{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

Student introduction: (Philosophy 58, April 27th, 1954)

.. I had to, because we lost much time, and -- it's already a big order to speak of 6,000 years in three months. So will you kindly today allow me to call you back into the facts of antiquity, that in antiquity the various ways of dealing with time have been created in the forms of the tribe, so that every one human being was living in a womb of time. Perhaps you take this down. {They} protected by the eyes of the ancestors, and therefore, in a sense, living backward, always feeling that life as already created was good and had to be guaranteed. You'll remember the shortest formula of the tribe is that the grandson is a reborn grandfather, and therefore, as you still have it in your families, the grandson gets the first name of the grandpa in the family, to remind the middle generation that in the child, they welcome again the best features of the old flock.

This is the tribe in which we today still can recognize ourselves, inasfar as we have parents, and grandparents, and sisters, and brothers. We have also the life in cycles, in circles, in seasons. And that's -- there time doesn't appear as a womb of time, but it appears in cycles of times, or as the Bible calls it, "eons" of times, and as you call it, with the business cycle, "cycle," "revolutions," "rotations" of time. This would be the empires, putting themselves under the sky, and therefore treating time as some externality befalling us from the sky. And this whole superstition, that we say Heaven and mean sky, for example in "Our Father who is in Heaven," is very much with you, just as you live in the family, though most of you live in this -- na‹ve idea that somewhere up there, some god lives, in the heavens. And most people who call themselves atheists are people who have discovered that this isn't so, and then they think they must be atheists because they have misunderstood in their childhood the idea of Heaven. And they have thought that God -- meant that God was in some local place somewhere in Heaven, now then they discover that this isn't so, so they say, "Oh, then there is no God." That's most of you, I mean, you are in this childish {state}, where you mistake Heaven and sky, and sky and Heaven all the time, because you are all a little Egyptians, as you all are a little family-men. You are all half red Indians and half Egyptians.

Then gentlemen, we found that mankind's -- would have withered on the stem if only he had lived here and there on the globe, in -- under -- in the skyworld, or if they had migrated in the womb of time, as you try to live at your mother's apron strings. So the Jews left the fleshpots of Egypt, and they left the human sacrifices of the tribe, in honor of the ancestor. And in Abraham and Moses, the Jews predicated themselves as the servants of the Lord, that was the

Lord in coming. "I have seen a -- seen the coming of the Lord." That is, the advent, the Lord as the advent of the future. As long as you call this a messianic promise, it's too theological. Everything that itches you, gentlemen, to expect something great in the future, is connected with the Jewish faith that the best is to come, that God hasn't done half as well in the past or in the present as He is going to do. And you are going to be a part and parcel of the future. And you cannot be explained by statistics, and you cannot be explained by IQs, because what you are going to do one day, the whole world will -- be so taken by surprise. Nobody will be able to predict you. That is the hope of Israel, and that's the hope of every true Israelite to this day, in the Church, too. The Church is the new Israel.

So we have here not the womb of time, gentlemen, not the cycle of time, but the coming time. And that was Israel. And here we had then to say that by and large, between 5000 and 3000 B.C., gentlemen, a way of life has been created which makes man move in repetitive { } through the paths of the past. From 3000 to 1500, the empires created ways of life by which we can walk every year in a great cycle of seasons, and every Great Year, every 1460 years, even in a cycle of thousands of years, of millennia. And then with the Jewish revelation there comes the third step which completes really the possibilities of the ways of life, that we live in the future, that a Jew is a member of that people which God is in process of creating, which therefore doesn't yet exist.

Now all this should be to you so understandable as chemistry, gentlemen. What you call antiquity, gentlemen, is the creation of the elements of your own existence. It is nothing of the past in the sense that it has gone by. But it -- are the three ways of life of which you are the heirs. And if you are not the heirs, you are just no human beings. I know many people in this country who are no human beings, because they are so silly. They are degenerates, and they are perverts. And there are many college boys among them. They don't deserve to live. And they will be blown out by any hydrogen bomb, because they have no right to exist. They have no contact with their meaning as human beings. A human being you only are if at least you are -- embark on one way of reproducing a time. And you have to reproduce either in your family the good spirit of the past, or you have to reproduce in the factory system the laws of production every season, from harvest-time and seedtime, you see, to tilling and plowing and harrowing. All our -- your modern factories, you are a cog on the wheel in production. That's Egyptian. Or you have to be in politics. You have to raise in humanity some hope, some expectation for a better world to come. If you are -- do -- not either of the three, gentlemen, you may be a rooter at the Giants or at the Dodgers, or what-not, but you have ceased to count. You have no right to be a voter. You are a playboy. And most of you want to be that. But you must know that then history is not for you and you are not for history. You are accidental, because, gen-

tlemen, anybody who lives only in his own time doesn't belong into history into time at all. You belong only in -- to the human race if you in your own time -- will you kindly take this down -- a man is only a man as long as he is willing to represent the whole of time in his own time. If you do not represent your grandfather in your own family, then you cannot be the child and member of this family. It is not enough to be just born on August 28th, 1955, or 1935. That's not enough, gentlemen. That's accidental. That makes you into an atom. And atoms are there to be blown into smithereens. You cannot complain that you are sent to -- to -- as expendables to Korea with all your sentimentality. Why shouldn't you be used up for some good purpose in history? That's the minimum, after all, if you don't -- won't do anything else. And you won't. You wish to go to plays, and to movies, and that -- say -- you think, is your birthright. It is not. No fly has the right to complain when I kill him. And it's high time that this utter sentimentality goes, that you all claim, because you are born, that you have a right to live. The famous civil rights, gentlemen, are given to citizens. And human liberties are given to human beings. And all these liberties, as you can see now in the McCarthy pressure under this -- this moboc -- mobocracy under which we have to live now, with 18-year-old boy -- children being given the vote, and such nonsense. If you change the whole world into an ice cream store, you can have ice cream, gentlemen, but you melt like the ice cream yourself.

It has nothing to do with humanity. Humanity is based on the identity, gentlemen, of all the times from the beginning to the end. There is no humanity in the year 1954, if you cannot realize that at this moment, 1954, the first man knocks at your door, and the whole cosmic order of the stars and the suns is there and doesn't allow you to waste all the oil in your own generation, and to blow up the whole universe, that you have to re-forest, and that you have to keep this good land in good and decent shape. Why, gentlemen? Because the times are pressing on you, those Egyptian times of eternal seasons. The eternal presence of the cosmos is there. In the same sense, your good blood is there. You cannot contract all the venereal diseases of the world, and then beget idiots. The family is the claim on your chastity and on your -- on your prudence. And the same is true about, gentlemen, the new discovery of the future. You are responsible that there is more peace in the world a hundred years from now than there is at this moment. If you deny this, gentlemen, out you go. Man, as far as he is a man of the moment, gentlemen, can claim no rights, because all the rights bestowed on human beings, gentlemen, are bestowed through speech. And speech is the eternal bond through all the ages, and through all the countries of humanity. You cannot speak, and I cannot speak to you, you see, unless I speak to you from the beginning of time, and unless you are willing to hear to the end of time, unless you do not forfeit the privilege of telling your grandchild something of what you have heard. If you do not see that you have -- only have the privilege of being a Dartmouth student because you are a cable, a piece of cable

between the past and the future, I'm sorry. You -- I missed your -- your place in this college. No, God help you. But you aren't here for your own benefit, because nobody can benefit himself, you see. That's an old saying. If you want to win your soul, you will lose it. So all your attempts to get an education, and to get something for yourself will come to nothing. Anybody who thinks of himself can never meet the truth. The truth is completely indifferent to you and me. How do you see this? You can't own the truth. And you can't boast to other people, "I know a little more truth than you do, because I got an education. I went to the right course." Isn't this all nonsense? But you -- that's how you treat your intellectual life, gentlemen. You treat it as -- your private property. And so it's completely dehumanized.

You have to enter -- will you kindly take this word up into your notes? You have to enter upon one of these three ways of life in order to be a human being. You have to enter upon them. Now, so far so good, gentlemen. This we had done before I left you. Now when I fell sick, we -- we -- there were just under consideration a fourth way of life, the Greek. The Greek is reproduced today in our colleges. And you live today in a fourth -- on a fourth roadbed. What -- yesterday they called in Shakespeare the -- the road of Mr. Points. Remember? Who has seen it? Na. And you take 58, and you don't go to a play like Henry IV, which is the next best text in -- in -- in -- com- -- how do you say, in supplementing this course. What shall I do with you, gentlemen? Never in your life may you have an opportunity of seeing Shakespeare if you don't go and take it. When I was a child, a boy of 15, I mean, every Shakespeare play I could see in the big city -- of course, I would {have had} to go, because it may never have happened again. Now I have to live here in this part of New England where they give one Shakespeare play, or two at best a year, and then you don't go. You would have seen in Mr. Point, the friend of Henry V, your own image. Why -- can anybody explain to me why the theater wasn't sold out? The greatest play, and wonderful acting, and more actors than spectators.

You know the -- I'm forced still -- forced to go on teaching for two more years, but the only answer to your behavior is to cancel all courses and to say you don't deserve it, because you don't deserve it. You neither deserve 58, nor do you deserve Henry IV, second part. Go to the movies. But why should you then come up to Hanover? You can have better movies in New York.

It is so utterly ridiculous, gentlemen, to talk to you. It absolutely makes no sense. You are not interested. So why should I be interested in you, gentlemen? You are, I mean, non-conductive material. And anybody who can have copper wire, why should he use plastic? You're just plastic, under the glows of the modern -- modern sensational machine. You probably look at television and look at Mr. -- who has seen Mr. McCarthy on television? Actually more people than

have seen Henry IV.

The same difference between collecting fleas, or collecting Michelangelos.

Now gentlemen, the Greeks -- you are, of course, ruined by the schools. And that is the Greek mind, and that's your excuse. And I have to wake you up from this, gentlemen. In antiquity, there was created a fourth way of life, a way of mental innovation, without physical change. Whereas in Israel, once a Jew, always a Jew; once an Egyptian, always an Egyptian; once a red Indian, always a red Indian; whereas these ways of life are exacting, it was possible to be a Greek only in your mind. And as you know, you are all as schoolboys in this perverted season of your life, where your mind is somewhere and your body is elsewhere, and your heart is nowhere. You are split. And that is Plato's doctrine, that the ho- -- body is hopeless and the mind can be improved. And that is the Greek tradition of which you suffer. The Greeks split the multiplicity of the men -- mind experience and the simplicity of their political experience, because they live in many worlds at once.

You have listened here, I understand, to the catalog of the ships. And in the catalog of the ships the whole problem of Greece is unfolded. The greatest philosopher of Greece parallels the catalog of the ships who went to Troy, by writing the collection of 158 constitutions of various states of Greece. Now if you have to deal with -- that's Aristotle's collection of city-state constitutions. If you have 158 states, you have no state to which you belong. You can look at all of them objectively. And though the Greeks invented objectivity; they invented objectivity for -- of the mind. They said, "Mentally, I am able to live in 158 cities." The formula for Greece is that the political community of every individual Greek was so small that his mental world had to be the universe. The Jews, and the red Indian, and the Egyptian, or the Chinese, gentlemen, lived in worlds which demand total loyalty. The Greeks live in a world of a political smallness and pettiness, that their mind must step beyond its boundaries and look into a far world, which they call the universe, what you call the universe. Exactly this, you see. The universe is that part of the world which is larger than your political, your family, and your economic loyalty, isn't it? And that is the Greek world.

Gentlemen, it's a very dangerous world. It's the world of the Muses. The word "Muse" in Greece is of course at the root not only of music, but of poetry, of history, of science, of mathematics, of everything -- of the arts, of everything Greek. The nine Muses and the god Apollo, with his lyre, are the goddesses and the god of the Greek mind. Now the Muses and the god of the lyre, Apollo, have this one thing which neither existed in Israel nor in the empires, nor does it exist in the tribes, in the family. They have access through poetry to a second world of mere thought, or what you call figments of the imagination, to fiction. You fill yourself

with fiction. You hardly know the difference between fiction and reality. You should go for one or two years without fiction and movies. Then you would wake up to the world in which you really have to live. And then you would be able to make decisions and to act. You see, you are completely wrapped into cellophane of an unreality, because you -- your mind lives quite elsewhere from where your body lives. And as your only -- your own fault, your physical and sexual troubles come from this split. You wait for your healing, for your recovery, so to speak. You hope that after college you can get married and have a job, and forget about this split personality, which you now constitute. That is, you constitute only the split and no personality whatsoever.

But you do constitute the split, because you do read in Plato that the body is wicked and the mind can be pure, which is, of course, all nonsense. God created, of course, just as much our intestines and our bladder as he consisted -- con- -- created our thoughts. Don't think that your thoughts are any better than your bladder. The whole man is just either good or bad. You mind is no better than your -- your body. It's the other way around, you know. All the things are only in the mind. It's nothing wrong with your bowel movement. That's not dirty. Your thoughts are dirty. But you think the other way around, inasfar as you are philosophizing, gentlemen. That's the invention of the Greeks. The Greeks have said that thought is chemically pure, and that the body is chemically dung.

Now gentlemen, the Bible -- you have to know this, because it's lost on many Christians -- the Old Testament stands for the purity of the human body, and says the mind is the sinner. There's nothing wrong with the heart of God, or the womb of God. God has His kidneys, and His wrath in His kidneys as we have. That's not a wrong simile, because we know what wrath is only from our own kidneys. But the -- there -- the high falutin' Greeks have always put their finger to their nose and said, "How bad taste! How anthropomorphical!" They think -- speak of God as though He wasn't pure mind. Gentlemen, God is not pure mind. That's nonsense. That's Greek. That's -- that's blasphemy. But that's what you believe. You believe that Christianity is a philosophy. And ev- -- whoever tells you that Christianity is a philosophy is a Greek and has not the faintest idea what Christianity is all about. Christianity is the force that came into the world after the Greeks had ruined antiquity with their division of mind and body. Who knows this today? Isn't this true, that I say that you don't know this? Is it true?

Gentlemen, the Greeks are the great offenders against the unity of our way of life. They have split you and me and have said, "I can think about many things without doing anything about them. I can objectively look at them -- at the universe, and be somewhere else." And you know how the tragedy of the human man and his {dometary} is because he thinks that is his privilege to read all Rabelais and all the obscene literature without doing himself any harm. Gentle-

men, any one boy who says, "I cannot afford to read something obscene, because I am so sensuous, that then afterwards I have just to do something about it," is must more moral and much more virtuous, certainly, than the man who is so hard-boiled that he can sit down and read every Sunday all the obscene papers he can get his hands on, and then say he has the strength to do this. I don't understand these people, as I do not understand people who go to burlesque shows instead of going to a brothel. If I have -- would have to go to a burlesque show, I would have to -- sleep with a woman right away, because I cannot afford to look at somebody else doing this.

I don't understand your degeneracy, gentlemen. But I am told that thousands of young and old people in this country have the -- have the impotency of no interest. I'm too potent for this. I cannot afford it. I'm too weak. I'm too easily tempted. And I think you would much -- live much better if you would say to yourself, "I am easily tempted." That settles it. Then you can -- { } call it your weakness.

But the Greek says "No. My mind can bestride the whole universe. Every niche and, you see, nook of the world can be telescoped, and macroscoped, and microscoped. It doesn't do any harm to my mind. My mind gets better all the time."

It doesn't, of course, but that's the Greek idea of the scholastics and of the schools. The Greeks created the schools, gentlemen, in which life lived elsewhere can be taught to children brought up in any one civilization. In the Greek method of life -- ways of life lived elsewhere can be met, can be seen, you see, can be envisaged by people in a very narrow city like Sparta, or Athens, or Corinth, or Rome, you see. Very small city-states. In order to prove this to you, let me know schematize. As I said, I have to make up for so much time, you must allow me a kind of -- of skeleton picture. If it is true that the tribe and the empires and the Israel are made technical elements, like helium or hydrogen, composed of a certain construction of hydrogen -- of -- of -- of electrons, as we -- you know in chemistry that is true. It is true about political forms of human existence. If the tribe centers around the past -- you remember the grave, or the totem pole -- and if the whole center of gravity then goes, in this way, that the future has to be expiated at the altar, that the totem pole and the grave have to be reconciled, because people have to look back all the time, and if it is true that inside, you have the dance and the orgies, for the mating of members of the tribe, and outside you have the warpath, it is worthwhile studying now in comparison the construction, the chemical, or the atomic -- atom-structure of the four -- three other forms. I have already done so once for -- for the Egyptians. And I wish to repeat it now. Let me put it here.

In the temple, you remember, a piece of the sky has been brought down to earth, and is -- the movements of the stars, day and night, are depicted on the temple walls by the orientation of the walls: east, west, north, south. And we said such a temple-state, as you may call any one of these empires, temple-states -- the Aztecs had a temple-state, the Inca had a temple-state, you see, a state circling around the temple, because the temples made sure you were in harmony with the universe of the sky -- stars -- of the sky. If this is so, we said they were very helpless with regard to the marketplace. Here they were left to accidents. The empires had to future, no relation to the future. They have, however, a relation to the seasons, in the economy, and they wall off the enemy by there being a fortress and by their emperor choosing his -- his -- his residence behind the walls of his fortifications. So we had -- we had the -- the word "ecos," "husbandry," "house," in a fulmi- -- in a -- in an explicit sense. Economy is the order of the house, the husbandry, you remember? And so I -- in Greek this is the word oekos. In English, if you want every -- any similar word, it's -- would be the word "dominion," "domain," coming from domus, house, you see. The United States have eminent domain over the tidelands, despite the decision of Congress to throw them into the {forces} of Texas.

This is then the order of the tribe, the -- the orientation, the compass-needle, the construction of the compass-needle. Now in Judaism, it is -- of course, the beginning of Israel is the exodus. Neither tribe nor empire. It's a negation with which Judah -- Judaism begins. And who -- they believe in the god who has led the children of Israel out of Egypt. That's a remarkable statement that a whole nation looks upon that which has happened before as to begin -- negate it. Now you had to do this, of course, if you wanted to have a group that belonged exclusively to the coming of the Lord. If you wanted to be -- have a messianic people you had to put -- bring the past, you see, into the negative rubrum, just as the future is in a negative rubrum here with the marketplace, and just as the future is negative -- negated by the altar, and the expiation ritual, you see, and the whole code of penalties for any breach of the customs of the tribe, of the law of the jungle. So in a similar way, the Jews had to reverse the process and had to say, "Everything that calls us back to the fleshpots of Egypt or to the altars of the tribe is bad."

There are two things by which this becomes very evident: that it took the first 500 years of Israel before they were allowed to build a temple, that the temple had to be quarantined. Solomon's temple was only built after Israel -- Moses had left Egypt long ago. Gentlemen, forms of another way of life can only be admitted after a quarantine. The Greek school in which you live, the liberal arts college, was quarantined for 1,000 years. From 529 of our era to the year 1445, there was no -- no academic way of life in Europe, because only then did people think that the horrors of Platonism, the horrors of the division of body and mind, the

horrors of homosexuality, and onanism, and all the terrors of an unfulfilled youth could be overcome, that we could afford again to have liberal arts colleges. Sometimes I believe that it was a very hasty conclusion.

Gentlemen, the Jews begin with the exodus. Outside against the other people, they have the fence of the law. As you know, the Jew doesn't eat with other people. He doesn't eat, not because it isn't good to eat ham, but because he wants to distinguish himself against the others. The fence of law reminded day and night that he is not wedded to the gods of the land, the idols of the marketplace. That is the idea of the fence around the law.

Now if you compare the fortresses of life, of Egypt, and the warpaths of the tribes to this externalization of your frontier, in Israel, you see a remarkable change. The ritual, you see, of all the rules and regulations, which do -- don't allow an Israelite to work on a Saturday or to eat with his friends, were based not on an enmity of physical warfare, as with the warpath, you see, and not on a geographical separation, as in Egypt, where the desert formed the fortress, and you couldn't reach the Chinese, because they were so far away; but in Israel, you see, the -- it's a much more settled frontier. You are in the same city of New York, or Boston, but -- or Alexandria in antiquity but you are not able to surmount the invisible frontier between those who enjoy everything today as the end, the final, because you are waiting for the coming of the Lord. You are waiting for a different period of time, and you must remind by your behavior the people who invite you to dinner, that their dinner to them means all they have, and to you it is a preliminary dinner. It's not the real dinner. That is the great idea of the fence of the law, which most Jews -- they do not understand themselves why it is. It is very inconvenient, of course.

Inside, gentlemen, if you now would then always put here -- make a list in your notes, and put these elements: outer, past, future, and inner, list them -- then you will find that we compared the warpath of the tribe, the fortress of Egypt, and the fence around the law, of the ritual of the five books of Moses as meaning the same for these three different political groups, separating them from the other groups, you see, setting them aside. Can you see this? Ja? Is it -- do you understand?

(No. Not completely.)

Well, let me first -- accomplish this -- this cross of reality here with regard to the Jews. Inside, the Jews are not -- have not -- no special way of economy. They have always had a half-agriculturalist, half-pasture land economy, skilled workers, jewelers, everything. So you cannot say that, as in a caste in Egypt, you have here a warrior caste, a priest caste. No such thing. The Jews inside of themselves

are highly democratic. Every father of every home is his own priest. And that is, therefore, the inner life of Judaism, gentlemen. Every father of a household is a priest. It's a universal priesthood of the fathers of a family. Each family is not interesting with regard to its economic function, as in Egypt. It is not interesting and important with regard to the excitement of the dancing ground, where people rant, and mate, and get their new names. In -- Judaism, the main point is that the family conducts the divine services themselves. And every Jewish family is fully empowered to speak with God, which is unknown in the tribe. They have to wait for their meeting, you see, to become -- eloquent, to get going, you see. And you have to go to the temple in Egypt before you can even get orientation where the gods have to be invoked, because they have to invoked in the East, or in the West or in the North at a certain day of the calendar, otherwise they can't be found, you see. They -- you have to be the birds that -- who fly, and you have to -- the intestines, in -- with hieroscopies, investigated. You have all the ritual of priesthood and clergy, as you still have in the Catholic Church to this day. It would be terrible for a Roman Catholic to think that all the sacraments can be administered in the family. But that's the Jewish principle. The whole clergy in Israel is Israel. Israel is a clergy, gentlemen. It is a chosen people. The word "chosen people" means clergy. It's the same word.

So the inner way of -- Judaism is that the whole nation is made into a clergy, which is very strange. In order to do so, gentlemen, the orgies of the tribe, as I have mentioned to you, but you probably have not understood it, were already done away with in the youth. Circumcision was made an act at birth, so that it would not interfere with puberty, you see, and the later life. Whereas in the tribes, circumcision was the great process, you see, of waking a person up to his personal destiny and to his marriage. And in a similar way, as I said -- Solomon -- King Solomon opens the temple in Jerusalem. If you read it in Kings, it's a very beautiful place where it says -- Solomon opens the temple and says, "O Lord, of course I know that you do not dwell in man-made houses. But just the same, you seem to allow us now to give you a special abode." Gentlemen, will you take this down? The Jewish temple is, just as circumcision, only a kind of -- concession to the weakness of the Jews to have a temple like the others, but with the opposite meaning. A temple in antiquity, or in your estimation, many people today too, means that here is a special place for God, you see. In Judaism, it meant there can be no special place for God, because He's everywhere. You see, it's the very opposite. It's a concession to the weakness of the human- -- human heart that despite the dogma that God cannot be worshiped in any special temple, the Jews were allowed to have a temple, just in the -- toward the praise of God. Just as although 24 hours a day God is present, we are allowed to give praise to Him at one moment of the day more fervently than the other day -- moment. If I do right at this moment, gentlemen, I have not denied the presence of the Lord. But yet there would be no objection to -- to read a Psalm in His honor, what would be

the difference? God would be more present when I read the Psalm, or when I invoke His name? Not a minute more, you see. But yet, into our weakness it is given that we may strengthen our own faith by doing so. But God doesn't wait for His presence until you have been good enough to turn your face towards Him. Isn't that true?

So the Jews are a clergy. God is present in the life of the race. That's why the only race that exists are the Jews, because it's a divine race. The other races are very poor. They all have to be dissolved again. But the Jews have made the race the carrier of the divine presence. That's a big order. So Hitler went Jewish -- imitated the Jews in all his orgies, because he -- he was envious, he was jealous. All anti-Semites want to make their own nations into Jews. They want to have the presence of God guaranteed. But gentlemen, the price the Jews had to give -- pay for the presence of God in their midst is a terrible price. They had to forego, as you know, 3,000 years of political power. They had to forego the -- gods of the marketplace. They had to forego the intimacy with the people around them. They had to forego the eating, and sleeping, and dreaming, and writing fiction with the others. Their sciences, and their arts, and their political units were not for the Jews. As -- if you want to do this, then you would probably be today a Quaker, or a Mennonite, or an Amish-man, and would then be the new Israel again. But it would cost you the price of living in the future, and not being present, and not being a creature of the past. It's con- -- a price -- you have to take the choice. You can't have it both ways.

Gentlemen, if you -- I have now to put the last touch here to the cross of reality of Israel. That, of course, is the coming of the Lord, the Messiah. The Jews wait for the coming of the Messiah. So if you complete now this form: clergy, chosen people inside, fence of the law against the world outside, the future represented by the Messiah, the past represented by the exodus from Egypt. And the word "exodus," of course, is a very poor word, because you do not quite realize if you would say "emigration to America," it would be more to the point perhaps than "exodus," because an exodus means leaving behind a home and mother country, you see, not some far-away -- event in Egypt, from -- going out from Egypt, but always giving up the womb of time, always giving up the cycles of business, always giving up then the climate and the sky, under which you are born, and always giving up the na‹ve family relationship to which you would like to claim, because it's so nice and warm. If you do not understand the word "exodus" in this profound sense, you cannot understand what the Israelites constitute. They constitute the revolutionary race on earth, who say to every generation, "This isn't the story at all. The best is still to come."

Now we have these four forms. And now let me then, since you said you didn't follow -- let me put these points here, all under one and another. The

grave in the -- in the tribe, and the temple in the empire, and the exodus in Judaism would correspond in these three ways of life, if this is tribe, this is empire, and this is ... This would be each time the past. Then we had the warpath. And we had the fortresses, and we had the fence of the law. Now if you have any better word for fence of the law? Do have a -- some -- wie?

(The Torah.)

Ja. Ja. If you understand it -- right, all right. Although Torah would be all form. It would also be the calling of the people, as the clergy. The Torah is not just the fence of the law, isn't that true? It is the whole order, you see. It's the positive content as much as the negative content. I prefer to leave it this way, gentlemen.

Now we have two more points to make. Will you kindly help me? We have here the orgies of the dancing ground, the meeting place of the tribe. And I told you, there is no tribe unless there is such meeting, because that's the only way in which the tribe is integrated. The word "orgy" should not frighten you off. It -- together -- goes together with "orchestra," with dancing, and the tribe is constituted by dancing. So the word "orgy" I have -- I have no quarrel with, if you { } a better one. People there are danced into a political -- union. Here they are not danced into a political union, but it is here the -- the division of labor, what I call the ecos, but I'm afraid the word "ecos" has no great standing, with you.

It's a very wonderful idea that the house is -- is the center of the division of labor, gentlemen. And you are very impoverished, because in your imagination, the word "house" no longer has this. You think of housing administration and housing authorities, you only think of a box, with 24 square feet for this and 22 square feet for that. That's not a house in the old sense of the word. But you are very poor off, because you don't have this -- this feeling anymore of this great beauty, that in a house there are various processes, you see, united and yet specialized. That's the organic, you see -- a revamping of the organism of an animal. In houses, in economies, man imitates the creation of the big animals. There is a central nervous system, called the General Motors headquarters. And then there are the workshops. And then there are the laboratories. And then there are the trade routes on which the salesmen travel to sell those products all over the world. Gentlemen, that's a gigantic creation, you see, in imitation of the animal kingdom by division of labor of specialized tasks of glands, and muscles, and nerves. And all this is implied in the beautiful word "ecos" and in the beautiful word "house."

It isn't implied in the word "division of labor," because it's just as much integration of labor as it is division of labor. And I assure you, you will never con-

quer Communism in this country unless some of you think of a better word than "division of labor" for the greatness of the division of labor. You see, Karl Marx discovered the importance of the division of labor. And since we have nothing to oppose him with, which recognizes the greatness of this division of labor, we are all going Egyptian today. It's un- -- irresistible. He has discovered something very -- very great. This -- these Marxians are no stupid people, gentlemen. And we will only compete with Communism successfully if you can stretch your imagination so far that this word "ecos," this word "house," this word "economy" regains its dignity as a tremendous story, you see, of human imagination, of human creativity, that you and I can pull together, you see, and do greater things together than ever -- any one of us can do separately.

The next, gentlemen -- {one} was the division of labor. This was the -- the clergy. Here you have no division of labor, no caste system, no -- vocations. Every Jew is a clergyman, is a priest of God Almighty. Every Jew is. It's a remarkable achievement. It's the oldest democracy in the world, because it is a priestly democracy, which is much more than a democracy of farmers and workers. It's a democracy, you see, of the divine word, so that every Jew can speak with full power the whole truth about the human race.

Now the -- last point would, of course, be the -- here the marketplace, here the altar, here the Messiah. That's the future. And the Messiah is represented in the present by the prophets, in -- in Israel. So now we'll have a break, and you and I together will help then to replenish the Greek cross of reality, those four points for the Greeks. It can be neither the exodus from Egypt, nor can it be the temple, nor can it be the grave -- the cult around the grave -- which constitutes the past of the Greek city-state. And the same is true about the other { }. And once you have been able to -- to place these four points, you should become able to get orientation about your own life, because once you have these 16 points, gentlemen, you have the 16 elements of every modern human being's life.

Let's have five minutes.

[tape interruption]

... do owe them the arts and the sciences. The arts and the sciences are -- the arts and the sciences are the powers of a young woman and young man. The fancy, the creative mind in the sciences -- that's the genius of the male. And the poetry embellishes the beauty of the -- of the youth of the feminine sex. That the poets write of transfigured beauty around that what -- with whom they are in love. Love song is the -- at the root of the arts. Romeo and Juliet you only have to think of. And Beatrice in Dante's Divine Comedy is the -- the mainstay of the poetic element in The Divine Comedy. It wouldn't be -- The Comedy would be

just theology if he hadn't Beatrice, you see, to whom he could sing.

So gentlemen, the arts and the sciences have be -- taken shape in Greece. And we turn to the Olympic god, and to the Muses, and to the tragedy, and to the orchestra, and to all the Greek terms when we speak of drama, for example, or lyrics, or epics. These are all Greek terms. It's not accidental. But if you want to speak of prayer, you speak of the Psalms. If you speak of the future, you speak of prophecy. These are not Greek terms. There are no prophets in Greece. There are no Psalms in Greece. I don't recommend you a Greek prayer. It's very boring. We have some texts, of course, because people had to pray even in Greece. But they are not outstanding. That's not for you and me. But if you want to have Greek -- Greek at its best, you read a Greek tragedy, or you -- a play, perform a Greek tragedy, because the arts are perfect in Greece, to this day. And if you want to go and study the highest, you study philosophy. And philosophy is Greek. The -- the lust for truth, for wisdom is philosophy. Lusting for truth, you can translate "philosophizing." It means to be in love with thought.

Now gentlemen, the arts and the sciences are unable to form body politic -- bodies politic. Neither a piece of art can do anything but attract spectators for entrance tickets on Broadway. But you -- obviously Broadway is situated in the city of New York, in the state of New York, in the United States of America. That is, the political unit inside which Broadway exists is not of the making of Broadway. The artists and the scientists, gentlemen, cannot build societies. And that's brought home very painfully to Mr. Oppenheimer at this moment. Einstein and Oppenheimer are great scientists, gentlemen. And Mr. O'Neill is a poet. But the political order is quite a different story. And the ecclesiastical order is quite a different story. And that's very hard on you, because you want to confuse all these words so easily. And you think that the arts and the sciences, if you are liberals, are enough. If a man has art and science, then why does you -- care -- you care for his religion or for his political convictions? He can afford to be pinned. You have to be in Greenwich Village.

Gentlemen, the arts and the sciences are the life of the mind. They are not the life of the community. They are not the life of families. They are not the relation between children and parents. They are not the relation between armies and civilians. They are not the relation between legislators and vested interests. The arts and sciences have nothing to say about the relations of the French and the English, and the Americans, and the Germans. That's politics. That's state. That's boundaries. That's fortresses. That's armies. That's war, isn't it?

Now you always confuse these things. This is an absolute confusion in the world today about these four elements. The Greeks have isolated the arts and sciences. They have de-religionized and de-politized the sciences and the arts.

And you see from the atom bomb how difficult it is. Can you dissociate $2 billion invested in hydrogen bombs from the budget of the government of the United States? The scientists would like to, because they are not interested in the state. They are interested in their discoveries, you see. But immediately somebody comes and clamps down and { } says they are security risks, because that's politics. That's not mind. That's not mental, the question of character, the question of quite different realms of behavior.

The sooner you learn this distinction, gentlemen, the more you fit yourself for a world in which you will have to distinguish the Greek element and the Jewish element, and the country element, the civilization element, and the racial element of your own existence. Whom you marry -- that's a question of what family you want to -- to see living on this globe in the future. Where you work, that's the decision over your economic order. What you read, that's a question of your scientific interests, and whereby you are developing your tastes, and your -- your dress, and your fashions, and your style, that's a question of your artistic case. These are four very different things.

Now how did the Greeks -- were they enabled? I showed you -- told you the principle of the Greek mind is that the bestrides a much larger territory than his body and soul do encompass. The Greek is at home in a tiny fraction of the Mediterranean. And the universe in Greece is symbolized by the ocean, that is, by something too big for political organization. Whenever you find the Greeks, you find them interested in the sea. They are sea-farers. They are the first -- the first story of the Greek mind is the Argonautica, the great sea-enterprise. How did it happen? The Greeks came down from the mainland. They had never seen the sea. They didn't know how to build ships. They passed the Olympus, and they came down in Thessaly to the shores of the Mediterranean, and they learned -- probably from the people who lived there already, and had learned it from the Egyptians and the Babylonians -- how to build a ship. And they called the first ship the Argo. And they called themselves the Argonauts. The boatsmen -- nauta means the boatsmen -- the nauta, the boatsmen of this great ship. And that made the Greeks. The Greeks were tribes from the inland, who learned to go to sea, and to trade with all the empires around the coast of the Mediterranean. And so the universe of the Greeks became the { } of water. The water had beams for the Greeks. That is, it carried them, the keels of their boats to various countries, to many cities of men, to many religions, to many different divinities.

And so, gentlemen, instead of having a medicine man, who would embody through his mask only the hero of their own tribe, they gave Homer and the great poets the place of this tribal priest- -- of the -- tribal masquerader, impersonator, and sorcerer, and the place of the Egyptian priest. The Greeks -- they didn't want to know anything about the everlasting stars on the sky of an em-

pire, and they didn't want to hear anything about the bloodline of their own ancestors. What they wanted to be told, in poetical forms, is the co-existence of many groups, of many people, of many cities. The great riddle of our human existence as of today, that before the messiahs come, and before their own mankind is organized, and before our little group, you see, it becomes -- domi- -- there is an in-between. The Greeks have created or dominated, or have mentally mastered the world between my own world and the final world. They are on the way, you see, from one -- the many small ones, to the one end -- final one. And they are establishing a humanistic, or humanitarian, or human goal in between.

And the great place where the Greeks do this is the theater. The greatest thing the Greeks have done to all of us is that they have created the theater. In a theater, people of many countries, of many tribes, of many families, can sympathize, and be enthused by one and the same event. The event doesn't mean anything in your life, or in my life. But it means something in both our lives. Isn't that strange? If you go to Henry IV, or if you go to any play, you go to any movie, it isn't your life that you see, that is aggrandized as in a -- liturgy of your church. That's your own service in your church. But when you go to a theater, it's not your sermon, you see. It's the second world, gentlemen. The Greeks -- the theater world is the second world of the imagination. It's a second world. It's very important, gentlemen, because you do -- have forgotten that second worlds are unreal.

The whole Greek mind lives in an unreal world. There is nothing more unreal and more abstract than the world of a Greek philosopher, or of a Greek artist, or Mr. Einstein, or Mr. Oppenheimer. They don't live in the real world. They live in a world of electrons. have you ever seen an electron? I see you, and I see me, and I see Mr. Oppenheimer. And in reality Mr. Oppenheimer is a very poor mortal. And he's under pressure at this moment. And that's his real -- the real man. But in the abstract of his mind, he's a great {man}. But that's { }, you see. It doesn't help him in his -- the dates of his biography from 1900 to 1954. There he has to struggle for recognition, and for livelihood, and he has to educate his children, and he has to go to study in Europe, and he has to invent the atom bomb, and he has to organize Alamo and -- Los Alamos, et cetera. That is, he has daily duties. But then you consider him in his place of science, that's his second world, a world of thought, a world of thinking.

And the same is true with the arts, with the sci- -- with the play. You go to Hamlet, has Hamlet ever lived? No. Is he real? Yes, but where is he real? In a second world, in a world that is perhaps more real than yours and mine, but it isn't the real world as you and I understand it. You can't put Hamlet on the scales and say he weighs 160 pounds, because he doesn't. He weighs nothing. He's very flimsy. He's just a figure of the imagination. No use, you see, telling me and you how -- what his -- what his chest measures. Every actor can play him

differently. Isn't that true? Isn't that true -- strange that Hamlet can be so much alive in the second world, and is so little real, that he doesn't have even any measure in quantity, which you can -- to which you can pin him down. I can always tell you by saying, "You measure," "You weigh," "You have these fingerprints." Hamlet has no fingerprints.

But you are so little educated, gentlemen, to the -- your own -- working of your own imagination, that you constantly mistake Hamlet and reality. It's very hard for you to understand that where Hamlet exists, he lives in the world of the arts and the sciences. And he lives nowhere else. That's a very real world, and yet it isn't the real -- the most real world, isn't it? The more -- I cannot tell you all about this mysterious way of the human mind, but I can only warn you, gentlemen, to know that there are -- is a world of the mind which is not real, yet it is real enough to pay great respect to it, and to see that it gives us a tremendous uplift of the mind. But it's only between my today, real world -- where I have to eat, and to shit, and to breathe, and to sleep, you see, and to be clothed, and to get the wherewithal -- and the next day where I have to do the same again, that I can be entertained by the second world. It's an entertaining world. And the word "entertain" means in between, holding in between. "Entertaining" means to -- inter tenere. Inter tenere means to hold a place between two real places. That's what is entertainment. It is neither here nor there. It's on the way between here and there. Entertaining.

All the arts and sciences, gentlemen, are entertaining, just as the Prince Hal entertains himself with Falstaff on the way between his princely descent and his coronation. It's entertainment. Very important, because we are so bored, gentlemen. If you think what money you waste just for entertainment, you suddenly come to know that nine-tenths of your energy, of your -- of your money, of your time goes for entertainment. {It's a charade} what we sacrifice for entertainment. Before you get married, you waste nine-tenths of the patrimony of your fathers -- if you can, if he allows you to do it -- you certainly give -- spend on nasty women, or on lotteries, or on horse races, or on a bicycle, or on a roadster, or anything you can lay your hands on, just to waste your time and your money. Some blow out their brains. Some blow out their bladders, some blow out some -- but some part of them they blow out. That's all entertainment.

It's a world, gentlemen, between the decisive moments of life. The decisive moments of life bring a real world down to earth. They build a city. They found a state. They go to war. They conclude peace. All this the arts and scientists cannot do. Mr. Oppenheimer can construe a hydrogen bomb. He can never tell when it should be thrown. The decision is not his. Isn't that obvious, you see? He creates possibilities.

Gentlemen, the arts and scientists create possibilities. They never answer necessity. They enlarge the realm of possibilities, of opportunities, you may also say. But they never tell you, "Is it necessary to throw the hydrogen bomb?" You and I may, you see, be much poorer scientists. You and I -- I cannot construe a hydrogen bomb. But I claim that if I have developed my five senses and lived well, that I know better when to throw the hydrogen bomb than Mr. Oppenheimer. I'm superior to Mr. Einstein as a political animal. He is not fit for judging what we should do with -- {with} an opportunity created by the Greek mind. The Greek mind, gentlemen, must serve. The Greek mind cannot decide. That's very important for you to know, gentlemen, because when you read these Greeks, they also tell you, Mr. Irwin Edman, et cetera, that the Greeks, the philosophers should be kings. That's nonsense. Let's hope that never will there be philosophers who are called to be kings, or presidents of the United States. If you make the philosophers kings, you get the Platonic stud farm.

So, gentlemen, what have the Greeks done? Well, they have put at the starting point of their birth the marketplace. They have built -- looked into the world as -- as a theater. They have gone { } inside of themselves and have philosophized. Famous picture of the { } philosophy theater. Marketplace as starting point. And the future is beset with novelty, with sensations. You go in the history of literature, of art, of science, you go from -- from one novelty to the next. What next? What's the latest dope? What's the news? And you see how Greek we are at this moment, because you know how this country spends all its money on organizing the news service. Heavens, gentlemen, how cheaply you would live if you would only live without the news. Do you think they are very important, the news? Every news is worse than the news before. But you don't believe it. You think that the news is better all the time. And that's the Greek idea of sensation, of the -- of the tickling of your senses of novelty. The Greeks prefer the new to the old.

Now the sense of novelty, the sense of the news, is the sense of sensation. The -- we discover a sixth sense, gentlemen. Man has five senses -- smell, and taste, and vision, and audition, and touch -- but the Greeks have given us a sixth sense. Victor Hugo has said of Baudelaire that he { } -- Vous nous avez donner un {frisson} nouvelle. The new -- what's {frisson}? Who knows French? A new tickling of the senses. Frisson. He said of Baudelaire, when he wrote his -- his famous Fleurs de Mal, The Flowers of Evil. Because the flowers of evil give you a new tickling of the senses.

And gentlemen, the nations today are in a tremendous combat. The Russians have discovered that a great nation must live without the tickling of the news. And we will not survive if we do not rise to the occasion and rid ourselves of this ticklishness of the sensational character of the news. That is the superiority of the

Russian system; nothing else, that they are indifferent to the news. The news is not better than the old. The news is just murder, and jealousy, and drunkenness, and shooting at the waterfront. If you really look at the news of the last 365 days on the front page of your paper, you cannot say that the news deserves your admiration. It would be much better if you could live without the news on the front page. It isn't important. It hasn't made a dent on your existence. It shouldn't. If it has, it's wrong.

The Greek, at this moment, gentlemen, is under judgment. That's why I have to emph- -- stress this. For the first time in 400 years, gentlemen, the blind admiration of the arts and sciences, of the Greek 400 years in our Renaissance period, is under scrutiny. I don't think that you and I can afford to live the next 50 years with this blind lip-service to Mr. Hearst and his principles. Not even to the principles of The Reader's Digest. You have to live on wavelengths of -- of very different scope. You cannot live from sensation to sensation. You just -- and I think you have already learned this. If I look at your generation, gentlemen, I think in some unknown way -- ways unknown to you, you have already tried to live a life which is not immune, but which is lived without being too much under the impact of the -- of the latest news. Am I right? Or am I not right? I think there has been a change, compared to the -- 20 years ago. And it's all to the good, I think.

So gentlemen, the market -- the man who lives, grows up in Brooklyn, or where there is no tree, or there is one tree, and -- or in any marketplace-civilization, in an urbanized area, gentlemen. Take any boy who has to go to a city school. Well, his life begins not on the marketplace, but on the highway. The highway is today the civil { } of the market. We would then say today it isn't so much the market, but the highway on which the modern human being begins to get orientation. He doesn't get orientation at home. He doesn't get orientation in school. He gets his orientation on the way from his home to the school, because that's where he sees the millions of people mill, and live. And he takes it for granted that this is life. Isn't that true?

So gentlemen, put here in brackets, to market -- highway, because -- to tell you a great secret which everybody knows -- all America is one big city. There are no cities anymore. Don't believe that there is anything like New York or Hanover. Hanover is a suburb of a suburb; but nobody knows where the metropoli- -- metropolis of it -- of this suburb is. You only know that you are here in a suburb. Damn it. It's a suburb. People live in suburbs here. That is, they belong to something bigger than the place to which they seem to belong. You don't live in Hanover at this moment. Everything is -- is far-flung. You -- live -- you live in a suburb of -- of the City X, the City Y. Isn't that true? Can you feel this? Well, the proof of it is that when we looked at the picture of Beaver Meadow, of Beaver Meadow {of} Mr. Sample out there, not one of the boys who looked at the pic-

ture had been to Beaver Meadow. Well, Beaver Meadow is five miles from here. If you would really live in Hanover, you would -- certainly would have made a visit to the neighborhood, but you don't live in Hanover, you see. You live in some buildings that are taxed by a community of old -- called Hanover, but you live in a suburb.

So let's -- I have completed my list. I have not quite completed the practical application. But if you put here the theater, or everything that you see envisioned in movies, television movies, if you put to philosophy all the things your practical knowledge you require, from plumbing to {flying}, and then you have the complete list, or -- and here you have all the new inventions, the new discoveries, the latest news, the new crimes, the new events of the week -- then you have, by and large, the eternal Greek. And I would be very grateful if one or the other of you would make the test when he goes and he asks himself, "How much of this world is really screening -- acting as a screen with regard to the other three worlds?" Isn't it true, that at your {age} { }, gentlemen, your mind is so prevalent, that you try to think that this is your world, that you try to live in Greece, you see. And that these other things only come in, so to speak, by -- against your will. You are, of course, reminded of all { }. You are drafted. And you have a girl somewhere, and so on. And you have to make up, if you have flunked a course, which would be the altar of expiation, and so on. All these things, these other things exist, these 12 things. But I think in your own so-called world view, or philosophy of life, you would try to live on this -- on this -- on this home of your mind, and think that's it.

Thank you.