{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

...and one American who's known as John Smith, of the family -- famous family of Smith, as against phusis, or whether this course, which has scalped you of your name, John Smith, and treats you as an individual, and tries now to remake you into a person who will do something with -- with this -- out of this abstract shadow of the dead, and -- what is an individual? An indifferent thing which I can crush. An individual is somebody I can kill. It's not my brother. It's just an individual. Now, individual fleas, individual flies, individual chairs, I can all burn them, kill them, mistreat them, gentlemen. There is no obligation for me to have any respect for individuals.

This I thought I -- I -- thought I should mention this, here, what's this -- this desperate attempt of Dartmouth College to get you back out of the shades, and the -- Hades, the underworld of philosophy. As soon as philosophy is not dealing with second impressions, but has taken root in you so that you think that's your first knowledge of reality, you see, you are unable to live. And this college course won't do you any good, I'm sure, except, I mean, perhaps enrich some psychoanalyst.

Now let's go back to Homer. I have -- can show you today the point where Homer and philosophy separate. I have brought with me also -- here, it's The Republic. And we'll see the point of divergence, from the Platonic treatment of -- view, and from the Homeric treatment. Let's go back to 486, I think it was, in the famous catalog of the ships. Here the Greeks are marching up like the flowers, the -- buds in -- in spring -- or as the leaves. Then we went on, about the thousands of peoples. 470 -- -69. Now we come to 484. Will you -- we -- I don't think, {Prenzler}, we have read this. Will you kindly read it?

(Now I have a different book. I have to have the page this time.)

Would you, Richard? What? Where the invocation to the Muses comes. "Tell me, now, you -- you Muses." You must have this. Ja? Would you read it?

("Tell me now, you Muses, who have our homes on Olympos. For you, who are goddesses, are there, and you know all things. And we have heard only the rumour of it and know nothing. Who then of those were the chief men and the lords of the Danaans? I could not tell over the multitude of them nor name them, not if I had ten tongues and ten mouths, not if I had a voice never to be broken and a heart of bronze within me, not unless the Muses of Olympia, daughters of Zeus of the aegis, remembered all those who came beneath Ilion.")

One moment. That's the invocation, once more. Now the strength of the thing is that there -- of course, the poet has begun his whole Iliad with the famous invocation, {andra moi enipa} -- no -- {ple iden nak elois} I mean, where is it? One moment. { } -- tell me the wraths of the son of {Pilus} -- {Epilus}, O deity.

So that is the first invocation. Now in the middle of the second book, that is, after a thousand verses, he is so impressed by the difficulty of his undertaking that he invokes the Muses again, and he uses a word which I think you should put down, gentlemen. He says, "I can -- shall not be able to tell," your translator says. Now this is the word -- use "myth."

You know there is a tremendous discussion today -- raging on mythology, on myth. Everybody talks today about myth. Nobody seems to know what he means by that. Since we are philosophers, we have at least to clarify our vocabulary. In Homer's days, gentlemen -- perhaps you take that down, this word my- -- "mythos," m-y-t-h-o-s, or "myth," simply means a tale, something said. And so the -- Homer thinks he is telling the truth, the real truth, because -- when he now lists the catalog of the ships, the catalog of the Greek contingents, and he says therefore, "I -- shall not be able to tell," and uses the word "I shall not be able to mythologize," to myth. You see, he thinks it's the highest grade of truth. You take myth always as something in shambles, something rotten, something wrong, something pseudo, you see, a dream, a fantasy, and you try to debunk myth.

Gentlemen, any limited statement is mythical. We'll perhaps have later opportun- -- an opportunity to state this. This course isn't meant to clarify the problem of mythology in the modern slang. But I warn you, if you go back to the sources, the word "myth" is an honest word. And it just means the word to be said, na‹vely, without criticism. Poetically, I mean, statement of fact, narrative. You can say -- and that's -- I think you should keep in your vocabulary -- "mythos" in Greek begins its career simply as "tale," and to {"mythein"}, which is the Greek word for it -- I'll spell it in -- in modern -- in the modern way, "mythein" simply means to speak the truth, and not the untruth. And we are really up here against the terrible wall of infamous arrogance on the part of modern man, who thinks that he is without mythology. But gentlemen, in the Greek sense, you are much more mythologists than Homer is. You are full of myths. One -- is, for example, democracy. It's a myth. In Alabama as you know, in Mis- -- Mississippi, there live hundred percent inhabitants of Mis- -- so-called citizens of -- 51 of them cannot vote. But you can call this "democracy." That's a myth. And that's a lie. That's not honest truth. We live in a mythology. Every human being lives in a mythology. You also think that you are -- you and your family are excellent people. Nobody knows. They may be, but it's a na‹ve tale. It's un- -- un-

-- uncontradicted, you see. As long as any word is without second thought, it's a myth in Greek -- the Greek sense. A na‹ve tale. Folk tale, for example.

So take this down, gentlemen: myth is a straightforward say-so. Hearsay also, of course, later. Anything that hasn't gone through the mill of a second thought, of an afterthought. And obviously, nobody can live if every word would be an afterthought. I'm still speaking spontaneously to you here, you see. So I'm telling myth.

I warn you, because in the modern literature, in every newspaper, magazine, all these people who write in America are totally superior to myth. They all look down on myth and say, "I warn you against myth," you see. Well, I warn you against these infamous people, who don't know who -- who -- what humanity is like. Humanity lives, of course, wrapped up in decent convictions, that it knows already a little bit of the truth and it speaks na‹vely its mind. That's always mythology in the eyes of these superior swines. They all have afterthought. When a -- when a mother gives a kiss to her son, the -- she says -- he says -- she has an Oedipus complex. Isn't that -- that's -- that's their mythology, the psychoanalysts' mythology today, you see, that everybody has an afterthought.

Myth is an honest situation with- -- -out which -- of which we cannot live. It's a first-impression speech, you see, the first way in which we in -- present say, "This is my mother, and I love her dearly. I want to embrace and to kiss her. But I don't want to get to s- -- go to sleep with her as a lover." But there come these pigs, and that's their myth then. Everybody else is a pig. And they are allowed to slaughter the pigs.

So here we have this word, {muthysm} -- I can't tell you how important it is for you to know that this is an honest and innocent word. No {folly} without myth, gentlemen. How can you go to Dartmouth? The whole Alumni Fund is a myth. But a good one, isn't it? Everybody has to be grateful. We will see if you have to be grateful. It's not yet decided.

Now go on from here, please. The next. Here, your neighbor with the beautiful red --.

("As for the rank and file that came to Ilium, I could not name or even count them.")

That's again {muthysomei}. Yes. I just said this.

("There -- here then are the captains of the fleet and here are

the ships from first to last.")

(Do you want to start reading them?)

Well, that's why we are here for -- what we're here for. That's cal- -- the great story. That's the important thing.

("First the Boiotians, with Peneleos, and Le- -- Leitos, Arkes- --")

May I ask what your difficulty is?


Well then, pronounce it wrong, but pronounce it.

("Ark- -- Arkilus -- Arkesilaos --")

Arkesilaos. In Greek, every word -- syllable is pronounced fully. It's still a phonetic language, you see. It's very euphonious. Very beautiful sound. Arkesilaos, und Prothoenor, und Klonios. Go on.

("They come from Hy- -- Hyria, and stony Aulis, from Schoinos and Skolos, from Eteonos, where the hills run high; from Thespeia and Graia, and the spreading lawns of Mykalessos. With them--")

Mykalessos. Not MY-kalessos. Mykalessos. They are very beautiful words, you know, all these. The modern poets, Swinburne, H”lderlin, Blake -- they all have made use of this tremendous -- sonoritousness of the Greek language. Ja. Go on.

("With them were those from Harma, from -- Eilesion --")


("Eilesios, and from --")

Erythrai. Now the- -- this you'd better note. "Eruthros" in Greek is "red" in our language and "ruber" in Latin. It's a very interesting etymology, I think. I may use this opportunity. "Eruthros" in Greek becomes "ruber" with a "b" in Latin, but "red" again in Germanic languages. The "th" in Greek is a "b" in Latin and a "d" in English. The same word. Ri- -- red, the Red Sea, you have heard of the country Erythrai, perhaps. That's the country of the la- -- gre- -- Red Sea

which the Italians had as their colony down to the -- 1945, when they lost it again with the -- Ethiopia, with Abyssinia. So Erythrai, a very -- a very common place name in antiquity because of the red rock, the limestone, you see, the red limestone visible far o- -- across the ocean. Erythrai.

So the -- the Red Sea in antiquity is the -- the Erythrion, the -- that's red, you see. It is worth your while to compare -- to keep these -- these connections. Eritrea, the -- as the -- the country on the Red Sea, and Eritr- -- Pelagos, the -- the Red Sea, as an ocean in all textbooks of the 18th and 17th century would find still this word "erythrai" used. I don't think there exists in -- in America an Erythrai. But you have to con- -- consult the Post Office catalog. There's no place name, as you know, in a -- that does not exist perhaps in the United States somewhere. Go on.

("Eeleon, and Hyle --")



That means wood, or forest. "Hyle." That's an important word, gentlemen. Perhaps you take this next to "myth," because the people who believe the -- in -- in Greeks -- the word -- "matter" is expressed with "hyle," wood. So a man who is a materialist in Greek is called a hylozoist. That is, a man who believes that all life comes -- is -- is just material. So the word "hyle" is an important word. Hyle, wood, and then from there extended into being all materialism, you see. And if you are a hylozoist, you say all life is purely material. There is no mental life. There is no spiritual life.

("-- and Peteon sent their -- their men. So did Okalea --")

Okalea, ja.

("Okalea and the stronghold of Medeon. Ko- -- Kopai and --")

There's a famous Copais Lake to this day in Boeotia. Has anybody an intention to go Greece? Who would like to go to Greece? Well, come with me. I go next year. And I shall go to the Kopais See. Because that's the -- the great thing in Boeotia. We are still in the midst -- in Boeotia, there's one o- -- single landscape gives you -- yields you all these independent republics. And that's why we must read this, gentlemen, that you get some picture of the pettiness of

Greek settlement, and Greek politics, you see, in order to understand the importance of their philosophy. We are still in -- here at the lake of Kopa‹s -- Kopai. Go on.

{"Kopai, and Eu- -- Eutresis, and Thisbe rich in doves. They con- --")

Well, that's the famous name, of course, from which Pyramus and Thisbe has been taken in -- where -- where do they play a great part, Pyramus and his Thisbe?

(Midsummer Night's Dream.)

Exactly. There -- that's the Greek name Thisbe, here, you see. Go on.

("They come from Koroneia too, from grassy Haliartos, Plataia -- Plataia, Glisa, and the strong men of Lower Thebes.")

Now anybody who later on in Greece, you see, read any of these names of course remembered tremendous battles fought there. Kopai was the first settlement in Boeotia, which used Egyptian means of irrigation. The Copais Lake is an artificial lake. Plataia is the battle of course of 479 against the Persians, the final victory which threw out the -- the -- the Orientals. So Plataia is a great name in Greek history. Now go on.

("From holy Onchestos with Poseidon's sacred wood, from Arne, where the grapes hang thick, from Mid- -- Mideia and holy Nisa, and from Anthedon, on the borders of beyond.")

Now Mideia is important, because King Midas is of course the one to whom everything turned to gold. You may remember the -- the myth, the story. And Nisa is probably baptized in honor of Dionysus because there was an attempt to connect Nisa with {"Nysos"}, which is wanton, but in these kind of etymologies the people have always in Greece excelled. Go on, yes.

("All these in 50 ships, with 120 young Boeotians in each.")

Now how many men then is -- does he assume that the Boeotians send into the war? Would you kindly make the -- up your mind, Sir? You read it. Can't you multiply?

(Yes Sir. A hundred and -- a little -- about 6,000 -- a little over 5,000.)

Just, please. Precisely.

(Six thousand.)

Yes. Why didn't you stick to your first guess? See? Too humble.

So this region -- it's -- Boeotia is not quite as large as New Hampshire, yielded 6,000 men. So it was rather densely populated for those days if the -- if the navy could -- would have 6,000 men leaving the country and going there.

They are summed up then, gentlemen, these many different cities, in one militia, in one -- you may say, division, the New Hampshire division. Otherwise, however, you cannot strongly enough understand and represent to your mind the fact that all these names mean sovereign, political units. No -- none of these cities has to give orders to the other.

So you see that for the purpose of the war, the poet imagines that there has been unanimity, agreement, but otherwise congregationalism. Just as the Church in this country, that's called Congregational Church, doesn't allow any central bishop or organ, you see, to run the local church. Even the Creed, you see, is under the responsibility of the congregation.

In this same sense, you have there this and -- to compare these old cities to congregationalism is right in more than one sense. I have tried to tell you, and you always forget it, of course, and I must therefore repeat it, that the state of affairs there, of course, is that religion is part of the state. There is no separation of state and Church in antiquity. So if I say that all -- every one of these cities formed a congregation, I am much truer than if I would say they form a state, you see, because they all had a religion at the bottom of their unity. They were first congregationalists, and had their own -- one -- worship, as you see. They had a big, sacred wood probably to attract pilgrims called -- in honor of Poseidon. Which line was this? Where is Poseidon mentioned?

({ }.)


({ }.)

Ja. Thank you. Ja, the -- the famous -- the famous grove of Poseidon. And there is -- especially mentioned that it is a sacr- -- a sanctuary. Obviously there are people in Onchestos who had a -- open house and attracted pilgrims from afar, because they haven't -- they are not called a fortress; they are not called a

city; but they are called especially a sanctuary.

However then, the main point I wish to make is, gentlemen: these were congregations under their own steam, sovereign in their religious charter, and therefore also of course very much according to their -- divinity they worshiped, also their organization would run. The Church, you see, in this country can be Episcopalian. And yet you can be a Democrat. But an Episcopal Church has a monarchical head, you see, one bishop. Therefore we have contradiction in the constitution of a church and of a state. Not so in antiquity.

If you had a bishop in your temple, you obviously also would have one ruler, a king, in the city, you see. If you had Presbyterian government in the religion, you would also have the nobleman, or the selectman, you see, or the -- the lord, so to speak, ruling the city. A majori- -- you see, a minority of aristocrats. You would be an aristocracy. If you had a -- congregationalism, in the modern sense in America, you would be a democracy.

So you must always see that the order of religious worship determined the constitution. This is to -- to you, you see, difficult to -- to fathom. But as you know, the Episcopalians, including George Washington, could never win the confidence of the people. The Jeffersonians always won out, because they wanted -- have nothing to do with the Anglican Church, and the Anglican Church implied a king in her bishops, you see. And that was against the spirit of this country. The political constitution here in 1776 took the lead and said, "Congregationalism." Congress is congregational. That is, every man a vote. You can see this.

This for you is, I think, very useful for you once to look through. In the '80s, the Episcopal Church of this country, which comes right from the Anglican Church via Scotland into this country, had an interesting session. They said that they could not resist the democratic trend in this country, and therefore the lower house of the Episcopal Church had to be run on congressional lines. And as you know in this -- country, therefore, the lower house of the Episcopal Church is like the House of Representatives, and consists of laymen, you see. Not so in the Anglican Church in England, where the laymen to this day have very little to say. And -- so in this country, even the Episcopal Church has been modeled, more or less, e- -- also the Lutheran Church, by the way, after the model of democracy, because in our country, the secular form of government leads.

Not in antiquity, gentlemen. All ancient city-states put the religious form first. When the Romans introduced -- threw out their kings, who were also their high priests, they had to have immediately a new priesthood. And they took the

chaplains from the army, the pontifex, pontifices, the people who were the experts, the engineers for building up the camps, the Roman camp, that's the meaning of "pons," dry camp, you see, the -- the -- how do you call the duck? Duck? The ducks -- here on the campus when it is mud time. How do you call it?


Ja. The word "pons" means duckboard. And the pontifices in Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the man, you see, who could build duckboards in the Ro- -- for the Roman camps. So they could be put on an island, or in a swamp, you see, defend itself against the enemy. And he had this technical knowledge.

Now I only mean to say in Rome, when the kingship went and the presbyter -- presbyters took over the senate -- "senate" meaning presbyter. That's Presbyterian, you see. Senate comes from "senile," from "senectitude," from "senescence," from being the old -- elder, the elder statesman. Now the -- when the senate began to rule, they had to have there a new priesthood. And they took it from the army, because the senate took over the command of the army, you see, and the king had to stay home. And to the end of the republic, the king and his -- his priests, the flamines in Rome -- in the city of Rome remained in the city of Rome to be -- keep peace with the - the old gods, and the pontifices, and the consuls, and the praetor marched out and fought the battles. And of course, the man who wins the war is made president. So you cannot be surprised if Mr. Eisenhower and the Senate became stronger compared to the old roy- -- royalty, you see, in Rome.

And -- but in -- in antiquity, the commander-in-chief needed his on- -- priest immediately. His religious organization was decisive, and that there was a pontiff enabled the republic, you see, to replace royalty. Do I make myself understood?

In every way, gentlemen, then let us repeat this, that theology and religion are not separated from philosophy and nature in antiquity. The constitution is intertwined and insoluble. One, it is a religious society, a religious state. And of this, this is here a good example, because here you have the mentioning of Poseidon. Now let's go on to the next. We must go on. I cannot spare you this, because I think it is your introduction into the real antiquity, and their real concern. Will you kindly read? Yes, Sir. No, I mean you, the gentleman with the -- what's your name?

(I don't have a book.)

Then borrow one. That would be an easy way out. Fifty -- 511.

Mr. {White}, just help him. {White} -- would you help him? He can't read.

("{ } Aspledon and -- Orchomenos who were { } Askalaphos { } Ialmenos, sons of Ares, whom Astyoche { } in the palace of Aktor from { } --")

-- Look, my dear man. Everybody wants to listen to you. But you must enable them to do so.

("-- Where the gentle maiden went in secret to an upper room -- an upper room and slept with the mighty { }. { } 30 hollow ships. Um -- Schedios --")

So which country is this? Where are we? Anybo- -- any sign?

({ }.)

Well, they are still one part of -- of Boeotia, but that part which is under the Minyais. The Minyai are thought of as the oldest inhabitants of Greece, previous to the Indo-Europeans. And they are sons of Ares, you see, and there is now given the daughter how -- the story how one woman, you see, received from the god of war -- although she was a respectable lady, and conceived or -- and had how many boys? Who are these sons of the god? How many?


Two. Quite. Now go on.

("Schedios and Epistrophos, sons of the magnanimous Iphitos, son of --")


("-- son of Naubulos, commanded { }, who lived on --"

Phocaea. Ja. Gentlemen, that's quite an interesting town because Marseille, the ancient Massilia in France was founded by them. They were very bold people. They went all around the Mediterranean. And their daughter city, Marseille, is to this day after all a flourishing harbor. So these were not small people. They were very enterprising. Here they were in this little corner of Greece preparing themselves and their other daughter cities of Phocaea. So Phocaea was a great center of immigration and settlement. Go on.

("-- commanded Phokeians, who lived in Kyparissos, and rocky Pytho, the sacred Krisa, and Daulis, and in Panopeus, { } Anemoreia and Hyampolis, the lovely waters of Kephisos, by { }.")

What the --? ("-- Where Kephisos rises. Forty black ships traveled with these --")

Now Kephisos is, you see, if you had lived 50 years earlier, you would all know by now what Kephisos was. There are -- many poems have been written in all languages of the world on the river Kephisos, and his waters, because an -- at his water, Socrates and Plato philosophize. So it's not a despicable little brook. It has become very famous, just as the Thames or the -- the river -- what's the river on which Cambridge, England is situated?


Ja. If you ever have -- has anybody every read Rupert Brookes? Who knows Rupert Brooke? Well, he has very beautiful poems on the C- -- river Cam, has he not?

So if any Greek, or any Roman, or any medieval man, or any man -- going to the -- to a -- a prep school in this country, or to a college down to 1910, if he read this word "Kephisos," he felt that was something very important. That was the ancient river of Oxford and Cambridge, of higher learning. So go on.

("Forty black ships {traveled with these}, too, under whose commander Phoceians seemed --")

Now Lilaia in -- on Sicily, there is a -- there is a derivative, Lilibeum, from this city of Lilaia. And it's situated at the -- at the mer- -- source of Kephisos. Now, how many? These leaders were -- were -- were -- were followed by how many ships?



("Under whose commandment Phoceians fell in and took the battle stations { } Boiotians on the left.")

Ja. Perhaps the next takes over. Ja. Will you?

("Leading the Lokrians came the fleet-footed son of O‹leus, the lesser Aias, not such a man as Telemon { } by far { }. { } or Achaian { }. His { } had come from Kynos, Opoeis, and Kalliaros, from Bessa, and Skarphe, and beautiful Augeiai -- Augeiai, from Tarphe and Thronion, and the banks of the riv- -- river Boagrios. Forty black ships had set out under him, manned by the Lokrians, who live across the strait of Eu- -- Euboia. Euboia has --")

One moment, one moment. Euboia then is this large island, as you know, at -- to the east of Greece, near -- east-northeast of Attica and Boeotia.

Gentlemen, if you now look at the order a little more closely of what we have read so far, how are these m- -- cities listed? Not all just by the place name. But there is another principle that -- that crosses it nearly out. We are mobilized. We are at war. Gentlemen, when you belong to a company, how is your company quoted? By -- in whose name?

(The commander who leads it.)

The captain. And the word "captain" is an immortal word. It means the head man. Caput, capitanus. And you cannot be simple enough and -- and mythical enough about it. It's a typical myth that in a company, you feel greatly honored if you are named by your commander. It means that he is a good man and if you say -- you see, "Company Captain Smith," then the commander of the division knows exactly for what use he can put this company, because he can't -- put it to any better use than this captain is capable of. You see. If it is a poor captain, he'll keep them in reserve. If he has -- the -- you see, the luck that this is an excellent man, he can use them as a { }.

And it is -- to this day, gentlemen -- will you take this down? -- that the head man in war designs a contingent, a troop. In peacetime, you can give the space name. And here you have the first problem of any philosophizing about government. We have two states. In war, the whole -- group has to be quoted by its living commander. You settle down, you disperse into your settlement, you can quote the same group as Thebans, as Boeotians, as Lokrai, as Phokeians, you see. And this song is divided in this.

Now don't think that's a minor matter, because as soon as you have two notions for the same group, one under the aspect of war and the other of peace, philosophy, second impression is of course the search for the third name, which would, you see, embrace both. And there you see how you can be correct in -- in embracing both notions: the war side and the peace side. Or in getting a {thin abstraction} and giving something that omits the war situation and the peace

situation. That would be a wrong generalization.

Now the whole problem of Greek -- of our modern politics, gentlemen, of -- your teaching of government is of course very often handicapped because they omit the war situation of Americans, totally. You can learn government today and know never what it really means to be a soldier and under the command of a wrong captain, of a very poor captain, which is the real tragedy of any army. There you are. He could throttle you, my dear man. You still have to obey him. That's your real problem. Wrong leadership, poor leadership. Today they call a -- a captain a "manager." They think -- the army can be managed. Well, no doubt, that means that hundred thousand of American boys will be slaughtered in the next war, because a manager cannot lead people in battle. It's nonsense. General Patton can lead men in battle, but Charles Wilson cannot. He's a manager.

And today in this country, total confusion between war and peace because, gentlemen, all our definitions of government are based on peacetime experience only. So they think that Mr. Charles Wilson can govern America. Gentlemen, it's the end of America. It already is. He's a manager. As soon as managers try to govern people, instead of { } cars, you have no government.

This is very shocking today, but you here see the whole problem. Even Homer is alternating. Here he gives the local name, and the place name. And in the first, he is very -- he is -- obviously that was his first idea -- 495, I think the whole first thing is more or less localized. Then he -- we are already advancing. He gets more poetical. He gets more direct, and in -- in -- with the Lokrai, it's already Aias, Aias, the great hero, you see. And that's inspiring, that they have such a good general. And they forget all about their locality. And it's all the leadership which counts. Go on, with 536, please.

("From Euboia itself sent the fiery Abantes, the man of Chalcis, Ertretia and Ist- --")

Eretria, yes.

("Eretria, rich in vines, of seaside Kerinthos and the high fortress of Dios, and those who had their homes at Styra and Karystos, these were all called captain by Elephenor, offshoot of the war god, son of Chalkodon, and chieftain of the gallant Abantes. His followers were quick on their feet. They wore their hair in locks at the back. They carried ashen spears and wished for nothing better than to lunge with them, tear the corselets on their enemy's breast. Forty black ships came under Elephenor's command.")

Well, that's even more pronounced. If you compare these lines, gentle-

men, with -- if you go back to -- to 506 where Poseidon's sanctuary and his -- his grove is described, that's peacetime order. But if you come to this one chapter on Euboia, all we hear is the greatness of the soldiers, the -- these -- the strapping -- strapping men, you see, how they swing their lances, their spears, and how they're out to kill, with -- courage in their heart, and we know -- next to nothing told about their home situation. And now we come to the great Athene. You have no book?

("Next Athenians in their splendid citadel around the magnanimous Erechtheus, the child { } by Athene -- Athene, daughter of Zeus, established by her Athens in her own rich shrine. Her { } around { } by Athenian youths. These were commanded by --")

Now here we have another situation, this -- the -- the religious order of Athene -- of Athens. You can think how the Athenians, through the centuries, they became the leading city of Greece, would read these lines, in which for the first time, you see, they -- they get their due. They get -- just in the middle of the story, they are listed. The assumption has been made that the order of this list came from the fact that the Greek fleet gathered in Boeotia, in a -- harbor of Boeotia, in Aulis -- A-u-l-i-s. There are many famous plays on Iphigenia -- Iphigenia in Aulis, because there she was slaughtered, the daughter of Agamemnon, for the fair wind, and then was taken to Tauris and the several modern, and several ancient plays have been written around her fate. You have heard of Iphig- -- Iphig- -- how do you pronounce it in English?


Ja. Terrible. I once had to give Greek and Latin lessons to an American girl. She was 16, and I was 14. We couldn't get along, except on the English, because our pronunciation was so different. So come on. I still can't get "Iphigenie."

So this is Athens. And there comes now a famous verse in 557, which gave -- rise to great discussion. Was Salamis -- with the Phoenician name, Salamis, peace, the island in front of -- of Attica, you see, was it really in the days of Homer already a part of the Attic community, or was it not conquered later by Solon? And therefore, there was great talk about the genuineness of the next verse, if you read it.

("Out of Salamis Aias brought twelve ships and placed them next to where the Athenian battalions were drawn out.")

Wie -- so here is not subjection of Salamis to Athens, but at least cohesion.

They are allies, you see. Now on this verse, the ancients I mean waged many mighty philological battles, you see. Some people said that the -- the Athenians forged the -- the -- this verse, you see. They put it in to state their claim that Salamis was in a -- a life-and-death alliance, in with Athens, you see.

Only to show you the importance of being listed in this catalog, and how to be listed. It was the charter of Greece later on, for hundreds of years. This little catalog of which you think nothing, because you don't know with what a -- with what a feeling people would hear the first poem, the first secular poem in any human language coherent, you see. Not a liturgical song, not a psalm in the order to the -- to the gods, you see, but a song in or- -- in honor of the heroes. That's the oldest song we have for any human order on earth, and already shifting between the religious order, the geographical, the local order, and the military order.

Would you kindly now read on? I can't help you, gentlemen. It is my purpose to -- not to amuse you here, but to tire you out, because you must see that -- the encyclopedic character of this, that it is in duty-bound to be exhaustive. You think of course such a -- such a schedule or such a charter is -- is boring. It wasn't for the Greeks. It was their entering into -- into a common spirit. So please bear with me if I ask you to go on, 560, please. Here is your neighbor.

("From Salamis Ai- -- Aias had brought twelve ships and --")

No, we have read that.


("The citizens of Argos and Tiryns of the great walls, the men of Hermione and Asine, down from the great, deep gulf of the sea, and Oizen- -- Troizen and E‹onai, and from vine-clad Epidauri, with the Achaian youths from Aigina and Ma- -- Mases were led by Diomedes of the loud war cry, and by Sthen- -- Sthenelos, son of { } famed Kapaneus; high-born Euryalos, son of King Mekisteus, son of Talaos; and { } them { } man, but the warlike Diomedes was in charge of the whole force and 80 black ships set sail under him.

("The troops that came from the great stronghold of Mykenai, from wealthy Korinth, and good town of Kleonai, the men who lived in Orneai and lovely Araithyrea, in Sikyon, where Adrestos had reigned in {all the} years; and Hy- -- Hyperesia and the steep Gonoessa, and Pellene and around Aigion; and all these the length of the coast and broad land of Helike, these and their hundred ships King Agamemnon, son of Atreus, led. The following was by far the finest and most numerous. It was a proud man who took his stand among the people, armed in gleaming bronze, the

greatest captain of them all, in virtue of his rank and as commander by far of the largest force.")

Now one moment, gentlemen. You can learn something for your English. This is the heart of the matter, Agamemnon. He is the commander-in-chief. He is not placed in the beginning, as any logical system would say. Commander-inchief. He -- he comes in later. Any artistic organization never has an -- happy ending in your sense of the word, that the last kiss, so to speak, and then the curtain falls. But in -- in -- in real art, gentlemen, there is a climax, and then you keep the height of tension, and then there is a finale, as in any opera, also; there is a music that goes after the -- the ev- -- main event.

In the same sense, you see here that he has led up from the -- simple -- from the place, Boeotia, where the navy gathers, and en- -- is enlarging his horizon, and here we suddenly are told in the middle of nowhere, that these were the best men, and this was the commander-in-chief, and he was the greatest of them all, because we have been taken gradually into the -- the beehive, into the dynam- -- dynamics of the whole army. It's very hard for us to reproduce this. You are all second-impression men. That is, you organize your material logically, you see. And there you say who was the commander-in-chief, biggest contingent, hundred ships: he has to come first, you see. Where Homer was still dealing with first impressions, and therefore, you see, he has no -- he hasn't taken stock of everything first, and then divides it logically, with A, B, C, D. But he gives -- goes into it, you see, in his imagination as he would walk through the -- through this. And there is Boeotia, and there are the Boeotians, of course, because they have first access to their own harbor. They were there first, you see. And then come all the boats that came there, you see, across the sea to join them.

And so he finally reaches the stately center -- headquarters of Agamemnon. You can study here, gentlemen, that Homer's heart is in following the first impressions also in the physical, in the real life, you see. He's not systematic. He's anti-philosophical. Can you see this? Because a philosopher must have all his material gathered before he can subdivide it, you see. Therefore it's always a second impression, it's an afterthought.

Once you understand this, gentlemen, you know how boring most poems in America are, who list all the 48 states, or at least 10 of them, you see. You know all these patriotic songs which list the cliffs in -- in Oregon, or the sand in Texas, and the oil wells in Dakota, et cetera. I would still prefer the oil wells in Texas.

And they -- they -- they make now a habit. And they tell you that you can make this poetical, if you talk of the -- of the various states. You cannot. Because it is -- anything is unpoetical that already knows the whole and then subdivides

it. No first impressions. You understand this? And therefore, Homer is a -- is a great lesson for you. Hollywood mostly sins against this principle. They know too much, you see. They are so sophisticated. They bury their own -- the poets, you see. They hire them, let them smother then in -- and -- and -- and -- in -- in -- in -- somewhere in a corner in Hollywood. And then they have their producers and directors, and they are so smart. They know everything ahead of time. And the -- innocence is lost. And they le- -- dismiss you with the high point of the story, without any finale. But any man who is really impressed by a great event, gentlemen, then wants to have some swan song, wants to have something declining.

So what I have tried to build -- to show you here, how he builds up to the climax, to our -- would also apply to the end. You go down from the climax. Opera still has this, you see, an opera has -- or a symphony always has a finale. You cannot be dismissed with a high point, you see. But I think modern -- the more you get modern techniques, the more the people try to -- think they must dismiss you with the climax. That's very bad taste. Just sensation.

Now from -- there or from Agamemnon, I won't go on now with this all in detail, but we will only le- -- read the end.

There are, as you know, see -- still see a tremendous, long list. And we begin perhaps -- it doesn't matter, really. Let us begin at 730. Ja?

(What is -- what are the first lines? We don't have it in our book.)

Trikke. Trikke and Ithome.

("The man --")

No, perhaps we have to go back to 720, just before. I'm sorry. Lemnos. That's quite an interesting thing, because it's an exceptional line. 721.

(Start with "Those from Methone"?)

Ja. Very good. Begin there.

("Those from Methone, Thaumakia --")

Methone, pardon me. It makes no difference. But it happens to be very long: Me-thon-ne. Ja?

("Methone, Thaumakia, Meliboia and rugged Olizon were brought by the great archer Philok- -- Philoktetes --")

Now, everybody has to know Philoktetes. There's a great, famous tragedy of antiquity, S- -- by Sophocles, Philoktetes, where his cries -- he was poisoned -- fill the air through the whole -- through the whole drama. Just as -- it was, of course, with music, played in antiquity -- all ancient tragedy is opera, as you understand. And so the great -- the great outcries of Philoktetes go through all ancient tradition. And here Philoktetes is the great archer, you see, comes with a very small troop. Only seven ships. But now you go on.

("-- { } in seven ships, each manned by fifty oarsmen trained to go to battle with the bow. But their commander lay in agony on the lovely isle of Lemnos, where the Achaian army had left him suffering from the poisonous bite of a malignant water snake. So he lay there, crying, so the Ar- -- Argives by their ships were destined before long to {think} once more of {King} Philoktetes. Meanwhile, though his followers missed their leader, they were not left without a chief. They were commanded by Medon, the bastard son of O- -- O‹leus, whom Rhene bore to O‹leus, the sacker of { }.")

Now one moment. I have to -- give you -- charge you with another word. "They were not without a leader, although they were desirous of their old leader." It goes -- it says -- you read this. And then they said, "Medon was in command." Now the word which the -- Homer uses here is a very important word. And if you at this moment learn it, you will see the whole problem of logos and phusis, which is the topic of our whole lecture course, in a new light. You have heard what a cosmic order is. You use the -- we use the word "cosmic" for the universe, you see. Before man enters it. You know what the word "cosmology" means, ja. The -- the order of the universe. You may hear modern astronomers speak of the cosmological problems. That is, the origin of our -- of our world.

The Greeks were very much concerned with cosmos, in the same sense. Cosmology is one of the fundamental things, as we said, of phusis and physiology, you can also say cosmos and cosmology. It would mean the same. And many Greek writers didn't write on phusis, on nature, but on cosmos.

But gentlemen, this word still has the law which I tried to emphasize, that it comes first from human society. And later only from the nonhuman world, because "cosmos" here in this sentence means -- {cosmein}, exactly like "muthein," "cosmein" means to be in command of a human cosmos, of a beehive. You can use a -- perhaps the word "hive." "Cosmos" means a wreath, a garland, an order.

And therefore, the first meaning of the word "cosmos" to your and my surprise is a -- political. The meaning of a city, beautifully organized, yes? And only later was it taken out and carried into the nature, of the universe. If nature is a cosmos, it means that it is as well organized as human society.

Now since all our problem here is to settle in the history of Greek philosophy our own problem and in our own mind, what is first in our own impression, in our own experience? Human society, you see, or nature; that is, the nonspeaking world, you remember? The world which is not governed by human speech, by the word. It is terribly important for you to look at this point into the Greek language and to know the word "cosm-" {erkosme sen}, "he commanded," really means "he ordered." Cosmos means order -- will you take this down? -- and it means first, political order. And second, all other order which forms a semblance to the political order, which is equally harmonious, equally lawful.

So you all think that the law of nature is older than the law of man. Obviously that isn't so. Nature doesn't know anything of laws; just is as it is. Chaotic, you may say. We have made laws first, and then we have also tried to discover the similar laws in the universe. But the idea of a law was -- came to your and my mind only because we were under law. And these were statute laws. They were s- -- formulated, articulate laws, you see. When Mr. Newton articulated the laws of Heaven and earth, you see, he imitated human language. And he used mathematics, because he knew, he -- the sun couldn't understand English, you see. But it can hardly understand mathematics, see.

The -- the mathematical laws of the universe are then, gentlemen, secondimpression laws. And the word "cosmos" yields us this great secret, that in Homer, it is simply the order set up by humans among themselves. And the word "cosmos" today to you has lost all this intimacy.

-- If you wish to understand the importance of this, gentlemen, I'll s- -- tell this you right after the recess. How much depends for your and my bliss, and beatitude on your clarity about the -- this history of all these terms, like "myth" and "cosmos"? But let's have a break first. Five minutes.

[tape interruption] this moment, as you know, there is a -- a tremendous temptation all over the world to breed people like cattle, to forbid misgen- -- miscegenation, to lay down the rule by whi- -- which blood groups you are allowed to marry another lady, because otherwise your child may die, and to make all kind of racial laws about the race. And the doctors, and the natural scientists write books on heredity, because they know absolutely nothing about it, and so they sell very

well. And you believe all this stuff, gentlemen.

Now what's the argument? Gentlemen, when you believe in humanity, and when you believe in the experience of the human race, you would say that obviously the feeling of affection and love, and the falling in love between a man and a woman is the guide -- the first guide for our first impression, and the first guide to our knowledge about mating. Because people who really love each other form good marriages. That's the normal thing. And then we try to find it -- outside in nature, for the bulls and the wolves, an application of our own experience, and mate them, and breed cattle accordingly, and birds, and what-not. Whatever we try, and finally, hybrid corn.

And so we have cultivated the earth by applying our own experiences about breeding and mating to the outside world. This means that our inner cosmos, the commands of our heart were the first, and -- and the application of these commands into the outer world to whose hearts we cannot look, came second. Always when you have done this long enough, the devil comes and says, "Transfer the experiences of the outer world into your human heart, and ask the human beings to behave like cattle." That's the moment today. We have read so much science that today they try to tell you that you must not marry for love, you must not marry for desire, you must not m- -- marry for affection, but for the genetic reasons of Mr. Such-and-Such, some outsider who sells sperm to a Hollywood lady, you see, from a good-bodied student -- well-bodied student.

Well, that's what they do, after all. They sell sperm. That is, they transfer literally the experience of bulls to humanity. That's going on in this country. It's not forbidden. I would expel these people. I would ship them across the ocean. Send them to Russia. { } it better in love affairs. Gentlemen, it's a great scandal of this country. Goes on under your nose. You know that thousands of boys do this, and give their sperm to a woman they have never seen and whom they don't love, and they think that will be good offspring, because cattle is produced this way.

This is your temptation, gentlemen. In every way of life, you can look at the beehive and try to understand it from your own experiences, or you can look at the beehive, you see, and try to -- from -- which you only see from the outside, and be ruled then by imitating the beehive. And every one of you, gentlemen, I -- before you came to this class, were quite unaware of this constant ambiguity, how to judge the outer world and the inner world, what makes law. It is terribly important, gentlemen, that you keep in mind that -- all of you are philosophers. As soon as you get outside your family, your familiarity into the -- something outer, and you have the ovibos, here the musk ox coming to this -- you know -- to Vermont. Did you read the story of the musk ox? Whom they brought at great

expense from the Arctic down to Vermont? Well, they want to tame it, you see.

Now, do we carry over our own experience of familiar, and domestic {fact}, you see, to this usk- -- -ibos or do we take { } about getting us wild? That's always your decision { }.

So -- it is the -- the issue before humanity in 1956, and it will be for the next hundred years: do we carry over the experiences of the natural world into society, or the experiences of society into the natural world? Take -- take the fertilizing problem, gentlemen; take the chemical problem, you see.

I just read an article this morning, that wherever you -- you spray the trees and the bushes, the bees die. And go -- first they go crazy, and then some of these bees murder the others. They don't die directly, but they go crazy and they denaturalize their stock, so to speak. The discipline goes, they -- and so large areas -- my neighbor lost his bees this way from spraying his trees this summer.

We are destroying constantly life because we do not go from our inner experience where we don't -- to the outer world. But we allow us to be more en- -- included in the natural principles of chemistry, gentlemen. Chemistry deals with the dead -- deadest things in life. Chemicals are dead. If you explain life by chemistry, you will soon be chemical. And the -- of course, you have poison gas, and you have genocides, and you have the atom bomb. That's chemistry. Don't be surprised, I mean, that the atom bomb is around after a century of chemistry.

Obviously the whole problem is to reverse the process and to say, "Since I do -- even a mother-in-law doesn't try to be an atom bomb in the family of her daughter-in-law, let's arrange the world so that the -- the destruction, the Vesuvius, the explosions are far removed from the center of human society, and that the heart of our cities cannot be destroyed by bombs, as we did in central Europe." And as you know, very wantonly, just because the air -- air marshal thought it was the won- -- a wonderful proposition to bomb Dresden -- we are held up among Russians and among the satellite states every day over the radio as barbarians, because Dresden was perfectly wantonly, without any usefulness for the war effort, destroyed by the Royal Air Force, and the Americans later on. Very interesting que- -- ver- -- it's now admitted that the -- the strategical bombing took the -- chose the wrong targets. It didn't take the bridges and it didn't take the railroads, which some -- reasonable people tried to suggest in '43, but all the targets that were just conspicuous, that were big.

Which is very inhuman, you see, because the human is for the small things. The soul of man is invisible; a baby is very small; the switch -- the crossroads where you can be -- the limbs where you can really fell a s- -- an order of

society, they are all tenuous, delicate things, headquarters and such things. If you want to go out in nature and imitate Vesuvius and Etna, and -- then you will take the big targets. It's just an example of what happens when you go from nature into human society. These were very small units here, these people. You couldn't judge them from the ocean.

You -- you are all for bigness, gentlemen. That's why our life is so boring. Interesting are only small things. A group of 10 people is much more interesting than a country of 160 million people. You think the other way. And wherever you have bigness first, gentlemen, you kill life, because bigness is only for the human eye. Your private experience is always only dealing with small things.

P‚tain, the marshall of France, said once, "I can only really know 10 people. Therefore government must be organized in such a way that I have to deal with 10 men. Because then I know they are doing. They must have me -- every one deal with another 10 men. And on it goes. But my fiction, that I deal with 40 million Frenchmen, you see, is just { }. That's { }. That's impossible."

Smallness must even exist in government, gentlemen, and in -- in our commanding armies. It's no good that the general commands 4 million people. He cannot do this, you see. But he must have 20 men around him whom he can trust like the apple of his own eye. Isn't that obvious?

So -- but this choice can only be made when you know that the logos, the intimacy of the group with whom you are on speaking terms, can never repro- -- be replaced by a natural order, where you count apples.

And this is now my task, gentlemen, to come to the conclusion here of this catalog. The step from Homer to philosophy can now be exactly defined, because you have here a list of cities, every one keeping -- being very small, and keeping their own name. I don't have to repeat any of these names, but I just put here the word, "name," the term "name." Homer deals with named entities. And although we list them in a unified effort, everyone keeps its -- his name to himself, and it is even stressed by the name of the captain, its overname, so to speak. It has two names: the local name, as we said, you see; and that name which is even more alive, because it's a living man, at this moment, who is leading them. Now if you come to Plato, if you come to any philosopher, gentlemen, he does not list the many cities by their name, and then lump them together, as the "Greek navy."

But there is one little step in Plato. Anybody who happens to have Plato here can look up the 10th book of The Republic. You have it there. I brought it specially to class here -- and here Home- -- Plato rages against Homer. And that's why I bring it up right away, because it's Plato's attack on Homer. Very famous.

He wanted to forbid the reading of Homer in his -- to his students. Of course, he couldn't do it. But he made an attempt. And he begins with the famous statement: "We can no longer go on allowing the people to read poetry." That's the first sentence in the 10th book of The Republic. You have it there? Called -- Page 595. Everyone perhaps bring this next time and looks it up himself. Page 595 in the old {Stefanos} edition. That's the general way of quoting Gre- -- the -- the -- all the Greek texts from the 16th-century editions and their page numbering. So it's always printed here on the side, and you have it on top of the page, have you not? Yes, it is. I know it.

(It says Book Ten on top of the page.)

Oh, no, Sir. Here. Yes, I'm right, and you are wrong.

So Page 596 is the great fall from -- transition from poetry to philosophy made, because there Plato says, "The -- our task of thinkers -- of philosophers is to think about all the many things which may be called by the same name." Will you take this down, gentlemen? Poetry never thinks about all the people who come under the same name, but poetry has to keep the individual names of every one city here, you see. And then try to bring them together in a unity, without scalp- -- what I call scalping -- their name. It is not enough to say, "the Greeks." The whole -- catalog stands and falls with our interest in the captains, you see, of every individual city. That's why the Greeks read it, and thought it was great poetry. You understand this?

Now Plato says, in this whole page, which is -- as you -- you should -- really add a note to your Homer edition, that the Homer -- Plato attacks the catalog of the ships. He calls the poets "imitators" of the cosmos of politics. They keep -- they let the people stand under their own name, as a way they call themselves, you see. They have humility of the poet who -- if Mr. Smith is called "Mr. Smith," lets him be called "Mr. Smith." Plato says, "I want to get behind the secret. I want to have second impressions. All tables, they are not to me the ebony table and the acorn table. They are just tables." And he says, "I therefore list all and everything by one name." And there is this little step done, gentlemen, which distinguishes poetry, animism, living with people, and philosophy, speaking of things.

Homer deals with all the many cities of men. Plato deals with all the many things. That's a strange transition from "he" to "it," from "he" and "she" to "it." Plato deals with every man as though he was an "it." And he has -- comes out with cattle breeding for example, for marriage, for this reason, because he doesn't see why he shouldn't decide on me and you as though we were things, "its," you see, all to be called by the same name. And that's the terror of Plato-

nism, that we are all his ideas, and he thinks about us, where we aren't present. And we cannot complain if he calls us just, you see, "male" and "female." And you cannot say, "But I'm John Smith; and I'm not Jean Smith."

So gentlemen, we have here a great lesson and a great comparison to make. Plato is -- makes a desperate attempt to delete the political self-consciousness of the people of whom he is speaking, to give to them his judgment, you see, on their order. His second impressions. And denying their right to go on under the impact of their first impressions, their own laws, their own names, their own dialect, { }, their own religion, you see. That's all to be wiped out, because he knows better. And he says so by saying in this -- 596, Number 8, there is this strange sense: "We have agreed that this is an idea, which we have the right -- to -- we shall call `idea,' that which we get accustomed to put on every -- all the many things to which we put the same name. Don't you understand this?"

"I understand."

So there are many seats. There are many tables, he says. but the idea is one and the same, there is only one seat, one idea of a chair, and one idea of a table. Here you have, in a seemingly harmless little paragraph, the -- the real step from poetry into philosophy, from first impressions to second impressions. The man of second impressions, gentlemen, pays no attention to the self-naming of the people concerned. He wants to penetrate behind their consciousness, you see, and he strips them therefore, he -- I call it "scalps" -- of their name. Because my name is more even than my headdress, you see. It is my headdress, as a matter of fact.

If you strip a co- -- battalion of the name "Philoktetes," you don't have the same battalion in battle. Isn't that clear? And so the man says, "Philoktetes was left behind, but they had another man keeping the order, Medon." You -- we just read this. Now can you also take away Medon, and can you say, "There are just 500 Greeks"? Do you still have the same order? Do you still have the same thing? Plato would say "yes," you see. Philosophy will always think that it is well organized when it goes by its own concepts. It doesn't wait for the agreement, gentlemen, of the ordered. Philosophy never waits until you have said, "But I call myself miserable. You call -- me," you see, "happy."

Modern state -- very much of managerial society. All the managers rent buses, pack all their workers on Saturday evening in a bus and say, "Aren't you happy?" And then they have to answer, "Yes."

But that's just a glue put on from the outside, gentlemen. They aren't happy, but they are made to behave happily. All -- this is -- our whole modern

mass movement. All these broadcasters, they all tell you that you have to be happy. And you -- no resistance. No contradiction accepted. Then you just don't -- drop out, and won't listen to the broadcast. They say, "I'm sorry. Can't do anything for you," because these mass media are not at your disposal. They are at their disposal. And you are just -- how do you call it, if you -- if you prepare your little victim by licking it with your spittle so completely that it finally goes down your throat very nicely? How d- -- how d- -- we have a word in German, a verb, where you -- we describe this process of first getting enough saliva around the -- the bit before devouring. How would you call it? "To salive" you can't say. Wie?


Can you? Ja. Well, philo- -- you see, the -- the -- terribly important, gentlemen. The step from the many people to the many things. There's a great difference, gentlemen. If you treat people as things, they lose their own names. Their self-naming is lost. And that's the whole problem of philosophy to this day, gentlemen. Philosophers will organize and logically deduct, to use the order of the universe, with one little loss. The way this -- people think of themselves doesn't enter the picture. They are all men, for example. Or they are all Europeans. Now, ask a man in Holland. He'll never think himself -- of a European. He's a Dutchman. Oh, but you say, "I go to Europe," and to you, Holland is just one little enclave, you see. You pass it in half an hour by car. It's so small. To a Dutchman, it's terribly big. Who has been to Holland? Don't you think?


Ja. And if you bicycle, it takes quite a time, you see. And they all bicycle, as you know. And 92 percent of the Dutchmen bicycle. Now, that's a different country, of course, to their -- in their own consciousness. A country which you measure by bicycle is a different country from a Cadillac country. But philosophy in the -- in the abstract sense doesn't take any notice. It says, "Here are Dutchmen. They also have two legs, and -- and a head. They are human beings. And they live in Europe. Therefore they are Europeans."

Gentlemen, Europe is one of the most bastard abstractions of philosophy. Except for the French who invented the term in order to be the greatest nation of Europe, the rest of Europe doesn't give a damn for Europe, you see. They want to be Dutch. They want to be Germans. They want to be Belgians. They want to be Danes. But one thing they don't want to be. They don't want to be Americans. Ja, if you make them into Europeans, you make them simply into second-thought Americans, you see, with ice cream and -- and Ford cars, because the condition under which they could become Europeans would be that they would become a second American. That's the one thing they don't want to become.

In America the continent is older than the individual part of the continent, you see. In Europe, that isn't so. You see, in this country, you have no dialects. But in -- every valley in Europe speaks a different language. And it -- there the individual order comes first. This is still -- like this catalog of the ships, you see, Europe. And it is not the abstract entity with the numbering, as you know, as we have it, Arkansas Number 10, for my baby, if I happen to -- to have a baby born in Arkansas and then fingerprinted.

What's your number?

Well, it's very serious, gentlemen, because I think at this moment, America is faced with the issue: do we want to go poetical? That is, do we want to go down to grassroots and brass tacks, despite our big cities, despite our technology, you see, and therefore give everybody a character of his own, you see? Or are we throwing -- forcing the rest of mankind to follow our example, you see, of mass production, and insist that it's the only way of life? That would be the philosophical way of life.

You haven't solved this yet, gentlemen. America is torn between the grassroot democracy of Jefferson with prop- -- private property, which means grassroots, you see, my own home. My ho- -- house, my castle. And the modern mass state with a secret police allowed to enter and take your best friend from your home, because you no longer protect him by your hospitality.

I'll give you this last instance for this. I always put the question to my classes: when you have a friend, and he is seeking the protection of your home, and you happen to have a home of your own, and he sp- -- he wants to spend the night in peace there, and the police comes, and asks you -- can you arr- -- can they arrest him, will you protect your child or -- your friend, or will you protect the police? And I always got the classical answer: if it is the sheriff, we'll protect him. If it is the FBI, we'll extradite him.

There you have the two Americas. The first is the grassroot America of 1750. If a man was in your home, he was -- had to -- the name of your friend, you see. This was John Smith, and you had an intimate and personal relation to him. And therefore you could not be put to shame by giving him over to a police force. But today, you live in an abstract tenement house. And even in the country, you are just city -- there are just city money, and there is nothing concrete, and nothing direct. And so, if the FBI comes, you surrender. And that's happened in Russia, gentlemen, and it's happened with us here. And you are -- we aren't less abstract than the Russians, because we are ruled by philosophy.