christ our Lord," which is orthodox. And then he said, "Today we found the Church." Well, people who say they found the church know nothing what the Church is. You can't found the Church. It's not a club, gentlemen. It's not a fraternity. It's not an association. It's there, and it waits for you to join it. The same thing as people say that they have -- they have -- they have -- they're seeking God, or they're finding God. Gentlemen, that's all nonsense. If there is a God, the only thing you can expect is that He finds you. He is the acting force. It's all silly of you to call yourself God-seekers, or God-finders and so. Nothing of the kind. He'll find you

out. You may be sure of that. Can't escape Him. But it's no use running after Him. He's there all the time. The denial of God doesn't mean that you haven't found Him. But you haven't been quiet enough. You haven't stood still so that He could grab you up. His is the action, not yours.

Now any reasonable civilization has always known this. This is fantastic, your idea that you found the Church, and you found the state, and you found everything. And you found nothing. Stubble, chaff, dust.

Well, the great story here is, gentlemen, that Ra is the understandable part of the sky-world. His movements are from east to south to west. And in order to satisfy the common man, they said, "Yes, yes, Ra" -- just as Mary is called the -- the co-redemptrix, the co-redeemer with Jesus today, in a very, very blatant overstepping of her -- of her qualifications -- so Ra was the co-redeemer of the sky-world for these popularizing stages of Egyptian religion, because, as I told you just before, the sun -- they whispered, the priests, "Actually goes north, too at night. You actually don't see it." There are these high mountains in Europe, the Alps, and the Balkan mountains, and the {Carpae}, and behind those the sun is lifted up and disappears behind these northern mountains. And it doesn't go down in the nether world from west back to east as -- you see, but it goes north. And that has been believed for 3- or 4,000 years, that the Greeks still believed it, that the sun disappeared behind the northern mountains, which meant that the divinity of the sun was underlined, because this was the miraculous star, being able to go in all directions. And since Egypt depended on this totality, that man had a unity inherited, which was the real world, the whole world, that he was really, you see, depicting Heaven on earth. It was very important that the Heaven was all right, that you knew the -- how far the Heaven went. You had to know. Otherwise all the story was wrong, was so much, you see, ballyhoo. And people didn't want to lie. You always hear today of priests who -- who want to betray people. That's not true. All priests want to be in ac- -- in harmony with their folks. The priests are very honest, but they have a very difficult task, gentlemen. Because people who only live from east to west, do not wish to penetrate into the heroic efforts of living from north to south. So you people who want to have a civilian religion do not want to learn in time that you also have to leave your -- give your life for your country. Therefore, you always have to have some priesthood who disciplines you, because they know that life is half-military and half-civilian. And you don't like to hear that.

So in this sense, gentlemen, the laity makes it very hard on the priesthood to be honest, because they always have to compromise with you -- you don't like to be told that half of life is death. You want to hear that life is life. Now the priests know better. And then you speak of the dishonest priests who try to cheat the laity. No, the laity wants to be cheated! And the poor priests in the cult of Ra

only went as far as they possibly could in admitting that if you lived in one place in Egypt, it was perhaps enough for you to believe in the lawful order of the sun's rise and setting, and the further secrets of the inner cult of Osiris, and Horus, and Isis, were perhaps not your -- much your business.

And now, we come to the first stage, gentlemen. The rulers of Egypt, as long as they were native, had something that nobody else could use, because their -- the display, the layout of their country was unique. Stage 2 has been an article of export to all the ruling empires of the world. I told you that 3 came as a blessing to all the farming communities, and the cult of Osiris, in the Book of the Dead, too. This is the article of export to the common man. The horoscope, by the way, too. This is the curse, the golden-calf stage, in which people ridiculed it and turned against it. This is the article of export for other clergies. The cult of the sun in this special manner of orientation, of the four directions of the sun, was used by all the other empires. But now we come to the primary phase, the Christian faith, of Christianity would also be the martyrs, and the Apostles, and Christ. No other religion can imitate that. Without the first 300 years of Christianity, you can very well be a so-called Christian. That is, you can be a free mason. You believe in one god, the goodness of mankind, and all these things. But the three -- first 300 years, if you can't swallow them, Peter and Paul, and the Gospel, and the Letters to the Corinthians, you see, you cannot become a Christian.

And this is true of Horus and Set, gentlemen, of this strange world of the first 300 years of the Egyptian tradition. So make a very definite line between this period and this period. It is not because I'm -- you need to understand Egypt. But you must understand history. If you take the five books of Moses, gentlemen, and you take the Psalms, and you take the Prophets in the Bible, and you take the Books of Wisdom, you can easily see the last part of the Old Testament wasn't even written in Greek, that the Books of Wisdom was the thing that went over all the world. The prophets, the educated people of today, are very much interested in the prophets. But they say, "The first books -- the five books of Moses, that's just too superstitious. That's the law. We don't care for that." And the Psalms, they interested the clergy. The whole clergy of the Christian church to this day praise the Psalms all over Christianity. That's the second phase. But the third book of Moses, they say, "I -- we are sorry. That's too bloody. That's too cruel. That's atrocious. And geology {sells} us something different." And people don't like to read the books of Moses so much as they pray the Psalms. It's easier. Now there is a very -- more than accidental behavior, gentlemen. These four texts of the Old Testament constitute four phases of a -- of the history of Jewish religion. Now yet, who can deny that Moses prayed Psalms, and was a prophet? Who can deny that in the Books of Wisdom there is still the father of Abraham, Jacob, and -- and Isaac at work? There is unity, and morality. There is a shift in emphasis. The Books of Wisdom, written in Greek, are that which you can see in

Judaism from the outside without being an Israelite. The five books of Moses you can only share as an Israelite, as a man either of the new Israel or the old Israel; only a man perhaps in the spirit of the Puritans can celebrate as great revelations, the five books of Moses, because he feels that he has left Egypt. He knows of the fleshpots of Egypt and he feels that in the five books of Moses the freedom of the -- of the Messiah -- messianic race is guaranteed, and in no other place. What could we -- I know of the prophets alone? And yet for the last hundred years, as you know, learned men of this countries and of other countries around the world have said, "Oh, the prophetic gospel of the old Testament, we will accept that." Jeremiah, and Josiah -- Isaiah, and -- you know, in this college, the only prophet who is honored because we believe in the social gospel here, is the prophet Amos, a very small prophet. But Amos, you see, you can -- has an appeal to the modern American. So you omit everything else and you say "Amos." Well, I don't give anything for Mr. Amos. Really, I don't -- I'm just not touched by him. I have nothing against him, to tell you the truth. He is in the Bible, so {seems to be} all right. And some time I may discover him. But at this time, I have no opinion. I would not think that Amos himself could convey to me the fact that God has -- witnessed to his existence through the history of the human race. That would be funny idea to me to think that this depended on Mr. Amos. But it does depend on Moses. I could not be saved, I could not understand the coming of Christ without Moses, or without Aaron. Nobody. You -- all couldn't. You wouldn't know what fatherhood is, you wouldn't know what marriage is. You wouldn't know how a son should live. You couldn't understand that Jesus was the son of God, if you didn't understand why Isaac was spared by his father, why a father spares his son. This had to be taught.

So I'm very serious, gentlemen. You -- I have made this parallel to show you that in the Egyptian history, you have perhaps some means of waking you up to the fact what it means to live in history. It doesn't mean to live in one thing after another. That's what you call history. But it means that in history we gain time to explore and to fructify, and to live up to every one aspect of the great gifts we have received, that every generation can enfold, develop, extract some other quintessence, some other drop of oil from the wonderful plant, you see, which has been planted among us. That's a very different history. History is the harvesting of the whole tree of life, which cannot be harvested in one generation. America was founded in 1776 and it has many aspects, as the Civil War has shown. Many, many facets. Now we have to make something out of the new world. In 17- -- 1860, we had to make something out of equality. And today we have to make very much out of the decent respect for the opinions of mankind, gentlemen. That is still unfulfilled. How shall we deal with the atomic bomb and the decent opinion of mankind? I think it is very lame now that we do not admit now that the atomic bomb must not be thrown. The hydrogen bomb must not be thrown, not because of ourselves, but because of the decent respect for the

opinion of mankind. Do you think it is not very telling that the Japanese at this moment come back to the -- their Hiroshima experience, after nine years? The thing has come full cycle. We should have never thrown the bomb over Hiroshima. As you well know, it was just cowardice. We had won the war with Japan without it. It was absolutely unnecessary to throw the two bombs over Hiroshima. Nobody needed it for victory. Just as little as we needed the Russians to come in and -- and take part in this whole business, as you well know. But we were nervous. We lost our nerves. We lost our sense. We lost our sense of values, I think. So we threw the bombs, and now this is held against us. You see, there goes an earthquake through all of Japan now, with these fishes killing those who eat them; or they think they do. It doesn't matter whether it's true or not. Aren't they right? After nine years of submissive obedience, they wake up to the terrors that have -- we have inflicted on them and they ask, "Is this to be continued?" And do you really believe that the United States as a unit can wield this thunder and this -- this lightning by themselves? It is really obviously owned by the world community, and the French, and the Canadians say -- and and the English -- "Well, you can't throw this stuff without first consulting us, because the consequences are the end of the world, the destruction of England." Mr. Churchill got up, you know, and wept in the chamber -- in the lower house yesterday, or the day before yesterday and said, "There is nothing on my mind that so concerns me, because it means the end of England. If the -- Americans today throw the hydrogen bomb over Moscow, tomorrow there will be no England." That's a high price for being allied to a country like America, where people without a head and without a heart seem to be able to -- to influence this country, even if they come from the middle West.

That is terrible, gentlemen. And there you see that history can only at this moment help us when you understand that the Americans were founded as a new world, as a part of a novus ordo {horitor}, which is on our dollar bills, as you may know. A new order of the whole world was promised in 1776. You must press today the word "New World" until it contains all the older worlds, too -- parts of the world. We were then the newest part of the world, but we said, "New World" not by saying exclusively, "We are the New World without the others." The -- your temptation at this moment is, gentlemen, to race from one event to the other and not to see that there will be no America if you say that America of 1900 is just without immigration, without its antecedents, without its promises, without its Constitution, without its Christianity, without its roo- -- being rooted as a sect, as a branch in the history of the Christian Church. And I have tried to convey to you this in the story of these four. You must admit it is still very short. There's much more to be said. But that's all you can do in such a {meeting}.