{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

[Opening remarks missing]

... it never dawned on you that when you want to have something, you have to pay the price that it costs to get { }. Of course, you cannot sit down, as you can -- read Esquire, and read the Revelation. But you assume you {read} it. In half an hour, you read the Revelation and you disapprove of it. The gentlemen said that the seven candelabras just made no sense, the seven chandeliers. Why should they make sense to an idiot? I said to him, "{Read} the funnies, you have ruined your brain."

He didn't believe me, but I think he has, because, gentlemen, seven is a tremendous thing. There is -- are not accidents that the week has seven days. I tried to show you that the seven days on which the world was created was an act of human freedom, a great deliverance, because in nature, we find only the seven generations important; and the -- in the stars, it's the 12, Number 12, in the astrol- -- astr- -- it's not an accident. Three -- seven and three, the three is for -- of the human mind -- thesis, antithesis, and synthesis -- but everything worldly in the cross of reality is always four directions. Seven is always the component of the divine and the earthly, of Heaven and earth.

Well, if a man has never given a thought to the seriousness of the -- of this figure seven, that we express Heaven and earth by three and four, how can he understand the seven churches or the seven chandeliers in the Revelation?

The same with the other friend who invited me to speak to his ministers. Why is it un- -- impossible in America, that people in humility come and say, "What conditions do I have to fulfill in order to understand?" And as long as you don't do this, gentlemen, you will never learn anything. You demand from your teachers that they can tell you everything in five minutes. That you call an introductory course. The {introductory course} in Humanities 11 -- 12, always consist in telling you in five minutes about the most and greatest things. And you s- -- you don't despise yourself, even for this. You should spit at -- yourself. This is prostitution of your mind! Do you really think that all the holy and great things of -- for 7,000 years of standing you can have by buying Life and looking at the Madonna there, topsy-turvy in wrong colors, because you pay 15 cents to Mr. Henry Luce? But you believe it. And you have never heard of anything else. So this man has the im- -- impertinence to ask me to speak for half an hour on the great issues of life. And the other man who -- gives 20 minutes to Revelations says, "This is not a good book." And that's what you think thinking, gentlemen. It's the opposite of thinking. It's impertinent. And it's destructive. You destruct

the sacred things, the holy -- things, and you destroy yourself. The only thing by which you can make any mental progress is to ask yourself, "What conditions have I to fulfill to understand this specific thing?" You do it in the laboratories, naturally. You put on rubber soles if you don't want to be conduct- -- -ducive to electricity, don't you? You wash your hands for an experiment. You use glass in the laboratory. You fulfill all the conditions of the experiment. And that's why you can understand science, because you pay the price. The doctor puts on a white -- a white coat and he is sterile before he w- -- makes the surgical operation. Gentlemen, why don't you ask which surgical -- or which operation you have to fulfill before you can understand the Bible?

You never ask the question, so you can never understand. It's impertinent of this man to ask me to speak to -- 30 minutes on religion to ministers. But the ministers are the worst offenders. They think they can understand everything in five minutes. And from them it has spread to you.

So, I am very sorry, gentlemen, that I have touched the New Testament at all. It isn't right. It's an abuse, because you don't approach it in the right spirit. I have began to -- begin to think the only thing is to bring it now -- to completion. But I know I have gone wrong. I should not have brought this book in -- into this classroom, because you are utterly unprepared to read it, because you -- not because this is anything sacred, gentlemen. Because at every one truth, or every one meeting of a -- if you meet a woman, you have to be prepared. You cannot meet her as a swine, just by looking at her breasts, or what -- anything obscene. You have to take this whole woman in as a representation of the divine life on this earth, of fruitfulness, of the whole future of the human race, of beauty, or you can't see her. And you can't see women, you don't see them, because you want them. That's too simple. And so you want Revela- -- you just want to have these things, as you want to have a woman. You can never get the woman. A woman does not surrender to the one who wants only to have her.

I -- you ought to know this at least, gentlemen, that this college does everything to destroy your mind. Complete lack of reverence on anything.

We have -- still have to today deal, however, with the figures that the two Gospels cut, Luke and John. We were in the midst of dealing with Luke. And I tried to show you that with regard to the -- Israel, Luke is the Gospel writer, because he does not speak to the tribes, to the people of the bloody sacrifice, as Matthew does. Matthew is the man in the -- the carnal man, the publican who is converted b- -- as you know, by Christ, because being of the lowest order of social status in Jeru- -- in Israel, being in the service of Rome, he can speak to the primitive mind, to the materialistic mind, so he speaks of the "begats," of flesh and blood. Then we saw that Mark, in the service of Peter, converts the inhabi-

tants of the great astrological universe of Rome, the heir of Babylon, the heir of Egypt. But in Luke, it is different. He meets people of a higher spiritual rank, who have superseded already tribal and empirical -- imperial living and -- and live in the Temple of David, and sing the Psalms, which the Church to this day does. That is, they have a faith that must not be superseded, that cannot be superseded, that in every church of the universe still is worsh- -- is imitated. When you go to church, gentlemen, and have responsive reading of the Psalms, you are still in the spirit of Israel, because the 150 Psalms are used for your responsive reading. That wouldn't be possible if these prayers were not the eternal prayers of the human race. They have not been dismissed. They are not obsolete. They are just as fresh today as they w- -- ever were. And anybody who cannot say the Psalms is an atheist, because God has died in his heart, and God always dies when we have ceased to pray. Prayer is our relation to God. There is no other relation. Theology is not a relation to God. It's a -- talk about God. But prayer is.

Now Luke, as I said, makes this special point to plead with the Jews to understand that he -- Jesus fulfills the law, and does not break it. And so the high point of Luke, I think -- there may be others, I mean, it would be a -- I have made this investigation too long now to repeat the other points, that there is his -- Luke's special point to convince them that he -- God ha- -- Jesus has not blasphemed by calling Himself the Son of God, because that is for the pious Jew, for the Jew of high standing, to this day the accusation against Christianity: that it is shameless, and that it -- I -- invokes too cheaply a -- a nearness to God of the individual person which only quacks and -- can -- can claim. Our humility forbids us to say that we have a telephone line to God Almighty. You cannot do like the Moral ReArmament people: sit down every morning at 10 and have a telephone connection with Heaven and say, "What -- what's doing? What's the business today?" That's what these idiots -- literally say. I think they are just feeble-minded. You have heard of the Moral Re-Armament people. They live in {Ko} -- on the Lake of Geneva. They are Americans who pervert Europe at this moment.

I had a wonderful experience. A Dartmouth boy from Colorado -- so a double primitivism -- had been in my courses and he has graduated. And I had provided some spiritual nurture for him the following year, so he felt that before going in for -- totally for specialization in medicine, he should make Europe. Well, I didn't know this, but I -- I only knew that one day in June, he sat in my living room, straight from Colorado and said, "Professor, I must see Europe. My heart is -- is yearning to see the culture of Europe."

I said, "Well, whatever are you do- -- going to do about it?"

"Well, I am trying to find a passage in New York. I don't have a ticket, yet. It's

in June, you know, when everything is crowded," was two -- three years ago. "And I'm going to -- however, to try. I have a friend in New York, and I shall stay there and perhaps there is some opening."

I said, "Well, do you think when you land in Le Havre that the culture of Europe will be just there? It's a very dirty port."

"Oh," he said, "But what can I do?"

"Well," I said, "since you came all the way from Denver, Colorado, I'll tell you. I think I could do something for you. I know on the Lake of Geneva a center of ecumenic Christianity, study center, and the head of it is a friend of mine. He's a Dutchman. He's a very fine man. And if I put his -- your whole case before him, he might be willing to use you as a kind of secretary, or assistant, a man who puts the chairs {there}. If you stay there in all these two and-a-half months you have there at your disposal in this one place, then you may make great friends for life people all over the earth. You also will be introduced to what's going on. But of course, you have to be humble, you have to serve. And that's the only way in which you -- I can recommend you to this friend of mine. It's a great risk, because he will judge me by my recommendation."

Well, he was of course very emphatic, that he would be very grateful. And I said, "The only condition is that you stay these two and-a-half months in this one place. I have nothing ..." it's the same as reading the Revelation in 20 minutes "... I have nothing to do with you if you just browse through Europe -- 16 countries in 15 days. But this is your opportunity. And I tell you why it is your opportunity. A man who does what I t- -- here recommend to you can return to Europe. He can come a second time, because he has made friends."

And you poor people, who all waste your money in one summer, you can't come back, because it's all done, which is -- I can't go into all the Dartmouth cases where just this happened, where a man really ruined his whole life, because he wasted his opportunity of seeing Europe in his -- at his first occasion. He never did anything to prepare his return.

Well, to make a long -- very long story short, this boy made terrible trouble for me. I lost this friend in Geneva -- in -- it's near Geneva in {Bourcy}, because he heard of the Moral Re-Armament people. That was the impera- -- American religious department store, you see, on the Lake of Geneva: Gimbel, Incorporated, or Macy's. These are Americans, as I say, who have -- sit down -- Mr. Frank Buchman, you may have heard of them, they were once called the Oxford Group even -- and they sit down every morning at 10 and speak of their sexual troubles, and of their relation to God in the simple way and then say, "Now God, please

tell us -- give us our -- or grant us our commission," as their battlesong says, "The Bridge Builders." Some of you must have heard of all this. No? Well, what he did then, my friend, was, he -- he fled to {Ko}. There he was very well treated. He -- met a number of nice, young girls. He could tell of his sexual troubles, loud, and openly, and they told him hers -- theirs. And he was also said -- told that absolute purity, absolute love, and absolute sacrifice was the simple three conditions to fulfill in order to go to Heaven.

Now, you know life is not for absolutes. We are not absolute. We are not God Almighty. Absolute love, absolute purity are sheer nonsense. We are a very unholy mixture. We certainly were -- were -- absolute love is nonsense. You also hate. And absolute purity is nonsense. We also shit. And this is all nonsense. It's just ni- -- not even nice. It's -- it's an absolutely ridiculous schoolboy idea. That's what it is. It was thought -- thought out on Princeton campus. And -- so they go to New York for the dirt, and for the purity they are on Princeton campus. And -- well, this man tried this. And he believed it for six weeks. It was enough to ruin his stay in Europe. He induced my friend to run into debts, and to pay the very high tuition in {Ko} -- in {Ko} with the money he borrowed from the man to whom I had introduced him, and who had willingly -- and given him a berth in -- in his center there. A typical and incredible story, you see. A real, total abuse of my trust. My friend in {Bourcy} of course resented it very much and held it against me. Then he came back. And then the most funny thing happened. And Mis- -- this Mr. X from Denver then tried to convert me to the Oxford Group movement. That was the climax.

That was my payoff for sacrificing my friendship for his sake, and for making really a play -- I mean, you can say -- see how I had to put myself out in June to get this friend of mine to give him this -- this place. I introduced him to other friends. They invited him for dinner in Geneva, and he never showed up. And so -- the usual Dartmouth thing. Happened to me this morning. Boy of -- one of you said he would be at my house at 8:30 in the morning, so I cleaned the whole house and he didn't come.

Well, the story had one interesting end, or two ends. One was that half a -- half a year, of course, he had -- began to despise the Oxford Group movement, and the gr- -- or as they call themselves now the Moral Re-Armament people -- and was through with them, because he found out about absolute purity, you see, just from bowel movement. And -- studying medicine. And -- the second thing was he gave up converting me -- what was it? There was some {other point}. Well, he did not pay back his money, that's one thing. Oh yes, yes. He regaled me then with an absolute shameless confession of his religious convictions, which he had written down for me, and wanted me even to read them. I wasn't interested, I told him frankly, with his abstract statement out of the blue.

You don't make such statements, I mean. That was his rationalization of the whole event.

Well, certainly this man has wasted his time in Europe. And I only wanted to me- -- mention this because it's a typical, I think, student behavior, that he threw away the precious pearl, the opportunity of a lifetime, to be introduced to real men and people in -- in {Bourcy}, where I had { } him, you see, that he bought a cheap sensation instead, and thought he did better, trying even to sell it to me, you see -- to convert me to it, and then he has been to Europe for no good purpose, because that was -- is cheapest Americanism which he would have gotten much better in Denver itself, or in -- or in Los Angeles, what he bought there as Moral Re-Armament. It's just a branch, you see, of the American Central Office, to which he went. So why should he go to Europe for this?

It's a very sad story, but it's a very explicit story, gentlemen. If you take it to heart, it may save you much trouble. It seems to be your temptation, when you go to Europe, to look for the American things there. Now I think it is the same with the Bible study and with religious study, that you think you must be introduced to this very foreign world by paying 15 cents for Life magazine in which they have at least sometime -- always these religious pictures, as you know. Mr. Luce has after all, a Catholic lady for his wife, and he's very pious himself, as far as circulation goes.

And -- I think its a very contemptible situation, this selling religion for 15 cents, with the necessary spices on the other side of the page. But that's {where} you think that you can find it. You really believe -- you do not throw away these articles on religion which Mr. Whittaker Chambers wrote in -- in Life or in Time for $30,000 a year. This is what America calls religion, a paying proposition. Religion doesn't pay, gentlemen. Life doesn't pay. Life leads to death, but it's wonderful to live it.

Now, Luke speaks to the people who alone -- don't buy Life, but who go to church, and who are very touchy with regard to shamelessness, impertinence, arrogance and who demand religious humility. So Luke speaks to the highest class of religious people in every -- in every era, and it's very interesting that the Marcion, the greatest heretic of the second century of our era, and Ernest Renan, the greatest heretic of the 19th century in France, live by Mark -- by Luke. Luke was appealing to them, because it's written against or for the conversion of the educated man of -- claim to sensitivity, the man who is not interested in bloody sacrifices, and who is not interested in ritual and liturgy, you see, but who wants to have spiritual uplift to light and clarity, and decency.

The fourth Evangelist, gentlemen,there has been much said about him: he is

the friend of Jesus. And so he represents Jesus' genius. Jesus is -- has a mission, but He's also like any Greek genius, endowed just with the gift of greatness, and poetry, and creativity. And you must not think, as you always do, of these four ways of life: Jews, and Greeks, and tribesmen, and Egyptians as though they were not in you and me. You are a genius, too. You could be much more than you know. At 12 years, you -- most of you were geniuses. You have just given it up. Some of you are now in the Dartmouth Christian Union as -- and so they read Luke. And some of you are in the business cycle in Tuck School, and so they read -- should read Mark. And some of you are just good materialists, and they should be threatened with the threats of Luke -- of Matthew. But some of you are -- have still genius, and they are the brothers of the Lord, by nature.

John, as you know, is by nature a Christian. He's not a convert. There's a very strange place in John at the end where the Lord says to Peter that the ways of John were not the ways of Peter, because Peter is a convert and Paul is a convert. But John just loves the Lord. He is His brother. And brothers are not converts. He is a Christian just as Christ Himself, and he is volunteering to be the younger brother. And so if -- if you read the letters of John, you'll find the great temptation. He's fighting, you see, anti-Christian. The anti-Christian, see, you don't understand, is the man who puts himself in Christ's place. "Anti" in antiquity means in Greek, "instead of." And the temptation of the Johannites, the Johannine Christian is always to say, "We are geniuses ourselves. We are by nature Christians. So we don't need Jesus. We don't need the first. We are just as good as He is. We are His brothers." John's genius consists, however, in taking upon himself the glory of being the disciple. But for this -- him, this means something quite different as for Peter. The stubborn fisherman who discovers his spirit only through the word of his master who calls him and says, "I show you to fish better fishes," you see. "You shall become a fisher of man, instead of fisher of fishes."

For John, this is all quite different. He lives like, well, say -- let's say, like Herman Melville or like Lord Byron, or like Keats, is perhaps better still, or like William Blake. He's a poet. He is in the Spirit. To him nothing is surprising. It's much more natural to him that Jesus is the son of God, than that He is the son of Joseph. To you, it's the other way around. You are -- you should read Matthew. You are clannishly minded. You ask, "Who is -- are his parents?" But for John it is quite natural that any spiritual man falls from Heaven, directly, and that his parents have no real claim to his -- to auth- -- on -- of authority over a man of genius. You would still say this of Thomas Wolfe today, that regardless of -- of who his mother and his father are, he's straight from Heaven, isn't that true? Because he is inspired. He's a very good case in point, you see, that he is a son of God, of course, or a son, at least, of Apollo. Of a god.

You have forgotten all this, and you don't believe it. That's why it's so very

difficult to talk to you about these things. But in John, this breaks open and you -- all the people all ti- -- of all times have always felt that the Gospel of St. John appeals to the non-religious reader, not the man in a denomination, not the man in a nation, and not the man in an -- state, as I tried to show you, that Mark does appeal to the man, the citizen of a state, of an empire. And Matthew does appeal to a man of family background, who wants to have the genealogy, and who thinks that nothing new can ever happen under the sun.

Now for John all these things do not exist, gentlemen. He lives -- like the Homeric, or the Athenian artist -- in a world of new creation. And so he begins, "In the beginning was the Word and the Word became flesh." And his great poem, which he offers the world as the Gospel of St. John, is that the poem -- that Jesus is God's poem. The word "poem," poema, which is found in the New Testament, is of course in -- in the Greek language double. You say "poetry," gentlemen, and the Greeks say poietes. That means creation. Where you today say Kreat- -- "creative writing," you try to come back to the meaning of "poetry." A poem is a creation. That's the literal translation of "poem." So when in the New Testament it is said that we are God's poem, it has this double meaning, you see, that it is -- we are his poetic creation. You are far from that. To you poetry is an idiocy. Doesn't make money. You want to have best-sellers. But poetry is the highest creation -- creativity of our own spirit, gentlemen. And if Jesus is God's poem, then it is God's most perfect revelation, what man is. Adam is, so to speak, God's prose; compared to Jesus, as God's poem.

It is the simplest explanation I can offer you, for giving you the description of what John does in his Gospel. He makes Jesus out as God's poem, and then, of course, it doesn't matter that He's an Israelite. It doesn't matter that He's a Jew. It doesn't matter -- or Benjamite, or whatever He -- clan He comes from, or tribe. And it doesn't matter under whose jurisdiction He has to pay taxes. That doesn't exist for John. He is God's poem. Just as your great man, in -- you -- the people you think great are God's poems. In the -- but you must, so to speak, aggrandize, inflate this word "poem" to have the full, total meaning of the po- -- of the word "poem" in St. John's Gospel. And I think in this country that's very hard. Perhaps if you think of the Ninth Symphony of Beethoven. That's at this moment in this country is willing to receive that s- -- as some divine inspiration. With mu- -- with regard to music you aren't so totally dead as you are with regard to poetry. So if you compare -- include, for example, symphonic composition of Bach, the "Requiem" by Brahms, or something like that, you come nearest to what John tried to say. God doesn't create poetry, and He doesn't create symphonies, and He doesn't create operas. He creates men. And His greatest poem is Jesus.

Now, gentlemen, if you go back now from there, you will see that all four Gospel writers changed, you see, the story. In the -- Matthew says, "You have

believed in scapegoats, in victims, in bloody sacrifices," because all the tribes, as you know, sacrifice. You remember the pre-Abraham situation of all -- all tribesmen, sacrifices to expiate, the altar in the center. Now Matthew had written around the altar. And he says, "The victim on the altar is the savior, is the only decent person. All the victimizers, the priests who slaughter the victim, are nothing compared to the victims." So you see the paradox of all the Gospels that they put the thing -- stand the thing on its head. The altar in the tribe is the place where the victim has to redeem the tribe. Now Matthew says, "That's exactly what happened, but in a sense you never thought. The victim doesn't redeem the tribe," you see, "but we have now to become as good as the victim. The victim is the real high priest." That's the content of Matthew. The victim you have made is the leader, is the head of the tribe, is the chief. It's this paradox of ...

And now the same of -- in John, you see. The Greek mind -- genius wants to have poetry: Electra, and Homer, and Iliad. And he says, not the teachings of Jesus are His poetry. You always -- we want to have words, books. Jesus did not write a book. He was God's book, right in Himself. And so the -- John's Gospel writes -- ends with the triumphant cry, "If anybody would try to write down what had to be said about Jesus, the world would not contain all the books that have to be written about Him." And isn't it true? For 2,000 years, men has tried -- have tried to write Him out, and they haven't succeeded. Whole Dartmouth Library hasn't been able to contain Him, because God's poem is so infinite, so in- -- inexhaustible, that all the little books that you write -- or you read, gentlemen, and all the magazines you buy are just nothing compared to God's poem. That's much richer. And you can live another 5,000 years, and that what has to be said about Jesus is yet not finished.

So again the paradox. Instead of the book, as a poem, it's the man who is the poem. We have the same relation between altar and victim, you see, as we have between Poem and poem in St. John. In Luke -- I don't know if I can at this moment reconstrue; I have done this, but I'm just -- escaped me, with the -- with the Romans, of course, it's very simple in Mark, that the morning star is rising in your heart; earth and Heaven have changed places. The child in the cradle is Heaven. And Heaven has become earth and looks down on -- in the cradle in order to find the real sky-world. The humility, you see, of the savior is that earth and Heaven have changed places, as in altar and victim, the -- have changed places, as in Poem and poem, so it is with -- with Mark, that the -- ever since Christianity has come, the word "Heaven," gentlemen, has lost its local place, upstairs. St. Augustine has said, which modern Roman Catholics unfortunately do not seem to learn, that of course, "Our Father in Heaven" means that God is nowhere in space. The superstitious old ladies in the Roman Catholic Church still don't know what the Church really teaches. And the priests are very careful not to tell them. But it is true doctrine, gentlemen -- you have to know this --

from the first day of Christianity that Heaven is no spatial concept. And that is Mark, and you have to know this. And I'm ashamed. Of course, it's -- it is terrible because all -- your whole understanding of our faith is thereby curtailed. The -- as an atheist, you say, "Well, I cannot believe that God is on Sirius." Of course He is not on Sirius. And as a Christian, you say, "Well, I have -- seem to have -- to have to believe that the souls are somewhere in the universe, and they aren't. It's hard to believe." Of course, it's hard to believe. You don't have to.

It is very strange that such superstitions should still be rampant in 1954, in a place like Dartmouth. But I run all the time into people who really think the Chur- -- Church teaches that Heaven is somewhere. This is out, with the Gospel of St. Mark, as taught by Peter in Rome.

Oh yes. With Luke, of course, it is the prophet. You see, the important thing which I have to leave with you is one: that, of course, prophecies are at an end. The prophets are spelled by the Apostles. The New Testament had put the Apostle in the place of the prophets, because Jesus is the prophecy fulfilled. He is prophecy fulfilled. He is that who -- or He of whom the prophets have spoken. But He is not a prophet. Again, in this modern world, where everything has been forgotten, I can always see people say, "Well, he's a prophet," or "He's a teacher." All the things He is not. If He were a teacher or a prophet, He would belong to the Old Testament. He is prophecy fulfilled. Now you -- you can deny the Lord, gentlemen, but you must know His claims. His claims is -- are that He is the victim of the tribe, that He is the morning star of the Egyptians, that He is the prophecy of the prophets, and that He is the poem of the Greeks.

The old -- Church has always known that the four Gospels are the practical application of the new way into the four other ways. And you can see now, perhaps, why with my paradox it is actually the turning point for all these four ways; because if the victim on the altar is the high priest, if the -- the pro- -- prophecies are fulfilled, you see -- the prophets have spoken, and He is the prophecy fulfilled -- if the poem is not the thing to be read out loud, but if Jesus -- His walk on earth and His resurrection are the -- the poem -- God's poem which He has prepared f- -- at the beginning of time, and which He is then going to carry out, ever since Jesus has been -- has transmitted the Spirit into you and me -- when this is the poem of God with man, then in all these cases, gentlemen, the road which the four old groups, or the four eternal groups in mankind: the family and the clan, the country and the state, the arts and the sciences, and the Church, the praying church, the monks, the Psalmists, which they always try to warn -- if Jesus is the fulfillment of all four, the way is suddenly turned in reverse. Out of a dead-end street of these four ways of life, these ways can open to each other, because it's all now in reverse. From Him, we learn how the world looks when the prophecy is fulfilled. From Him, we learn how it is when you

and I lead a poetical life, instead of reading poetry to us, you see, or listening to it on the stage. How about you being Romeo or Hamlet, and treating your life as -- as a drama?

So the way of Christianity, gentlemen, is a quadrilateral way, a -- a four-fold way, into the four other ways. And so the Church gave these four Gospel writers the attributes of one-fourth of the divine, by saying that the cherub, as described in the prophets, consisting of a bull, an angel, a man, and an eagle -- a lion and an eagle, that is the complete miracle worker of antiquity, that such -- as you have -- also have in the sphinxes and so on are an attempt to -- to give all the power of all the natural world above and below us. The lion, you see, the animal world; the bird, the eagle; the angel from Heaven; and what's Number 4? The bull, the working animal, the domestic -- animal of Egypt. If you see any old picture of the four Gospel writers, you find that John has the eagle, as having the relation from Heaven, the inspiration, spirit, like the eagle of Zeus. You find that the lion is given to St. Mark, the animal of the desert around Egypt. The lion is the -- always the symbol of the kings, or power, you see; the Babylonian king had the lion with him, the Egyptian pharaoh has him. That Matthew is represented as an angel. And that Luke is represented with an ox, with a bull, as the -- as the plow-man, as the animal that ferti- -- that is the -- agriculturist, so to speak, and does the second job. As I told you, it's the -- it's a second Gospel written by Luke for the people who are already on a higher level of training and education.

So you find -- who has seen these emb- -- symbols of the Gospel -- of the Evangelists? They are very famous. You find them in the churches. You find them everywhere. Eagle, bull, angel, and lion. If you go to Venice, the symbol of St. Mark, of course, everywhere there in the great cathedral of Mark is the lion. Don't think this is laughable, gentlemen. This is very serious. And in these four emblems, you have the connection of our own era with the -- their world of the ancients.

But I think the time has come -- let me first go back once more to this statement. The Church then has always known that the four Gospel writers represent four aspects of the truth, as they must appear to the people of these four different ways of life. The same truth appears as the truth of the eagle; that is, ecstatic, from above, as revealed. And it appears as hard work by learning, by -- as the Jews learn the law in the synagogue, in Luke -- in the bull, in the ox; and it appears as power over Heaven and earth in the lion, as in all the priesthoods of the empires, who tame weather, and sky, and seasons, and are the calendarmakers, and can tell the people where to work, and what to build, and what to observe. And finally they are like the angels, that is, the spirits of the dead in the tribe, whom -- with their wings, who tell the living how the dead want them to behave, because that are the good angels -- the messengers, you see, the connect-

ing spirits between the nether world -- the world of the absent, so to speak, the non-born, or the already passing away and ourselves. The -- from the spirits, from the animistic traditions of the tribe, the angels are derived.

We -- I told you, can no longer for the last hundred years take these symbols very seriously because mankind, in the last hundred years in the machine age has lost all contact with bulls, eagles, angels, and lions. We can't help that. We have a bulldozer, but we have no bulls. And the same way we have no lions and no angels in which you can daily, so to speak, believe as the m- -- ways by which you understand life. That's why I have made this appeal to you beforehand, to s- -- replace these four emblems, gentlemen, by the walking, the lying, the sitting, and the kneeling four Gospel writers. Mark, as the deacon in the Church, where Peter preached, kneels, {you see}. Matthew fights the Jews. He argues. He's the lawyer, who leaves the tribes of the Jews and, as the legend has it, and went to Ethiopia to convert the Ethiopians. Matthew's Gospel was the oldest Gospel. It was written in Hebrew originally. And was not o- -- we only have it in the Greek translation. Mark was written in Rome. Luke was written for the Diaspora Jews, for the educated Jews, probably in Boeotia in Greece. Luke died in 84, so the -- his Gospel must have been written before that time. And John wrote his Gospel in his old age in Patmos in Asia Minor. And he is of course the prostrate, ecstatic genius, struck by the inspiration which he relives as Jesus had received it.

So if you -- I foresee, or I hope, or I pray that some great artist may come -- probably not in this country, but wherever he may come -- who will take up a new symbol -- language of symbols for the Bible. And one of the parts of this symbolism would be to find in our pos- -- potential attitudes of kneeling, and sitting, and lying, and walking spiritual dialects, spiritual idioms. While we stand and argue, we are of a different mentality than while we lie down in the morning hour, perhaps when you wake up and you are still before the worries of the day, and you know that this is where your mind is poetically minded, where you receive into yourself some great vision. I hope you do. Every human being from 5 to 7 in the morning is a poet, or should be. If he isn't, he's not a -- normal man.

And the same is true -- we have to -- we would have then to replace the lion, who licks the feet of Saint Anthony in the legend with the kneeling, the priest, who has all the power over Heaven and earth, because of his humility, because of his obedience to what the stars and the heavens and the earth tell him.

Well, I can't unfortunately give more time to this, gentlemen. Perhaps you see that the Bible can be read as a very modern book. You can start to read the Bible as though it was written in the year of the Lord 1960. What is 1984, this terrible book, compared to a book like the Bible, of which you can say that it was written for tomorrow? To this day, the Bible is new, gentlemen, because it is written for

four eternal situations in which you find yourself, your neighbors finds themselves, the Russians find themselves -- every human being finds himself in these fourth { } -- on these four ways, and beware that they don't become dead-end streets. Don't get married and become clannish, and think that the jealousy of your poor wife can separate you from the Spirit -- Tree of Life, which you all more or less do believe at this moment in your weakness, that your wife has the right to determine who -- what spiritual ties you may have, or may not have. Terrible in this country. No country which is so Jewish at this moment, so clannish, where no spirit can enter, if the lady who went to Smith doesn't say so. You are no longer the leaders of your family, spiritually. You are quite little, little guys. Homunculi. She has to say everything on culture and civilization in this country. That's why -- the Bible begins from scratch w- -- in this country. It has all to be -- re-read and re-written, gentlemen, perhaps re-written. But you must know that it is -- the Bible is written not for the past and not in its own days. The Bible is an attempt to explain that the altar, and the sky-world, and the poetic, scientific, artistic world of the Greeks, and the world of the Temple of David is at every one moment under judgment, and at every one moment, you and I decide whether we are geniuses or family men, or political citizens of the state, or prayers, monks, hermits of the Spirit. And you have to decide this. And every one has to decide it in his vocation. And everybody has to mix this all through his life, these four ingredients. You have to give to all four, gentlemen. That is man's difficulty and this is man's grandeur, that he never is on a one-way street. The way of the Lord is always in this sense invisible, because it consists of your personal in- -- integration, or combination of these four ways.

And on top of it all is your freedom to change all this in every minute, to hold onto these four ways, but to determine how much of it. That's our business: how much of it -- each of them. We have given, for example, to arts and sciences everything for the last hundred years, in Europe, you see, until France fell. And now we have suddenly to give to Church and state, and you're all good conservatives, because there's a deep feeling that perhaps something has to be remedied, that we just can't -- cannot just go on producing chemists and physicists.

Now gentlemen, the Church is an attempt to implement these four ways all the time. The Church is nothing but the way, incorporated. And that's why we say that Christianity teaches incarnation. We would say corp -- "incorporation," or "embodiment," because you no longer think anything -- in -- under the word "incarnation." The teaching of the Church is -- the teaching of the last 2,000 years then is incarnation. And the four Gospels are the first form in which the Word was divided up into the four ways. But it is only in the form of the book that the four Gospels stand out. There also have been four ways in the life of the Church. And to give you a cross-section of these four ways, I will now turn to the 4th century of our era, to the moment when Christianity became officially the reli-

gion of the state, when Constantine, the emperor of Rome became Christian. Then, at that moment, the four ways of Christianity had to be there to enable from then on you and me to live this free life of sons of God, and not just of Romans, or Americans, or Vermonters.

You see how necessary that is. We have now, as you know, Vermont now consists of one-half city people, and the other half professional Vermonters, and no Vermonter left. It's terrible, because they don't -- won't give up in time their ways. They have just gone the way -- the pre-Matthew way. They are now just a tribe, funny, on exhibit, on exhibition. And the people from New York go to Stowe to find Vermonters.

This happened in my neighborhood the other day. A rich man built a house, with Picassos, and with -- filled with pictures or paintings of Mr. Picasso. And his neighbors are one from Chicago, and the other from New York. They came a few years earlier. And I'm from Germany; I'm his third neighbor. And he put in this house and the road, and some sewer -- sewer sep- -- system, and he -- he got in trouble not with me, but with the two other neighbors because of the septic tank, and where he put it, and wasn't very nice about it. And there was a quarrel. And finally they graded, because his neighbors were much more reasonable than he. And so he said of this Chicago gentleman and of this New York gentleman, of me, the German, "You know," he said to a friend, and he was overheard saying this at the Post Office, "I think from now on I shall get on with these Vermonters quite well."

That's all there is in Vermont, you see. People who came two years earlier.

So this has to be reborn, otherwise Vermont will be a joke. If you read Vermont Tradition, by Dorothy Canfield Fisher, you see the sad story of degeneration -- degeneracy of a tradition. There's nothing left. It's just funny. It's all dead. You call it form, which is another word -- term for the same thing.

Now gentlemen, this is quite serious then, that the Church in the 4th century already had to have four -- not four Gospels, but four ways to enable the people to stay Christian. These four ways are represented in the 4th century by vier -- four great saints. The name of these saints are, in the order of their lives: St. Anthony, St. Athanasius, St. Augustine, and St. Jerome. The real name of this man Jerome is Hieronymous, and that's I think right for you to know his real name. The others you can recognize. Antonius, and Athanasius, it's -- and Augustinius -- Augustinus.

Now gentlemen, what did these -- do these four people represent? The four ways by which Christianity became recognizable as a way out of then-existing

orders of life. Anthony is the father of the monks. He went out like a Jew, out of Egypt; so literally Anthony went into the Egyptian desert at a moment when all the fruitland of the empire was under the yoke of the emperor. That -- when this emperor now became a Christian, the great danger was that it was mistaken, this empire, for being Israel. So Israel had to go into the desert. And you don't -- not understand what monasticism at all if you do not understand that the monks are the re-creation of the eternal Israel. A monastery, gentlemen, is Israel in the desert. Out -- it represents the exodus from Egypt, from the fleshpots of the empire, because with an emperor a Christian, the great danger was that the pagans, who now feign to be Christians, you see, the millions and the millions in the empire, would say, "Well, since our emperor is a Christian, we can just treat him as pharaoh. We kiss his -- his sandal, you see, and we are back to normalcy, you see. We call him as a Christian -- we call ourselves Christians, and we call him Christian -- and so he is in Christ's place."

The second man, gentlemen, is Athanasius. We owe him the Creed, one thing which has been pooh-poohed by your fathers and yourself as ridiculous, because it's a dogma. Of course, it is a dogma. It is a dogma of your liberty, because the Creed says that the only man who was God was -- died on the Cross under the Roman emperor, and the Roman procurator, Pontius Pilate. You know what it also says? That the emperors of Rome were not God's servants. Now in 325, gentlemen, when this was stated in Nicaea, as the Nicaean Creed -- we owe Athanasius and the Nicaean Creed -- the man who was the president of this council was Constantine. This Constantine was the successor of 300 years of Caesars. And every one Caesar had been worshiped as a god. They were deified. Caesar was a god. If then, a god becomes a Christian, it was -- had to be said emphatically that by this, he ceased to be a god. And this you could only say in the Nicene Creed by saying that the man, whom the emperors of Rome had crucified, was the god. That was drastic enough to prevent the world from then on to believe that Mussolini or Hitler were the new sons of God. That's exactly the same. And you know, Hitler tried very hard to be Christ. I -- I have been told by a minister in Germany personally, that I would have a wonderful future in Germany, because most of my demands in education and so could be met, I had only to make one little admission: that Hitler was Christ.

Gentlemen, shouldn't laugh. You should not laugh. That's not permissible at this moment, because I'm trying to show you the importance of the Nicene Creed. And you should therefore open your mouth and your ears very widely and laugh about yourself. That you never so far have understood the central importance of the Nicene Creed and ask yourself if you have understood it. Why do you laugh over Hitler? That's unnatural. Laugh over yourself, or weep over yourself, over your own stupidity, that you think man can live on- -- without such dogma, from generation after generation. Aren't you surprised that men

don't worship McCarthys or Huey Longs more, since they laugh at the dogma which says that only one man is god, the man whom the Caesars have crucified? If you abolish this Creed, gentlemen, you are back to pharaoh. So please laugh at your own stupidity, and erase from your vocabulary this sneer with which you say, "Oh I'm not dogmatic." Poor people who are not dogmatic, because they cannot affix any epoch to their thinking. In 325, freedom came into the world of politics, because every human being today can say to the powers that be, "Don't you remember that the righteous one has been crucified by you, by the powers that be? You are not proven so far as being just. Even though you were elected by the people, you may -- a bloody tyrant." That's very serious gentlemen, it's nothing to laugh about. But you learn nothing from history, of course. You -- Hitler is nothing to laugh about. He killed, after all, 6 million people in gas chambers. So it's natural that he should say, "I ..." he's Christ, the only -- basis on which he could extend his power. And the Creed was forgotten. Well, we aren't so very far from this, gentlemen. Fifty years from now, this -- country will have a dictator, and then the Creed, which you now have spit at and make ridiculous, would come very handy. You with your undogmatic Christianity and your ethical culture, and all this spineless, beliefs and opinions and what-not.

This was paid in blood, gentlemen. Athanasius was saved by the monks, from 325 to 371, this patriarch of Alexandria, he was archbishop of Alexandria, had to live off and on in the desert with the monks, because he was, of course, doing evil in the eyes of the emperors. The emperors didn't like it. The -- successors of Constantine wanted to get away from the Nicene Creed again, because it stood in the way of their own authority. So from 325, gentlemen, to 371, the Athanasian Creed was in abeyance. He was only allowed to return in 375 to his seat and for four more years, the good man was allowed to act as archbishop of Alexandria. When he said good-bye to the monks in the desert, who had sheltered him and protected him, they said, "Don't forget us, Father Athanasius, when you now return to the empire and become the archbishop again." And he said, with the words of the 147th Psalm, I think it is, "If I thine forget, O Jerusalem, my right hand should dry up ..." What is the Psalm? Does anybody know the English version? "If I have forgotten you -- thee, Jerusalem." Do you remember this? One of the most power- -- who has the Psalms here? Anybody the complete Bible? Look up at the end of the Psalms. I think I -- and I think this quotation shows you how these people lived in the Old and the New Testament at the same time. He greeted the monks in the desert of Egypt, these Coptic monks, with the words of the Old Testament.



Which is it? One ...?


Good. Yes. "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy." Now, Athanasius, in quoting this, in -- instituted, so to speak, the monks, the monasteries as an essential part of the Church, and they have remained this, as you know, to this day. That Protestants have to admit this just as much as Catholics, gentlemen. That the monasteries have saved Christianity through the last 2,000 years, in many forms. But the monasteries are the new Israel, because they are outside the empires, outside the interests of men. That's why the individual monk, you see, is as much in exile as Israel is in exile, ever since the exodus from Egypt. It's outside the fruitlands. It's outside the -- today's orders of the calendar, and of the class system, and of the politics of the nations -- of the Gentiles. That's the 137th Psalm tells how. Who was good enough to know this? Who is it? Who gave me the chapter and verse? Good. Thank you.

The four- -- third man, gentlemen, St. Augustine, is the man who wrote The City of God. He opened, in the very same century in which the emperors became Christians, the Christian soul to a future beyond the Roman empire. The city of God is that city which is the real home of man, regardless of his political home at this moment, because The City of God is written around the problem of the two cities: the city on earth -- that is, the state on earth -- and the city of God. It's two cities. And so, gentlemen, again the same danger that the Christianization of the emperor of Rome might induce the Christians to identify Church and state, to identify the Roman Church with the Roman empire was overcome by a fourth saint, by the mighty sermon of St. Augustine who threw all Christian souls into the future of world history, and said, "Rome is not the city of God by a long shot. Rome is the city of the sinners. Rome is the same -- is the city before the Revelation, it's the city of ...

[tape interruption]

... city of Rome, you can only, if you compare to Revelations. The city of Rome is Revelation once more. And -- I mention this because I want to open you at least one little access to Revelation. John did in 70 what St. Augustine did for the whole Roman Empire in 416, when he wrote The City of God. In Revelation, a new history is opened beyond the fall of the earthly Jerusalem. As you know, Revelation deals with the heavenly Jerusalem, because in the year 70 the temple in Jerusalem is destroyed. So there is nothing the pious Jew or the pious { }, any believer can cling to on this earth by which it is said that God enters history.

And so John writes the Revelation in order to proclaim that the epochs of God do not coincide with the existence of the earthly temple in Jerusalem. That is the first thing you must understand about Revelation, that it proclaims a new period, or a -- how would you say? -- articulation of the epochs of history. And in this sense, John and St. Augustine belong together. John and Augustine -- John creates for the believers a future beyond Jerusalem, and St. Augustine at the end of antiquity -- of the Roman antiquity, creates a new future beyond the history of Rome. Can you understand this? That this has to be done, before people can breathe and feel that they are not connected with the downfall of the -- of the Roman city, you see, the city of Rome, or the downfall of temple of Jerusalem.

It is just as if you take a Frenchman now and teach him that the fall of France has happened and that he must live despite of it. If they only would learn it, you see. Now you find France saying, "France has never fallen," and therefore they can't lead Europe. The difficulty is that no St. John and no St. Augustine has appeared in France to tell them that they must live in the new epoch of history. They still want to live before 1940, so nothing works. They go on hating everybody else, especially the Americans. This has to be done.

And the fourth saint, gentlemen, Jerome, as you know translated the Bible into Latin. We -- the Catholic Church to this day, as you know, has the Vulgate, the so-called Vulgate, the -- St. Jerome's translation, as the book that is read in church. And you all ask, "Why does the Roman Church stick to this Latin book? Why aren't they popular? Why isn't everything in English? Why can it -- can it not be preached with a good, Southern drawl?" Gentlemen, again the Church has to fight the ways of the flesh. If you proclaim that your language, the King James Version, is the Bible, you are quite mistaken. It's high time that you burned the King James Version. It's the misery of Protestantism in this country that they worship the King James Version instead of reading the Bible. It's a nice book, the King James Version. We have the Luther Bible in German. That's an even better book. I assure you the Bible of Luther is in better German than the King James Version is in English. And still Protestantism in Germany dies just as much from Luther's Bible as the -- as the -- religion dies in England from the worship of the King James Version.

The wisdom of the Vulgate, gentlemen, and the wisdom of Jerome, and the eternal way of Christians into the ways of the flesh is just this little fact: that the languages are the sheaths of the Spirit, but not the spirits themselves. The language -- any language is the sheath of the sword of the spirit. You have to distinguish between the letter and the spirit. And that's why all Christianity is based on translation. Neither your native idiom, your mother tongue is sacred, nor the original tongue in which the Gospel is written. Is this an incredible wisdom, that for the last 2,000 years, the Gospel has to be preached and to be

read neither in the native tongue of the mis- -- of the -- of the newcomer to -- the faith, you see, of the native, wherever he lives -- in North Carolina or China, it makes no difference -- and that it must not be preached in the original language in which Jesus and the Apostles taught, because then again, it would be an -- a nationalistic affair like the Koran, which cannot be translated, which has to be printed in Arabic, because Mohammed happened to speak Arabic. It is equally poor, gentlemen, to say the Spirit is -- speaks English, and that It speaks Aramaic. The Latin version of Jerome says that you must have distance from your own native idiom, that the Latin is as far away from the original tongue of the Epis- -- Apostles and the Gospel writers as it is from your own idiom. If you can penetrate however into its meaning, you are free, because then the letter doesn't kill and the Spirit will live { }.

Gentlemen, that's very practical for all Protestants today, to understand that language is a medium, and it mustn't be -- idolized in itself. You know, we had this jubilee of the anniversary of the King James Version a few years ago, you remember? Does -- who does remember this? Well, it -- I wonder that you do not all -- don't all remember it. When was -- when did it appear, do you know?

(I believe last year, June last year.)


(Wasn't it last year? The Guttenberg anniversary was last year. The Guttenberg anniversary was last year.)

Oh well, that's the unfortunate invention of printing in general. That of course, should never have occurred. But that is, you see, the -- the versions were made then on the basis of this devilish invention.

Gentlemen, will you take down the limiting years of this great period of the Church? 284, Anthony goes into the Egyptian desert. And in 428 -- 429, I always forget the year, St. Augustine dies. It's either '29 or '28. Would you look it up? You tell me next time, Collins, will you?




And so you have a period of 140 years. It is the period, gentlemen, from Diocletian, the last persecutor of the Church, to the inroad of the Vandals in Africa,

that is, to the downfall, really, of all Roman power. I don't know the life dates of Jerome. Perhaps you also are good enough -- look them up, will you? Jerome. Bring to me the four men's dates next time. Here these four -- Anthony, Athanasius. They all became old men, gentlemen. And this is quite important. At the end of the anti- -- ancient era, gentlemen, it isn't the question anymore to become a martyr and to die young at 20 like Stephen, or like the Lord at 35 -- or however old He was; we don't know -- but to live long. All these men became very old, because Christianity had become established, a state religion. And you see how the ways of the Church in the 4th century had to be transformed into new ways. There was no monasticism needed in the 1st century, because people went and were burned and thrown to the lions, you see. So you had not to to withhold your assent to the life of everyday, because it was very simple. You were yourself killed in the process. This was the time of the martyrs, in the catacombs. And I could have shown you the four ways of Christianity in the times of the four Gospels -- parallel to the four Gospels, by the life of Paul, and the life of Peter, and the life of John, and Phillip, and Thomas, et cetera.

But I wanted to show you that from 284 to 429, in a new situation, in which Christianity has lost its sting, and its stigma, you had to reconquer the four ways. This is just an example how in every century, gentlemen, Christianity has to reestablish the four Gospels, by implementing four new ways into the world. In every one moment, gentlemen, the world wants to come to terms with us, and wants to say, "Oh, arrange -- arrange ourselves." If you just worship the -- the stock exchange, then it's all right. Or if you worship graft, or if you worship the military, or if you worship physics, or if you worship the press, or if you worship television, just -- just costs you nothing, I mean. The signature of the Devil, you see, is just done with one drop of blood, but it's the drop of your own blood. I'm quite serious, gentlemen. If you let your imagina- -- would allow your genius to work, you would find that Anthony, and Athanasius, and St. Augustine, and St. Jerome are again men of the future.

Gentlemen, what we call the Church, or the Gospels, or the saints are those powers that still wait for your allegiance. That is, they are far ahead of you. You are behind them. It is one of your tremendous errors of your imagination, of your laziness, that you think that Jesus died in 33 B.C. You died in 33 B.C., gentlemen. He's coming. St. Augustine didn't die, as far as he was able to -- establish a new future for you. But you have lost your belief in your future, because you don't see any future beyond the United States, and -- under the Constitution of 1776. You have no imagination, and you have no faith in any future of mankind that does not include the independence, and the isolation, and the sovereignty of the United States. You really can't think of this. You don't believe in it. You tremble. That's the whole excitement about it, that you are -- have not read, and you have not written a new City of God. All your history books just end in 1898, or

somewhere there. Have -- has your history any future? I tried to tell you in the beginning of this course, gentlemen, that man has as much history as he has future. You haven't. You have neither history nor future. Now give me one American who believes in the facts of life in the year 2100 more fervently than in the facts of life of 1898. The Spanish-American War is by and large the last thing most Americans believe in. They won't give -- they wouldn't annex Cuba and they won't give back Puerto Rico. Now I would perhaps annex Cuba and give back Puerto Rico, I don't care. But I mean, for the fut- - in -- with the light of the future of the America -- United States, to me the whole Spanish-American War is a very doubtful performance. And perhaps we should do something about it.

Now a man who has a future, gentlemen, and a nation who has a future can go back on its old history can say, "Oh, we have to redo this." But you can't, because all what you call history is just the past, without any goal, without any aim, just accidental. All accidental. Now what about Puerto Rico? How do you feel? Is this a part of the United States? I think the -- this is a very practical question at this moment, and it means if you have a future, then you can re-write the history of the Spanish-American War in the light of the real destiny of America. And you can say it was a -- a futile, a chauvinistic gesture, an infection from Europe, a bacteria. It was a mistake. There have been many good liberals, gentlemen, in this country -- they are forgotten now -- who broke -- died brokenhearted because of the Spanish-American War. From 198- -- 1898 to 1908, there were many old people who when they were -- went to their grave frustrated and said, "The United States have fallen from grace, because they have ceased to be the people of the exodus. They have ceased to be the people of the promised land. They have ceased to be the descendants from the Puritans. They have become an imperialistic race, who just go to war for the sake of going to war."

And this is still not solved, gentlemen, in your heart. You have no history. You have no future. You have neither St. Augustine, nor St. Anthony. You have no feeling that any -- element in this country might have to be the new Israel, that makes the exodus from the power policy of the United States. And on the other hand, you have no feeling that a true history of man may go far beyond the United States. And before you don't know this, how can you judge the political steps of this community? How can you vote? But they give the vote now to 18year-old children, you see. And that's the end of the world.

Next time, gentlemen, I want to show you in the -- that in the history of the United States, in a mysterious way the whole history of the man -- human race has been telescoped, that in 150 years, or 200 years, or 250 years, this country has lived all the phases of which we have spoken so far. And I hope -- I haven't done it yet, but with your help we might rediscover the elements of St. Augustine, of Jerome, of Anthony, and of Athanasius in American history. I think American

history is very interesting, you know. Not the way it is taught here. American history is nothing by itself. Will you take this down, gentlemen? The program for the next meeting is the American history as a recapitulation of the universal history of the human race. The American history so far, is a recapitulation of the universal history of man, because in 200 years, we have done nearly everything in great haste...

[Closing remarks missing]