{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

[Opening remarks missing]

... thinks Christian -- Christ came into this world and changed everything -- how there is the -- where is the place of Greek, the Greek mind, the Greek reflecting mind. I can only do this -- deal with this in passing. But we have in the schools, of course, the universities, in the academic world, in your own college education, in what we call "education," we have given the Greek mind its humanistic place. You remember that we defined humanism as the going-between orders that for the time being still are separate. That's an important definition of humanism, gentlemen, which you find nowhere among the humanists, because the humanists, as all sects, deify themselves, and say humanism is the only true answer to life. So they cannot be satisfied with something that is obviously only a little element of life. We have however seen that the Greek contribution obviously can only be called a contribution.

Now the contribution, gentlemen, of education is -- at this moment, while you are seated here, your mind can wander. Your mind can look into your own parents' home and compare it to other parents' and people's customs and ways, and you can, like the -- Odysseus, in The Odyssey, where Homer begins, "Tell me the story of the man who saw the ways of many cities of man, and of many countries," you can hear here of many civilizations, of many ages, of many differents ways of life. And gentlemen, therefore, humanism is always a half-way house between that civilization from which we come and the civilization which we have to found, and in between, you get oriented by looking at -- peeping through a keyhole of many other civilizations. That's why Mr. Spengler and Mr. Toynbee will always have a tremendous success in the academic world and will not move anybody who is -- really living, because you can't do anything with these people in life, but you can talk about them at the bull session and at the cocktail party in a college. A great advantage. They have no significance for real life, gentlemen. They have tremendous significance for the training of your minds, because they tell you of 23 different civilizations, and before you make up your mind what kind of a civilization you better found yourself, it is very interesting to hear of 23 others. But it is only before you make your own plunge. If it leads, as it does you pe- -- people in this country at this moment, to take no plunge, then humanism is doomed, or is damnable, because then it means that it mistakes itself as a deity, as a religion.

And many people in this country think that -- if you ask them, and they answer you, "I am a humanist." Gentlemen, no one can be a humanist. You can only be a humanist in the {tempor- --} movements in between. In -- for the rest

of your life, you have to be a Gentile, or a Jew, or a Christian. There are no other men. The humanist says, "I am a natural man." And I have tried to tell you that Gre- -- the Greek man is not a natural man, but a mental man. That is, a highly de-naturalized man, a man who has separated his mind from his body, and who can look into -- with his mind into other people's ways of life without any inner commitment himself.

The curse of you is that you think you are natural people, whereas you are mentally deracinated people, uprooted people. You allow your mind at the same time to think of Jews, and Christians, and Greeks, and pagans, and primitive man. But gentlemen, who are you? Do you kill? Do you make human sacrifices? Are you on Hitler's side? Are you on Stalin's side? Are you on Eisenhower's side? That's the question. Who are you? That doesn't depend on your mind. That depends on your actions. Are you going in -- to Korea and fight? You are. It doesn't matter what philosophy you have. The Greek mind is perfectly incapable of telling you whether you should fight or not fight.

So we have all these split, schizophrenic people in this country who say, "I'm a humanist," and then actually they are Ameri- -- good Americans. And to be an American has nothing to do with humanism, because humanism is the consideration how an American, a Frenchman, a Russian, and a German in their different ways behave, and how we can be understanding to each other while we still all the time remain in our various different apartments, shut in. A humanist is a man who can understand that a physicist must say this, and a minister must say this, and a judge must say this. But that doesn't help the judge, doesn't help the minister, and doesn't help the mathematician or the physicist, you see, because the physicist would like to know how he can be a better physicist; and the judge would like to know how he is a better judge; and the minister would like to know how he is a better minister. Whereas this { } of humanist says, "Oh, you are a minister. I know you always must defend the Virgin Birth." But perhaps the minister is just at that moment struggling -- trying to define -- re-define the Virgin Birth. The humanist prevents it, because he says, "Oh, I have learned this in my textbook. Ministers always have to say this. They have just always to say this. Frenchmen have always to like -- like good cooking. Englishmen never must like good cooking." Now here is an Englishmen who begins to cook well. He is doomed by the humanists, because humanists say, "All my understanding is based here -- on the assumption that -- that Englishmen only eat cold mutton and cheddar cheese."

No, gentlemen. Nobody can be a humanist except in his mind. And therefore, you can see at this moment that the fourth force of the Christian era is education. Because, gentlemen, since children go to school in a Christian school, they were allowed to study a foreign tongue, and to read texts of other peoples, as classics.

It is the essence of the Christian era as compared to China, or Greek. That in Greece itself nobody ever was allowed to read a non-Greek text. Take this down, gentlemen. The difference between Greece itself and our renaissance of the Greek spirit is that in Greece, you only could read Greek text. The rest was barbarous. You know, the Greeks called all -- everybody a barbarian who did not speak Greek. We call anybody a barbarian who only speaks English. We assume that any man of education knows at least one other tongue. And gentlemen, as you know, at this moment, education is in bad shape, because for all practical purposes, the colleges have given up this language requirement. And as soon as there is no language requirement, and no Shakespeare, and no Bible in this college, the privileges of a college must go. You must work 12 months a day -- a year like anybody else, because the whole excessive privilege, which you enjoy at this moment, is based on the assumption that education takes you into a world which differs from your native world, because that's humanism. That's academic. To be steeped into another world, and therefore to become, you see, superior to the prejudices of your own jungle, of your own flock. And at this moment, Dartmouth College is just good for football. And the people outside the college play just as good football as you do. And there's no reason why you should only work eight months a year, {34} years. Why don't -- aren't you a mechanic? Why don't you work hard? It is much more reasonable, gentlemen, to go into business right away, instead of going to college today, because you learn neither Greek nor Latin, nor French, nor German, nor Russian. And what you learn in these languages allegedly, as you know, isn't worth anything. After one year you have forgotten it.

I always talk to people who said, "Oh yes, I had German, but that's two years ago." You don't learn anything. You no longer go -- are real college students.

Now it's quite serious, gentlemen. In the year of our Lord 1954, I tried to show you, we live at -- in the evening-hour of the second thousand years of our era. That's quite serious. It is so. And that is the reason why this special chap- -- Greek chapter of education today drives to a close. Education has been the immersion into a non-native climate. And it has been based either on the reading of the Bible in the original tongue. A minister in the Protestant faith had to learn Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. A minister of the Catholic, Roman tradition, had to learn Latin, and even every layman had to learn some Latin for the Mass, and every monk, as you know, and they still do.

Therefore, the second tongue is the criterion of the humanistic study. At least the second. When Pontius Pilate crucified Jesus, he wrote on the Cross the word "Inri," as you know, "Inri," in three tongues. And he wrote it in the language of the Romans as -- the Greek text says -- doesn't say Latin. He says -- he wrote it in Roman, Greek, and Hebrew. And for this reason, for the last 1954 years, the

token of a Greek, of an educated man has been the knowledge of these three languages: the language of prayer, of the religion; the language of philosophy; and the language of rule. That is, of world power, of mental power, and of divine power. And that's very serious, gentlemen. Hebrew, Latin, and Greek are not three arbitrary languages. But now you can understand that in these three languages, there has come upon you the heritage of antiquity, because with Israel there has come what we have called -- told, the creation of the messianic spirit, of the future. With Latin, there has come to you the empire sense, the power of the consuls, and of the Caesars, and of domination, and of justice, and of law. The power of Egypt, of the pharaohs. Caesar, not accidentally married Cleopatra. And Antony followed his example. And if you read Antony and Cleopatra -- Cleopatra, you must know that thereby you inherit antiquity in this special chapter of the wedding of East and West, of the unity of the global -- empire, and dominion. And in Greek, you have the spirit of humanism, of the schools. And in your own tradition, and your native tongue, you have your own family, your mother tongue, your clan.

And so, gentlemen, in the fact that down to 1900 anybody who went to Dartmouth College practically learned English. In that fact he inherited the traditions of the Germanic tribes and of his family life. In learning Latin, he inherited the whole tradition of the empires, of star-lore, of the palace and the throne of the right of kings, of authority; but also of professional skills of office, of civil service, of courts, of written law, of all these tremendous hierarchies of -- which are described in Troilus and Cressid in the great speech by Ulysses on what? What is the great -- greatest -- high point of Troilus and Cressid? Who has read it?

Oh. As I said, by -- at that moment, this is also my explanation of why this has been the most shoddy and shabby class in 58 which I have ever had since I've taught at this college. I've never seen such an idiotic behavior as yours. Such an indifference, such a lack of understanding, and such a -- not -- not feeling that to -- your own business was was enacted here. Never seen any -- any such thing. I have taught this course now 19 times, and so I think I have some judgment in the matter.

So you haven't read the -- the speech on degree, by Odysseus? Does no- -- has nobody read the -- the speech on degree? Really not? Not one? That describes Caesar's position as a pharaoh, in a marvelous way. Very strange, that Shakespeare, who was haunted by the problem of royalty and of government, of statehood and Elizabeth, you see, the founding of the new -- of the new empire that he created this tremendous vision of the hierarchy of Egypt. That's the speech on degree. Go and read it. It's a very wonderful speech. And he's -- has the same picture as the old- -- ancients for the -- for the {Heron gammus}, for the famous

sacred wedding between heaven and earth. He calls it with the Christian expression, the wedded calm of states. And that -- it means the peace of states that is only produced by marriage, that is, by a passionate embrace.

Gentlemen, the two-party system in our modern state is the application of the holy wedding of contrast. One party declares the other to be very earthly, and the own party as heavenly. But they must embrace each other. That is, you have -- can have only a community in which both parties still love each other sufficiently to tolerate each other. The essence of -- you see, of party, is that they are not factions, that they do not murder each other, but that they inter-penetrate each other. And you will -- may be surprised to hear this, gentlemen, but it is true, that the Church has lived for the last 400 years only by the two parties of Protestants and Catholics. There would be no Christianity in the West without the two parties, because life must split, in order to propagate. You must marry a woman in order to have a child. You can't have a child by yourself. Homosexuality -- the Greek idea of the mind, you see -- is out, because the Greek mind can o- -- not beget children. They are all homosexuals. And at this moment, again, gentlemen, the college is so totally homosexual, so totally Greek, that it has no relation --education -- to real life. It doesn't disgorge into society. That's why you don't learn those things which would make you fruitful for the rest of your community, because you are maximist, and the -- alleged maxim of your {educator} says you should get out -- something out of your education.

Gentlemen, the meaning of education in a Christian era has always been that education is subservient to that which the community needs. And the community needs you as Greek spirits, as educated people who know something of the world outside America. That's your contribution. It's nothing you get yourself. But it is your contribution to the uneducated world. You have never thought of this relation. You never think that an educated man serves -- can -- must serve 10 uneducated people or he is not educated. You seem to be educated for your own private pleasure, because you pay 1500 bucks. Nobody gets an education that way.

Well, the wedded calm of states -- you can read up on this in Troilus and Cressid in this speech on degree. That was my starting point. But I wanted to show you, gentlemen, that in our Christian era, we have transformed the Greek spirit from a spirit of separation of the Greeks from the rest of the world, and of pride, into one of humility, because we have said that everything must be translated in our educational system. The Greeks did not translate. We translate. And therefore, gentlemen, the baptism, the Christian form of the Greek spirit in our era, is this constant translating. An educated man is a man who can translate. An uneducated man is a man who reads translations. You are uneducated men, because you read translations, but you cannot make one. That's the difference

between education and non-education, gentlemen. You depend on education and any -- on a -- translations made by others, and any such man, gentlemen, is a layman compared to clergy. Your clergy today are the people who make the translations. And to give you an example of how bad translations today immediately become, because there are so few educated people: a Catholic firm has published a few weeks ago a translation of the "Hymn to the Sun" by St. Francis of Assisi. Who has heard of this "Hymn to the Sun"? You haven't? Only hope that they read it { } -- course, my hope was that they read it in the -- in the { }. Do you know?

Well, the "Hymn to the Sun" by St. Francis is the greatest poetical document of the Middle Ages. I think it's much greater, certainly, than the "Niebelunglied," but I think it is also greater than the -- Dante's Divine Comedy. It's very short. It is really a trans- -- an enlargement of the 146th Psalm. In the 146th Psalm, all the creatures praise the Lord. The sun and the moon, and the stars, and the fields, and the animals of the field, and man himself. Now the only change, the little change that St. Francis made was that he appealed or addressed these creatures as his own brother and sisters and says, "My sister the moon, my brother the sun, praise ye the Lord." And you see at that moment man has become the equals of all the other creatures, but not in your way, of Darwinism, where you step down to the creatures who cannot speak. But Fran- -- Francis in the true method has lifted up these beings to his own degree of articulatedness. If you have to treat the other creatures like men, and you don't have to treat men like animals, you -- that's the only way you have found to understand man, that you say, "Oh, he's just a -- a clever animal." But gentlemen, how would it be if you say that an animal is a potential man? I think it would be much nearer to the truth.

This has very practical results, gentlemen. You see, you as pure, raw Greeks, of the pagan type, for example, are now all calling for eugenics. You say we must breed men as we breed animals. If you take St. Francis' line, however, it follows that we select our mate by love. Since we do not know how animals love, we must do the best second-rate in -- in having them mate, according to that what we can discover comes nearest to love. But love is a better selective task-master than anything the veterinary can find. Real love. It's -- as soon as you deviate from this, that the upper explains the lower, you have left this Christian era and have gone Gentile, have gone pagan. Take { }. He said we must make the people of our race according to the standards of the veterinarian. He made the head of every university in Germany -- became -- became a veterinarian, because that's -- was typical of Hitler. He could have taken a dentist, too. But the typical attitude just is that the animals explain man. You believe this, too. You are not any better than Hitler in this respect. And you actually will have very little resistance when people say, "You must marry according to the judgment of the psychologists or the { } of biologists." It has something so convincing for you.

You have no other instinct. You say, "Well, by what other cri- -- criteria shall we go?"

Well, gentlemen, a free man says that his heart speaks much louder than all -- louder and better than all science. And as I said, St. Francis has put down this law in this translation of the Psalms that the sun must be treated as our brother, and the moon as our sister. That doesn't mean that you have to treat yourself as a horse, or as a pig, or as a cow. It's the other way around.

Well, that's not the whole story. The story is that this Catholic publisher made the translation, or put it out, bibliographically very well done, nicely bound. And he wanted, of course, to make a profit. But he didn't care any more for the translation and the terrible thing is he could rely on an uneducated public that did no longer know Italian or Latin, the hymn is { } -- we have it in Italian and in Latin as well. So the English translation said, "Our Mother earth, we praise ye the Lord -- praise the Lord." "Our Mother earth" is good paganism. That's the Greek, or the Roman, you see. In antiquity they pa- -- heathen said that the earth was a goddess and was the mother. I looked up the text once more and said, "Am I totally blind? This can never have been written by a Franciscan monk, by a saint of the Catholic Church, by the creator of the spirit of the Middle Ages, of -- " and true enough. The real text of St. Francis says, and you -- perhaps you take this down, as a -- as a seal under the barbarism of this moment in American history. The real trans- -- text runs: "My sis- -- Our sister, the Mother earth, praise the Lord." Our sister. She -- he kept the motherly quality for all the creatures which the earth had, for anybody who's sensitive. But he was very careful to say that we are -- is the equals of this mother, you see. And so he said, "Our sister, the Mother earth." You see how -- what -- miraculous this paradox is? And how he protected the human soul? Can you see this point? Is it perfectly clear to everybody?

Now gentlemen, a translator who cuts out the creation of 1500 years of martyrs, and crucifixions, and persecutions by omitting this one word should be spanked. He certainly should be laughed out of court. There certainly shouldn't be a -- a publisher who dares to publish this as a translation. But gentlemen, that's by and large the translation you read today. When you read the Bible, or the old -- The Iliad, or the -- or the tragedies, or Goethe, or Schiller, or anything for that matter, it's incredible! And the King James Version is so obsolete that you no longer understand it, anyway. You have not the faintest idea what it means. You are uneducated, my dear people, because you can no longer free yourself from these accidental, and arbitrary, and uncontrolled translations. Imagine what it means that St. Francis is made into simply a pagan of the year 300 B.C. And no protest. And he sells, because the -- the page -- the printing looks good.

You live in a pig sty, gentlemen, but not in an educated world, today. And you don't know it, because all the paraphernalia, all the curtains are -- bear the inscription, "Education," et cetera. But are you educated? Can you make a translation yourself? Can you come before the American public and say, "I vouchsafe for the correctness of this translation, because I have made it myself"? And that's why you cannot even read the Constitution of the United States, gentlemen. You can only understand the Constitution of the United States if you know what Montesquieu has said, from whom it was copied; and if you know what Aristotle said, from whom Montesquieu copied, his idea on politics. This is not an independent text. Do you think that the American language just came up in 1776 by a virgin birth? This is a translation. Everything you say in America is translation. I tried to show you this about the "pursuit of happiness," that this is -- was just the translation of salvation. And you cannot understand the "pursuit of happiness" when you think it meant the frivol- -- frivolousness of being happy every minute. Salvation means that you have to put up with much suffering before you can be saved. And that they didn't want to give up by pursuit of happiness at all, that life is one story, you see. But modern man thinks that he pursues happiness every day and so he can never be saved. So he denies the translation character of the "pursuit of happiness" and lives on the installment plan, which is -- certainly is the Hell -- Hell itself.

Nobody, gentlemen, who pursues salvation can live on an installment plan. He knows that he must always pay in more than he receives. He must invest. The problem of "pursuit of happiness" is investment. And the problem of hellfire is the installment plan, which means you try to get something now before you have { }, before you have paid for it.

So everything is topsy-turvy, because you don't even read your texts, your -- your own sacred texts with any understanding. Gentlemen, acquire a language, and acquire it regardless of the requirements of the college. Acquire a language and pursue it. Subscribe to a paper in that other language -- be it Spanish -- and don't learn Spanish for commercial correspondence. Learn Spanish to check your own understanding of life. I'm now subscribing to help me on -- for the past three years to a strange paper. Comes out in Brussels. It's edited by Negroes in Africa. But the Ne- -- col- -- Belgians had this tremendous colonial empire, you see. And so I -- it's called L'Afrique Et Le Monde, Africa and the world. And I read on Eleanor Roosevelt, and I read on Justice Douglas, and I read on -- on McCarthy, and I read on everybody in a -- through the eyes of a French Negro, you see -- French-speaking Negro, I should say, a Belgian Negro -- somebody. And I read on these -- this terrible movie they made in -- in -- in Ann Arbor, you know, we had to see it here. You remember, it was shown a few months ago. "Macbeth," or what was the other one? Oh, it was so { }. It's -- did you go? It was shown in -- in Man- -- in Dartmouth Hall.

("Julius Caesar"?)


("Julius Caesar"?)

"Julius Caesar." "Julius Caesar," wasn't it? Ja. I wrote a review -- read a review in this African paper, and I learned a lot about the -- about American movies. But gentlemen, that's -- I mean by translation. Having an {just} many other resources, I find that this African paper translates me, transports me out of my own world, this Western world, you see, and its shortsightedness. It wouldn't -- I wouldn't get this by reading a British, or a French publication. This is fresh, you see. This is really -- are -- give me a different { }. And that's an education. And you have to do something similar. You have to subscribe to Ukrainian paper, or a Georgian paper from the Caucasus. And you must do something. Otherwise you are so parochial that you -- that you correspond to the famous picture -- the leading Parisian newspaper used to bring of the Middle West. For one whole year after the economic crisis in '29, they were so insulted by us -- felt so insulted that they always said, "The Americans have treated us like Nicaragua." And in order to express their -- their hatred of America, they published a map of the Middle West, with Chicago and McCormick in the middle. And it read, "Ces cent mille kilometres -- what is it? Carr‚ -- Carr‚ -- kilometres carr‚s d'ignorance," these hundred thousand square miles of ignorance.

And gentlemen, you see, it isn't that you don't know the facts. You -- this country is well-informed, but it is totally uneducated, because you classify the -- facts in your own frame of reference. Education, humanism, the great element in our tradition must give you another frame of reference, not other facts. You think that facts educate a mind. They don't. They cram your mind. Since your mind is parochial, and Mississippi or Missouri -- everything you come to know you put in this frame of reference called Missouri. You can only -- acquire an education by learning what I try to tell you about the Greeks. They did not look at other facts, but an Athenian looked at Troy and understood that Hector and Priamus had to be loyal to Troy. That wasn't a fact in the Greek system of thinking, or the Athenian dictionary of facts, you see, that Priam went to have Troy -- Hector extradited, but it was a Trojan fact, within a Trojan universe of discourse, and that is the difference that you must understand, gentlemen, that humanism deals with two frames of reference which are equally valid. And you only know that education means to cram and to crowd many facts into one frame of reference. That's not education. Can you see the difference?

Don't forget this, gentlemen. Don't -- please don't forget it, because nobody tells you in this country. They really think that when you read this new book

which came out in Chicago, the -- this still wrongly called the British Encyclopedia, the Encyclopaedia Britannica, but it is for all practical purposes a very lowbrow put -- output of the five lakes there, that you then get an education. Gentlemen, the Encyclopaedia Britannica as it stands today in this new edition is uneducated, because it crams all the facts under the frame of reference of Mr. Hutchins and his staff in Chicago. That's not an education. Read the Encyclopedia Italiana. That was the last work of education in Europe. It came out under Mussolini between 1933 and 1940. It's in this library. It's the last word of the old West, yes, the real tra- -- tradition before it totally broke down in these world wars. The staff is universal. There are American writers of Yale and of Harvard. There are English writers. There are Russian writers, German, French, Spanish, no difference. Of course, one-half of -- of the writers may be Italian. But the first men. And when you read these articles, they are all written unbiased, and uncontrolled, and checked. Mussolini had this generosity, still to scholarship. And he didn't have all the editing witchcraft recipes of the modern American editor, who mutilates and castrates every thinker in every journal. If you read Harper, if you read Atlantic, you read the editor. You never read the author. The editor in this country first tells the author what he can write about. And then he tells them how he writes about it. And then he cuts out three-quarters, then he pays the man for sitting quiet for accepting all these castrations, and mutilations, and operations. A man who is -- lives by his pen in this country -- a quite famous man, you would be surprised if I gave his name -- told me that he is unable to write and publish anything in an American magazine without being asked by the editor, and without corres- -- responding to this editor's command on what to write. Now -- is this creative? The editor, this idiot, this administrator, this clerk, or this financial wizard -- whatever he is, not a creative man, has to -- undertakes in this country to tell everybody what to write about. And then he comes with his scissors and says how to write.

Have a friend who -- who taught the -- the school of -- the educators -- the socalled re-educators of Germany after the war. Well, he became very miserable in the process, because the whole thing, of course, wasn't such a great success. But he trained at least 500 of the leading officers and educators for the occupied countries. So he was the expert, obviously. And after a few years, the book which he had edited was exhausted and there was a new edition to be made. And he had -- again, he collected all the facts once more, and he had these students come back and report on the success of his teaching, and they corrected what had been wrong. And -- he's a professor at Harvard -- and he went to his publisher and said, "We must re-publish this book. The second edition is due."

And the publisher said, "Oh, oh. Yes. Delighted. But obviously, we must make a new new arrangement in your contract."

"What's that?" my friend said.

"Well, my secretary is going to re-write this book, and you must tell -- give us a free hand, and must abdicate -- renounce any right of making corrections. Then I'm willing to allow the second edition. But we must be in control. And I will pay you a good sum. Give your name."

He declined. But the book wasn't to be published. So he was ruined, as far as this branch of his career was {correct}, because he couldn't publish this book in any other house, because he held this copyright with this -- these people, and -- the leading firm in New York. And that is the arrogance, gentlemen, and the tyranny under which we live in this country. There has never been such a tyranny as large as here in America now, exercised by the editors. Nobody speaks about these -- these things, gentlemen, but nobody in the rest of the world understands that.

So -- because they -- we don't know what education is. Education means that an educated man can translate himself, in his own language. And that, if you -- there -- if we still had these two and-a-half million college boys educated, do you think these editors could play this game? You would all be in control. You would all be able to check such a translation of St. Francis. And it isn't that everybody has to check. That you could check is enough, of course, to coerce these people, you see, to discipline. It isn't that we exercise our vote at any election, but that we can exercise it, that checks our politicians, doesn't it?

So we have placed the Greek role, gentlemen. Education, inasfar as it allows men to translate themselves, another frame of reference, {saved} the humanistic contribution of the ancient Greeks, and that's an eternal problem, gentlemen. So you understand why education is a great power, if rightly understood, and is no power, if understood as of today. If you think that education means to make somebody happy, you omit the pursuit in this happiness. It has to be pursued. Then it is only translation of salvation. And if it is pursued, gentlemen, you have to do something as a contribution for the rest of the community. The happiness of the community will only come about if you pursue happiness by looking up its sources in other civilizations, under other frames of reference, and translate under your own name what others have said. You see how important it is. We will become totally uneducated, because nobody is allowed to advocate Communism. Gentlemen, this is -- I am unfortunately not a Communist. Otherwise I would go quickly and invoke it. It hasn't to -- doesn't mean that we have to sell out to Moscow. But if in a country of 160 million people, nobody can represent Communism, obviously your universe of discourse is too narrow, because among the heresies which you indulge in, like capitalism, nationalism, free-thinking, liberalism, they are all heresies. They are all as great heresies as

Communism. I don't give a damn for any one of these heresies, gentlemen. I want to be orthodox. Well, I'm tempted at one time by one, and one time by another. If you cannot teach Communism in this college, then you can't teach anything, because you are out of proportion.

Communism, obviously, occupies a certain part of the spectrum of the human mind. Plato was a Communist, if ever there was one. So -- it isn't necessary to teach Communism. Just read enough Plato, you see, and -- and you will be instilled with this spirit. That's why I'm against Plato. I'm not a Platonist, because I think if you really read Plato outside the Christian era, without the glasses of the churchman, you must become a Communist. He was a Communist. He was nothing else. And the people in Moscow are Platonists. But that's disagreeable to hear in -- for people in this -- in this country who -- who wisely say, "Oh, we read Plato. It's quite innocuous. Here we have the Constitution of the United States, and that is a Christian translation of the Greek text," you see. And they still remember that Plato has to be translated and has to be compared. You see, to translate also means not to exaggerate the value of the translated, because you put this frame of reference, your own, against the other. And you know that you have one to defend, and there is another to compare with.

But you are so helpless, gentlemen. Now you have -- because you no longer can translate, you have to defend bigot- -- a kind of bigotry -- this system under which we live and say, "I mustn't even hear of another system." That's not a solution, you see. With illusions, you defend your own system knowingly, by being able to look at it from the outside and the inside, against a system which you can also freely handle as another system, and a different one.

Well, I have no time to go into all this, although it would be quite exciting. Let's have the second point which I have to make today, gentlemen.

I have now said that we have, in the Christian era, gentlemen, the millennium of the Church, the millennium of the world, and its nations, and now the millennium of the re-vivification of society in -- by initiation, by creating small groups, inspired groups inside a disintegrating planet. You remember these three crosses. How do they now relate to antiquity? That's my second task. Gentlemen, if you -- I wish to change the --

Oh, oh, oh. Could not somebody -- is there any other classroom here? Yes. You go and -- back and get some -- some chalk.

Gentlemen, if you think of the whole world, as a disk -- as the ancients did, instead of a globe, it's just for repre- -- geometric representation, we could say that man, in the first stages of his life, went to the periphery. And all these

points, which I make here as dots, would be the tribes of humanity. And we said there are -- there have at least been 100 and thousand -- hundred thousand such tribes. So gentlemen, the first layer of life on this earth, down to 3000 B.C., and then continued by the further migrations, wherever a tribe was formed -- the Eskimos or here the American Indians obviously were formed only much later; many of these Indians came only over 1000 B.C. or about the birth of Christ, or even 1000 A.D., as you know, across the Bering Strait -- and the sects of the modern churches, as we have them in this country, 287 different denominations, which continue the tribal idea. The Mormons are a typical example of a tribe -- tribal organization. These people are peripheric. The reason why they -- are to be called peripheric is that they stopped short, turned back to the rest of humanity and say, "I -- we don't know you. We come from nowhere. Our ancestor is not your ancestor. We have our own ancestor." And you remember, the heros, who give the name to the tribe, always represents a break between the tribe and the previous traditions of the human race. It is always com- -- impossible for the tribe to keep open the path that le- -- led from the previous tribe into this tribe, because otherwise the people would not be loyal to the new leadership, to the new language. And as we said, these 100,000 languages have been created. They have been hammered into the people, and the price was the break of continuity, the break of -- of knowledge, of what went on before those seven generations, of which any tribe has a clear memory.

So that's why I put these tribes to the periphery. Not meaning this in a geographical sense, but in a logical sense, gentlemen. Any tribe must face about, and look at the rest of the world as not being my own tree, my own pedigree, but saying, "This is warpath. This is jungle. This is not me." And therefore the rest of mankind for any tribe in antiquity has the position of other-ness, and the break occurs then in this facing-about. "I begin my story with my own first word, and name, my own hero who gives the name to my tribe," you see. And Iroquois, therefore must say, "I begin my story with the first Iroquois." Because otherwise he would fear that his people -- lest his people desert to the enemy, discovering that the non-Iroquois are just as real people as the Iroquois.

You get this family spirit today for every child, it's -- very first -- difficult for a -- at first for a child, not to feel that the home and the own family is far -- vastly superior to everybody outside. That is, however, a facing-about by 180 degrees. And we all commit it, inasfar as we are tribal. Now gentlemen, then we said, there is a second phase.

Wonderful. Thank you.

There is a second phase on this same map of the globe in which these empires cut out a quadrilateral. And we said it is not accidental that it is a quadrilateral,

because it must be oriented to the four sides of the compass. You remember what we said about the discovery of human power to go north from the south. And thereby we become divine, and to add to the powers in the -- universe that which no star has under his own. We can go from the -- south to north and thereby supply the one movement which the heavens do not contain in themselves. And therefore, the oriented life, gentlemen, of settlement, comes in here, in these quadrilaterals. And as I said, don't think this pedantic. It must be quadrilateral. It cannot be triangular. It cannot even be circular. The world, as understood by these people who cut out a temple, a segment -- "temple" means to cut -- a temple on earth -- anywhere where you have temples and priests, you have the quadrilateral idea of life, because you have orientation in space, and you have the equation of Heaven and earth. And where you have the observation of the heavens, you have this problem of connecting the south and the north. And only man can go from south to north.

Now gentlemen, when the Romans came at the end of antiquity, they called their own empire orbis terrarum. The orb, the circle around these empires. They were the sum of all the empires. And so antiquity comes to an end wherever the empire goes 'round, so to speak, around more than one other, older empire. That is already the empire of empires. That is why Caesar married the Egyptian princess, and yet was more than an Egyptian king. Now you take the Jews, gentlemen. They marched out of these empires. They face about in a double sense. They face about from this vendetta of the tribe at the periphery, to the unified origin of Adam, and they say, "All men go." You may now at this moment understand the wisdom of the history of the original sin, because by being members of one clan, one family, one blood-group, we are -- have faced about and have assumed that our living as twig of this branch is more important than our belonging to the whole stem. And so the fall of man, gentlemen, is nothing in your makeup or my makeup as a single individual; but it follows from our group life, that this group faces about and looks at the others, you see, as other groups; and at this very moment, it falls from grace. It falls down from the whole tree of mankind. It cannot help doing this, you see. That's Cain. And that's Abel. And that's the whole story of the fall of man. It's a very great story. And if I had to rewrite the Old Testament today, I certainly wouldn't have the sublimity of saying it so briefly and so truthfully.

Gentlemen, please learn one thing in this course, that the Bible is nothing primitive. The Bible is far ahead of you. You are primitive. And you should understand that the wisdom of the history of creation is unexcelled, that you have a hard time to come up to it and understand why all men have inherited from Abra- -- Abraham this curse of having eaten -- of having fallen from grace. Because we belong to one group. And we have faced about. And we have gone peripheric. And we murder our brother, like Abel -- Ca- -- Abel murdered Cain.

We go to war, because we say he's less our brother, because he belongs to this other frame of reference.

The Jews went -- go out, gentlemen. The technical term for the existence of Judaism, as you know, is the so-called exodus. That's the title of the second book of the five books of Moses, in the Old Testament. And "exodus" means to go out. But in my picture, you learn something interesting: that the walk out -- of Israel -- by which it is constituted every day again, this fence of the law, that they do not eat ham and bacon with -- with the Gentiles, in order to show the Gentiles that they are still waiting for the coming of the Lord, that this exodus goes inside humanity. My picture here, gentlemen, which I can only make understandable now to you is that the exodus of Israel goes to the heart of the matter. It is in this direction that you must place the exodus of Judaism. It is officially into the desert. But logically, rationally, it goes into the center of humanity.

If you understand this, gentlemen, you understand the whole history of mankind, Israel at the end of antiquity, because it's rather late in the game. It begins 1500 B.C., after 4-, 5,000 years of settling the whole earth with tribes and empires. And that -- they make a desperate attempt for the last 4,000 -- 3,500 years, which again is not so long -- to point out the center of gravity from which we all come. As man leaves Egypt, and -- the fleshpots of Egypt, and as he leaves human sacrifice behind, as Abraham did, when he did not sacrifice Isaac, the Jews go to the heart of the tree of mankind. They are between the stem and the roots of a tree -- how do you call this point, in the -- in the growth of a plant? Does anybody know? Through the -- where the transition between the stem that is up above the ground, and the roots that go down into the earth go -- how would you call this place? Where -- ?

(The trunk of the tree.)


(The trunk.)

Well, no. Sir. Trunk is when you mutilate the tree. That's the trunk. But the decision has to be made. In one part you go underground, you see, and the other you shoot up. And every sap, every cell, so to speak, has now to be, you see directed. And at one point definitely the things go one way or the other. In German this is called the -- I don't know how to translate it. Herztrieb. The sprout that is at the heart. That would be the most literal translation.

(The hypocotyl.)

Wie? What?

(Hypercotyl, I think.)

How do you spell that?

(H-y-p-o- -- )

Go on.

(Cor. C-o-r?)



(Hyporcotyl. H-y-p-o-r-c-o-t-y-l. Hyporcotyl.)

C-o-r- -- ?

(Yeah. H-y-p-o-r-c-o-t-y-l.)

(No, no. There's no -r-.)

No. No. That couldn't be it. There would have to be the word c-o-r-d in it. With that, it means "heart," you see. "Concord." "Discord." "Cordial." That's all it -- no. It's a very important idea, you see, that the tree has a heart from which everything is either above or below. And that would be the problem of Judaism, you see, that it tries to be, as on a tree, that point which cannot forget the unity of the whole. You see, that point which -- simply blocks the path of eccentric, peripheric living, where a tribe says, "I am a man, and nobody else." It's like the German tribe under Hitler which says, "We are the only race that has to be saved. All the other races can be just burned in a stove or gassed, because they are not men. We are men." That is the temptation, gentlemen, of every eccentric human being, of every eccentric nationalistic group, that we are the salt of the earth, and the other are nothing.

Now gentlemen, then you understand the triumphant reply of our era to this picture. I can also give you now a picture of humanism. Humanism is the standing-between -- at least two of these groups, empires and tribes. A humanist is a man who understands the life of one tribe, of one empire; of two tribes and two empires; of X tribes and X empires, the more you become the humanist. I am a man -- human, therefore nothing human I consider -- foreign. That's the great

sentence of humanism. You may have heard this sentence. "I am a human, therefore nothing human is foreign to me." That's found in the Latin poet Terentius, and it's -- makes him a great, great poet, and this was -- the poet didn't write it himself, but as little as Shakespeare wrote his own plays, Terentius wrote -- dictated -- under the dictation of the leading generals and consuls of Rome. And probably this line was probably written by Scipio, the great head of the Roman state, at -- in his day. Scipio Africanus. And it's a great sentence. "I am a human being; nothing human I consider foreign." Homo sum, ni humani {a me} alienum puto. I think "alien" -- Nothing human I think to be alien.

Now gentlemen, so we have a fourth place for the humanist. Humanism is between these orders, which I put here. Judaism marches to the center and settles as a point of heart, at the heart of the matter, at the heart of the pedigree of the tree of nations. But the Greeks are the in-betweens: between spatial orders; between Troy, and Athens, and Sparta, and Corinth, and {Mittelania}, and Rome. That's the humanistic spirit, re-admitted. It's nowhere, isn't it? Because it looks at everything. But it's nowhere itself. It has no way of raising families. It has all the perversions, all the sterility, you see, of a Greek mind, who looks at the rest of the world and amuses itself this way.

So you see, my -- my little easel here is complete. It has these four forms and four directions. One eccentric, the tribes, marching to the periphery. One centripetal, the Jews marching to the heart of the matter. The empires finding intermediary quietness, a part of the globe already is totally settled, totally stated. That's why the word "state" is appropriate for the empires, because they are stabilized. They are fixed. They have boundaries. And the Greek mind restlessly searching, comparing notes, as you say so truthfully, you see. But he who compares notes certainly cannot claim that he has any frame of reference of his own. He borrows these frames of reference from the objects which he observes.

Now we come to the Church, gentlemen. The Church is a triumphant eishodos, the Greeks would say, the entrance from the heart again into the world once more. It is the mission, the going-out to the Gentiles and proclaiming the good news which the Jews had harbored in the heart of the matter, of the unity of the children of God, and the one-ness of our creator, and the one-ness of our history, and the one-ness of our destiny. And therefore, gentlemen, this picture of the exodus from Egypt, has now to be supplemented. I have tried to preserve this word by the word eishodos. In the Greek tragedy, when the choir enters the scene, it's called eishodos, the marching-in. Eis- is in, ex- is out. So "exodus" means the marching out of the world of the Gentiles. And eishodos of the Church means the triumphant entry. Take the word "entry" and that's the correct translation. But you put in brackets, please, in parenthesis, that entry is -- the Latin translation, or French translation, or English translation of eishodos,

because only this way do you get the correspondence between Judaism and Christianity, and it's the only by which you can explain why the Church still has to read the Old Testament to this day, because that's the relation: the exodus from Egypt, you see, and the triumphant un- -- entry into Rome, and England, and France by missionaries, you see, they -- who come back and bring the good news to all these tribes and empires now, back once more. Can you see this? Christianity is the reunification of a universe that begins out of one-ness and it goes into the dispersion. And it has to be brought back to its reasoning, in the last 2,000 years. And we haven't finished with the job.

So you see the eishodos. Then you'll see, gentlemen, that from the very beginning, these -- these radii are the Church. The way of the Church is the way of mission. That is, the way of the Church always leads from the heart to the {periphery}. That's why you have to have missionaries even in Dartmouth College. It's very hard here to con- -- it's much harder to convert a Dartmouth College student than it is to convert 10,000 Negroes in Africa.

So the Church, gentlemen, is exodus, is entry into the world. If you don't get this, you don't understand why I talked -- talked to you about the coming of Christianity to this country, of the first century, when the Christians here tried to find a new way of life of influencing the people back home, and of original mission. We get out of the country in order to impress on the people, you see; as a prophet is never -- has no honor in his own country, you have to go out of it, to get the honor in your own country, to shine. The second thing, gentlemen, is then, that the nations, which we have as the Christian or civilized nations, they are all -- already embraced by the ways of the Church. The Church -- that doesn't mean that the Church is older than the modern state, because the nations are the daughter-nations who respond to this Church, and they are formed, gentlemen, by missionary ways. What's Russia? Russia is the mission territory of the Eastern Church. And it is cut out because of this mission. The boundaries of Russia are, so to speak, determined by the fact who converted them: that these were Byzantine missionaries, and not Roman missionaries.

Don't have any respect for the boundaries of modern nations, gentlemen. If you investigate them, they are all Christian boundaries. France happens to be the sum of certain archbishoprics, of the Gallic, imperial tradition of Rome, and the same with Germany; and the same, of course, with Italy. And where you don't have them, you have difficulties. The South -- Naples and Sicily -- never belonged quite to Italy, because they had Greek bishoprics and Greek monasteries. Have you been there? Why do you laugh?

(I lived with these people, second generation.)


[tape interruption]

... turn around the face of Gentiles. To become a Christian, gentlemen, for a nation -- like the Papuas, or the Samoans -- means to be able to replace their chieftain by Christ. Now gentlemen, to you that's ridiculous, or unimportant, or quite insignificant. Gentlemen,if you think that the hero of any one tribe is the block by which the free circulation of life and history between this tribe and the rest of mankind was impeded, then you must understand, that putting Christ into the center where the hero stands, makes this tribe immediately a full-fledged member of the human society here, because they are now able to face it. They are able to see that their ancestor is Christ in the spirit, and not Pericles, or Romulus, you see, or Siegfried. It's very, very important, gentlemen, that you should not believe that David Boone created the American nation. But you begin to. David Boone certainly plays a greater part than Christ in this country at this moment.

So, gentlemen, these are -- you must begin to be very realistic about this, gentlemen. Any group that has at its back a hero the great man, Charlemagne, or David Bruce of Scotland, as so many illegitimate children in this country boast -- I know at least 15 Americans who say that they sprang from David Bruce. What a life he must have led!

This opening up of the whole unity of mankind, you see, in the midst of history by the -- Christ, is a tremendous feat. It is impossible for you and me to go to the Mau Maus and to say, "We all have a common ancestor."

They say, "Prove it. We look black. You look white. We'll kill you. We just murder you."

Somebody had the kindness of -- of offering me this {shot}. You were the man, yes. Thank you very much. I expect my execution any minute.

Where the -- this was -- where the natives, you see, of this country of the -- of the American continent, you see, executed all white men. Even the Spaniards, which I think was -- rather a raw deal. And so the Mau Mau have just this -- this attitude: "We have no common ancestor. And there is nothing that ever will reconcile us to each other. The only thing we can do is to execute you, exterminate you, like lice," as we did with the -- the red man, by and large, by the way. And they say, "Now we'll do the same." That's your story.

Now gentlemen, what's the answer? Christianity discovered the answer, by saying, "You and I slew our ancestor in one time. We all have -- are Christ-killers.

We all murdered the spirit." He who can say this can forgive. The other cannot, because he -- he feels privileged that he depends from nowhere. The nowhereness of -- of most people's dreams of grandeur, you see, is a terrible thing. If you ask the white man what does he come from, he says, he comes from Siegfried, he comes from Balder, he comes from Odin. He always was blue-eyed and blonde. And he always was noble and generous, you see. And there's no talk with anybody to anybody else. He's just shut up in his own -- in his own prison. It is, only if you show him the skeleton in the closet -- cupboard, of his own ancestry, gentlemen. That's the truth about all of this. All the ancestors which you poi- -- to whom you point, of which you are proud, are all matched by all the ancestors you don't point to. Every one of us has as many minus ancestors as he has plus ancestors. But we don't the mention the others. And usually, we don't even know them, because we didn't care to know them. I wonder who in this class is willing to admit that he knows of an ignoble ancestor. Brave people. Brave people, very few. But that's the truth. Of course, that's simply the truth in -- in our generation, too. There are as many ignobles as noble human beings. And gentlemen, the pedigree of nations doesn't look it. The pedigree of nations always tries to say that Remus and Benedict Arnold were not Americans or Romans, you see. So we get rid of Benedict Arnold and live with George Washington hereafter and the cherry tree.

That's very simple, but it isn't the truth. And it does certainly excise and exterminate all hopes of unity between us and the others, whose ancestor we killed, or our ancestor killed, or embezzled, or eloped with, or raped, or whatnot. But the truth of the matter is, gentlemen, that we are all obviously wanting in grace, and wanting in {dis-merits} and that we all need a general pardon, very heartily. And this is the story then of Christianity. Christianity tries to break this iron ring around our eyes by which we say we have no skeleton in the cupboard. That's really the story of all the nations in the world. And you see it with France. They cannot forgive the Germans. "No," they said, the French. "You invaded us five times," and they never say that they invaded Germany 10 times, and vice versa. You never hear a Frenchman say that France invaded Germany. But they did this for 300 years in a row.

It's childish. But the -- we are children, of course. We -- we want to have this nice handkerchief around our eyes, by which we can say, you see, that nobody can see us. But the only people who can't see are we ourselves, because we put the handkerchief before our eyes. We blindfold ourselves and we say the rest cannot see us. Now gentlemen, the funny thing that everybody else can see us, except we, you see, because we have this handkerchief when we -- we call this routine blindfolding or idealism, or nationalism, or patriotism, or whatever we call it. Sometimes we even call it religion.

Now the last point, gentlemen. On the American -- the American way obviously, gentlemen, has to do with all of this. From 1600 to 1950, we have an American history. Therefore America becomes conscious at a moment when the nations become part of a universal world. America itself means that the world was completed in a road -- on dis- -- of discoveries, of worldwide discovery. Therefore, America as a nation was -- from the very first beginning -- put into the Christian world, whereas the nations of Europe might still consider themselves as originally, primarily ex- -- in existence before the rest of the world was discovered. America can never believe this. America exists only because the world was discovered. We have been founded inside a discovered world. Can you see the difference? Europe was the country from which the rest of the world then was discovered. After all, Christoph Columbus before he became to America already lived in Genoa, and in Spain. But no American, gentlemen, can say that his country in any sense -- deeper meaning -- existed before people went discovering the whole of the world. We are in within the completing of the crusades. And it is no accident that Columbus just extended the crusading spirit of the Mediterranean to the West. And the Knights of Columbus have a point in saying that in -- the discovery of America, gentlemen, the spirit of the crusades of the Middle Ages was translated into secular geography. We are a translated Christian act of crusading. But a translation. And so is the Constitution of the United States. All America is a secular translation of the Christian tenets of the Christian history, of mission, of crusade, of reform, and of progress. And I tried to show you that these were Christian notions. And in America, they all appear like the pursuit of happiness in this translated form. They are not -- we don't speak an idiomatic tongue like Anglo-Saxon. We speak the translation of the Christian tongue into worldly, geographical terms.

So the language of America, gentlemen, is a translation from the Christiani- -- Christian tongue. That's very important. Don't believe for a minute that you speak English. What is English, gentlemen? English is Anglo-Saxon, plus the language of the Church. What is German? German is the -- language of the Franks and the Saxons, implemented by the language of the Church. This is forgotten today. What we call English, French, Swedish, German, Italian is neither Latin, nor is it tribal. It is not simply Frankish, or Saxon, or Germanic, you see. It is German; it is English; it is French; because instilled into the Anglo-Saxon vocabulary are all the words and verbs and acts of the liturgy, of the Bible, of the daily sacraments, of the prayers, of the Psalms. And as you well know, the King James Version is a part of the English tongue. But long before, in Chaucer, there is a bishop, and there is an abbot, and there is a prayer, and there is matin and there is noonday. These are all words from the monastic life of the Middle Ages. They are all Christian words.

So gentlemen, America, much more than any other country I know, speaks the

to- -- Christian tongue in secular translation applied to this country, to this land, as a part of the whole earth, of the whole mission of God in mankind. That's a great story. Keep this.

Also we come at the end of the second millennium. Therefore there is a kind of predominance of the worldly aspects, the geographical aspects of discovery, and the technological aspects of conquering space. Every American drives his car faster and better than any other man in the world. We have more cars, as you know. I think 35 million at this moment. Is that right? Do you know how many cars we drive here in this country? No? Well, enough to drive you crazy.

And -- and what does this mean, gentlemen? That the conquest of space in the -- at the end of the second millennium has gotten priority. I tried to show you that the response of the nations is with regard to making all the empires into one world. Now there are two points, gentlemen, on which I will try to exemplify this. One is, that in America, we have the abstract configuration of space by longitudes and latitudes developed to an extent as no other country. We have a 54th degree of latitude as a boundary with Canada. We have cut Korea into two parts on the -- at the 38th degree of latitude. That is, gentlemen, the idea of the French revolutionaries, that the earth should be con- -- considered as one topic of computation, as one big, arithmetical problem, as a proposition in figuring, we have really taken seriously. You believe, gentlemen, in the longitudes and latitudes as reality, at least our statesmen do, unfortunately. And so, gentlemen, this is the one symbol of what I call "Space is conquered" at the end of the second millennium. The second is, of course, our movement through space. Supersonic flying is an example of our having conquered space.

Gentlemen, don't take this lightly. What does it mean to conquer space? It isn't worth your and my effort anymore to boast of having speeded up relations of man, or treating the community as separate from others. You should treat already the whole world as one community. "Space is conquered" means that we live in one community at this moment, with very many slums, I mean. New York being the largest. But still it's all one city. Now we can go and begin some {clearing} -- cleaning of { }, of course. But "space is conquered" means that man, with regard to external conditions, has to treat the globe as one space. And our driving power, our motorcycles, and the airplanes on the one-hand side, and our figuring in terms of latitudes and longitudes are the signposts of this achievement. Don't take this lightly, gentlemen. You could not speak in Luxembourg of longitude and latitude, because they are hardly on one {different} longitude and latitude, it's so small. You can only afford this, you see, if America -- because America is so large that it stretches out over quite a considerable number of lines of longitude and meridians.

Now the American situation is, with regard to the second millennium, nearly perfect. That is, we marched at the avant-garde of the conquest of space, and of the response in a secular way to the challenge of the Church: make the earth one. Nobody has done more to doing this than I think this country. We are weak with regard to the first millennium. We have -- Southern Baptists; and we have rattlesnakes; and we have, as you know, a kind of imbecile Christianity here, feeble-minded. That is, the heritage of the Church has been thinned here out to a deplorable degree. And many people think it is a -- just a space-philosophy, just a way of thinking. I had talked about this yesterday, but I have to tell you this, too.

Give me these small five minutes at the end of the -- the whole course. Gentlemen, the danger of America is that the first millennium is not taken seriously. That is meant by this present-day Catholic renaissance. If you read Crosscurrents, it's quite a good quarterly. They try to emphasize the wealth of heritage of the Church, which this chur- -- country just has to digest to keep alive what has been be done. We can't abandon it. You can't live on the simplicity of the Pentecostal sect in Georgia; and you cannot believe on the primi- -- primitive belief of the rattlesnake cult in Harlan County, Kentucky. You just have to know that Christianity is the sum of all men, whom -- the experience of man with God through all the ages, that Christianity has created one God out of all the real gods, and that it is not sectarian, and doesn't believe in either rattlesnakes, or idols, or in any such special nonsense. It doesn't even believe in Christian Science, because Christianity is more than any one of the sects. It is not tribal. And the sects, gentlemen -- you have to know this in this country -- the sects are under Christian veneer, the re-configuration of the tribal instinct, create spiritual families who invoke one and the same hero, be it Joseph Smith or Brigham Young. And we -- you cannot afford this.

Now for the last hundred years, we have been very indulgent with all the small groups in this country and we have said they can go on with their tribal associations. As you know, this country has simply thought sectarianism is not dangerous. Gentlemen, for -- perhaps the only salvation of education would be that you learn at least one thing: that you have to be -- have a Greek mind, a humanistic mind between your sects. If you don't learn Latin and Greek, if you don't learn French and Russian, perhaps you learn at least Methodism, Mormonism, and -- and Baptism -- or how do you say it -- how do you call it? Baptistryism? What is it? What's this -- the noun for the -- for the Baptists? Can't form any.

Well, you understand, gentlemen. Your understanding of more than one sect in this country would be an education. It would amount to something, if you would not appreciate two or three ways of Christian life, with equal sympathy and understanding. Not by rejecting all three will you achieve this, but by appreciating at least three. I think -- I offer you this one upshot of my many,

many worries over the future of this country, gentlemen. Perhaps in no other country has the easel of religious variety contained all possible elements of -- of religious worship. And perhaps the idea was to prove that none of them matters, that the spirit must move freely through all these forms. I mean, the one lesson in Americanism is that you must be able to be an American although one is an Episcopalian, the other is a Roman Catholic, the other is a Presbyterian, and the -- so on, down the line. Isn't that true? You can't deny that these religious forms are confusing. On the other hand, they seem to me to contain a tremendous wisdom. It seems to me that for the last 300 years on this continent, every reasonable, or possible, or meaningful form of Church government has been tried -- or is still tried -- and that therefore you can see that Church government is secular, and that behind it, there can be one spirit, that is contained in these great instruments.

In this manner, at this moment, gentlemen, you can fulfill again the task of being Americans of the beginnings again, of the Founding Fathers of the 17th century. You cannot cut loose this country from its Christian moorings. Or it has no history. It doesn't belong in a universal history. I have warned you. But I offer you this as a -- your solution. It is not enough to come to this country as a congregationalist. But since you live in this country, it seems to me that you have to open up to the miraculous story why this country gave hospitality to every form of church government. Now that does not mean, as many of you simply -- do say, "I neglect all this. It doesn't mean anything." And it cannot mean that one -- you have to choose one thing as truthful. It seems to me there is a third solution for you and me, you see: to understand that every one of them contains a real branch of a real tree of life, of a real form of representing the Gospel in one generation and to one group of men. We -- you can see immediately, that we -- for an unsettled people as of today, the congregationalists are an impossible form of Church government. The Presbyterians are, too, because you have to be an independent merchant or a farmer to found and sustain such a Church. If you are an employee who works at General Electric and therefore has to go from one place to another every three years, you have to belong to a stronger church with more clergy, because you can't support it. You can't be the pillar of the Church. You are elsewhere every three years. So you must find a church, ready to worship there, you see. And therefore today, the Episcopal Church and the -- and the Catholic Church offer for such uprooted people much easier facilities, because they don't have to begin from scratch, you see. All the services serve every Sunday, and they just say to themsel- -- say to their wife, "Well, today we go there and there." And next Sunday, they are elsewhere.

This is by and large the American situation today that we have -- you can study that every form of church government is related to a certain class of our population. The strange thing, gentlemen, that we have today a Christian

Church in this country which is divisive. It divides the country into classes, as no other institution. The only institution in this country that corresponds to Karl Marx is the Church. Our churches are class churches. And they are terribly classconscious. So everything is topsy-turvy.

Gentlemen, if you want to become an American, you have to study your own country quite afresh. Forget everything you have heard in political science about European ideals and traditions. In this country the Church divides the people into social strata. And you have to study now why. Every social strata deserves -- or acquires, you see, or -- or is incli- -- prone to have a different form of church government. Artisans, farmers, professional men, merchants, of course will cater to a different form of church government, you see, as employees of journal-men -- journal -- how do you call it? journeymen, you see, or laborers, according to their -- to their drift. You are drifters, so you need a strong church which is petrified, you see. If you are settled, you can keep the Church a little more elastic. You see the difference? Extremes beget each other, you see. The more you drift, the more you are apt to fall on your knees in a stone cathedral, because it's so wonderful that you, the drifter, can have some contact with something so eternal. But if you land, and your grandson will sit on the same farmland, you have absolutely no reason to build anything but a little wooden church, because, you see, you have this feeling of restfulness and quiet yourself.

This is the story, I think, of America's relation to the first millennium. It is a relation of your being able to see the Church in its wider context within the modern empire of our society, and its {production}. And you have to overcome today the classes not in the secular states, but in the Church. That is, the problem of Egypt, of the empires today occurs in this country in the form of the place of worship, which is very strange. But there it is. Cannot be doubted. That in my church, for example, we have no poor. A wonderful church, you see; we have no poor. It's pre-arranged, you know. Some { } predestination.

Now, gentlemen. At least today we had a good class. Thank you.