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[Opening remarks missing]

... in a final settlement of the earth. As long as people migrate, they can't divide their labors. Everyone has to be on his feet, and has to be able to fight on the warpath and to represent the whole tribe. The great change of the Egyptian order is that everybody can be on the same place forever. That leads to dividing up your labor. One is in the temple, and the other is on the farm, and the other is at the pyramid, and the other is at the outskirts. Take, for example, a simple kind of a -- how would I call it? -- comparison. You will remember that in a tribe, the outer world was met with on the warpath. The dancing ground, or dancing green -- as you may better call it, what we have today still in the village common in New England -- is the place where the young people meet, and are introduced in the tribe -- you have written on Valentine Day, on May First, these are all remnants of the old orgies, the dances going on in a -- in the tribal group producing marriages. And I told you that a tribe is as much the producer of marriages as today a button factory produces buttons. The purpose of a tribe is to enable people to get married. And they {do that} here. Then we have the -- the -- the grave, or the tomb, or however you want to call this, or the totem pole representing the dead on the march. And we have the altar to expiate any deviation from the right direction. On the altar, things are rightened again. Now our own word, "right and wrong," comes from this very deep feeling that anything tomorrow must be in line with yesterday.

All this is changed in Egypt. The Egyptian conception of the universe, gentlemen, is not one of keeping in line with the dead, but meeting the upper world squarely down below. So the Heaven is reflected here on earth in the oriented pyramid. The outer world of geographical otherness, at the Mediterranean, in -- against Syria, against Nubia, against the desert where the bedouins, the old tribesmen to this day still persist. There are still 40,000 people around the Egyptian frontiers who still testify to the day before Egypt existed. They have never settled. They are still bedouins. The word "bedouin" means nomad. And there are still 40,000 bedouins whom nobody in Egypt in the last 3,000 years has been able to move, to give up their privilege of being fleet-footed. As Achilles is called in The Odyssey -- in the -- in The Iliad -- remembering the days when he -- Greeks marched across the Balkan Mountains into Greece and Asia Minor. They are fleet-footed. An Egyptian is not fleet-footed anymore.

So you get fortresses instead of the warpath. You can say that the borders of Egypt are beset by fortresses, and if you read the Old Testament -- nobody today understands the Old Testament anymore, it seems -- you still read there that the

Jews were employed in building these fortresses against the most endangered frontier. The one, open frontier the Egyptians have is the frontier -- where? If you look at the map of Egypt -- you saw the movie. Where -- where is it endangered?


Wie? Yes. Negev. The Negev. The Sinai Peninsula. It's always the same, you see. As you see it today with the Gaza -- Gaza Strip. There the Assyrians came in, the Persians came in, the Ptolemeics came in. By the way, in -- in the -- in World War I, the -- the Germans came in that way, or threatened to come in that way, too. And -- so -- and there's of course another danger point at little bit at ElAlamein, where the English were thrown back in the -- this World War, the -- Second World War.

So you have big frontier -- fortresses. Gentlemen, if you want to understand the absolutely distinct vision of men who live sedate, compared to people who migrate, you have just to compare the expression "warpath," which is essential for the survival of an Indian tribe, and the term "fortress." In a fortress, you have specialization. You have mercenaries, perhaps; or you have a -- a group of people, you see, who are in barracks, and they differ from the rest of the people. They are professional soldiers. Fort Sumter is a case of point. And of course, this country, as you know, had a very weak fortress at Fort Sumter, when the Civil War broke out. Still, the Fort Sumter is good case in point. It was the sovereignty of the United States that was violated at Fort Sumter, you see. The place, in other words, personified, the sovereignty of the United States. In a tribe, that isn't so. When in -- in -- here in the -- America, when there was war-path -- war-feud going on, between the five nations and their neighbors, for example, the victory came to those who could bury the totem poles or break the totem poles of the opposite clan -- clan. Then the women and children surrendered. You -- you can read those stories when such a camp is overtaken and the men perhaps were absent, and they could get at the totem poles, then the resistance was broken. In this coun- -- in our own time, it is broken when the fortresses are taken. When Metz fell in 1871 and Paris, France was beaten.

So the word "fortress" is, perhaps of all the new buildings erected in Egypt, for you the most easy to conceive in its importance. To be -- live by fortresses is to be the opposite from -- to live by warpath, because on the warpath, you are moving constantly. And you can escape. Your loss of territory doesn't finish you. In a fortress it is different. Once the -- people are taken -- have taken the fortresses, Egypt is doomed.

But there are three other buildings which replace these. The warpath is re-

placed by the fortress, gentlemen. And at the bottom of the fortress you get for the first time, of course, a possibility that didn't exist before. You get the marketplace. You today in this country are blessed. You have the marketplace without the fortress. But if you go to anc- -- and into antiquity, the market of Athens is at the foot of the Acropolis. And in Rome, the marketplace, the famous Forum Romanum, is at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, down below, under the protection. That is, when there is no war, then you can trade. Trade is peacetime exploitation of the peace offered by the protecting fortress. We have already in the very first kingdom of Egypt, pictures of Nubian people selling dwarves -- acrobats, so to speak -- some circus, to the Egyptians. And the people who gather at the marketplace in the protection of Elephantine, of the great fortress against the South, there to exchange ivory from the elephants of Nubia, you see, or black slaves, or these dwarves, or some other original goods to be traded.

This country, you see, again, has only inherited, as I told you, the earth and not the Heaven. This country has been so protected by the two oceans that you have New York without much of a fortress. When the British navy arrived in 1812, they could bomb the capital in Washington without any difficulty, and therefore, it is very hard for you to understand that today all the trade of the United States after all is under the protection of 155 air bases that are, again, not situated in America, and therefore never mentioned in political theory carefully in this country, but which are the hard-core of our new situation in the world. I feel, as I told -- tried to tell you before, gentlemen, that while in the 19th century this country imitated the classics, and everybody in school studied Latin and Greek -- even in Dartmouth at one time -- the -- today the problems of the old empires are very much more actual for our understanding. You will not understand America, you will not understand this awkward word "imperialism" -- its -- its positive meaning, you will chase the -- the English from the Suez Canal and from Cyprus against the American interest, as you -- we do at this moment, because we do not understand that a fortress must protect the trade. There are localities, like the Panama Canal where the British navy just has -- American navy just has to shoot, regardless whether this is owned by Panama, or Colombia, or Paraguay. It doesn't -- is of no interest who is locally there -- the little nation that -- the Panama Canal is a fortress. And that's all there is to it. And it would be much better if we had at least be a name for this fact. Everybody knows that the Marines will not evacuate the Panama Canal. They will not. They cannot. They must not. But what -- how do you call it? In -- in -- in your -- in your statutes and in your paperbound books on political theory, the Panama Canal is carefully not mentioned. But it is the one great hard fact of American political existence. I mean, what's -- what's -- Nevada? What's all of Reno compared to the Panama Canal? Yet you give the honor to this bastard state of 250,000 souls, you call it one of the 48 states, and you can talk about the Panama Canal as though it didn't exist.

Here is the marketplace. Gentlemen, instead of the dancing green, the scene in Egypt changes. I told you that the people no longer tattoo. Now the dancing green was the place where the sacred initiation ritual took place, where people once for all became the impersonators of the tribal speech, of the tongue, where the tongue was -- literally incised into these newcomers to the life of the community, where children were made men. This is in -- in a caste -- or class system, gentlemen. It is your professional skill which takes the place. In any society which is based on division of labor, you get something quite different. You don't get manly virility; initiation of potency, strength, sexual power, fighting power; but what is the -- thing in a peaceful, gentlemen, organized society? What is it in Shakespeare days in England? The apprentice system. Masters, fellows, and apprentices, because people do not become men in general, but they become something in -- particular, you see. They become cobblers. They become blacksmiths. They become tanners. They become something of a professional specialty.

And so you get immediately in Egypt the problem of the house-and-garden society, so to speak, in the sense that the serving-up into the citizenry of Egypt takes place through the work on the spot. And if you remember the movie, there are very beautiful pictures of this agricultural activity there, because there is where the life of the people {are in}, you see. There is where their heart is, because there they show that they are now able to take over the family property. For this takes skill. If you remember there, they know -- have to know about -- about fowl, and the quadrupeds, and the fishes, and the cheese, and everything. And of course, in those days, this was tremendous amount of professional tradition, which everybody had to be told, every little bit of a utensil. From the bait of the -- at the hook for the fishing, to the lance for killing the -- the deer, or the crocodile, had to learn.

Egypt is a country, gentlemen, in which there is no wood except palm wood. There are many hundred pieces out of which any canoe has to be fabricated in Egypt. The only larger wood that could be had -- came from the Lebanon. And then if you read in the Bible of the cedars of Lebanon, which were used to build the temple of Solomon, that is a poor imitation of the situation of Egypt for 2,000 years before, going on all the time. When Egypt was founded, it was founded from the very beginning on an alliance with the king of Bublos, or tribal chieftain who -- the people there who lived around the Lebanon. And the Egyptians, from the very first, had to include into their valley kingdom of the Nile this fardistant Bublos, from which our word "bible" is derived, who to this day still pay lip service to this international collection of Egypt, because the city of Bublos exploited the papyrus, and brought the papyrus to the rest of the Mediterranean in exchange -- the papyrus came from the Nile Valley -- in exchange they delivered the -- cedars of the Lebanon, the good wood. And so, a little bit for the

{royal} purposes, and the furniture which you have seen in the movie again, the furniture of Tutankhamen, these very beautiful pieces, they are of non-native wood. But they are absolutely exceptional.

The home and garden of the Egyptians -- I wanted to say, that was a starting point for all this little deviation of the -- on the Bible -- is that it is very difficult to get the materials for everyday living, and the fabric, and the utensils. And therefore, the drill or the discipline of an Egyptian farmer was of the highest caliber and today modern people think that the fellahim in Egypt is a beast of burden, that he's really below human standards. And he's very much pitied by all people who visit. There is a -- quite a literature on the depressive state of the 19 million peasants in Egypt governed by some -- very few -- rich, and today by the army and the bureaucrats. They're just as exploited as before. There's no improvement on that. You can't improve the situation of 19 million people in a country in which perhaps 4 million people could live. There are just so many too many.

So the starvation diet of the Egyptian fellahim is most marked in your reports on Egypt. But what is not marked, gentlemen, is the wisdom or the skill, which to this day is handed over for now -- how many years? 4,000, 5,000 years -- to every one in these little mud huts around the Nile. The discipline is two-fold. They know how to survive every year the flood. That is, they give up their domicile. They move to the edge, the desert. They are fed at the expense of the community, so to speak, in -- from storehouses, as it -- the Bible reports, and -- and then they return again. That takes a tremendous moral discipline, as you well know. Any exodus upsets the apple cart. If you have to leave with your family once a year, totally, with everything, and if part of your property is flooded, you get such problems as -- that require in Hartford, Connecticut, martial law. The military has to be called out, because the looters come and take the property. That's very serious, gentlemen. The Egyptians are, in this sense, a highly disciplined nation.

The second thing is that the -- you have to reconstruct every year a minimum of -- of ameni- -- facilities, to run the mill, the tannery, sharpen the -- your prongs, your knives, your forks or whatever you use, your spoons. And so the universality of -- of this -- this knowledge is very impressive in -- in Egypt: woodcarving, ivory-carving, a little bit of smithing. And so I would say that the standard of professional education is in -- of immense importance in Egypt, and through this sit- -- system of apprentice, fellow, and master, we today still have a little memory of the process -- progress made by settlement.

You see, what I'm trying to do in this course, on the side, is to wean you from the absurd use of the word "civilization." Never try to use it. It means everything to everybody or nothing to nobody. It is a terrible word. It is a good word if you

think of "city," if you think of "settlement." What I'm trying to do is to show you that the tribes have civilization, that is, are a very orderly and disciplined people, and know the secrets of the living universe; and that the cities of men, the empires have a high standard of discipline and living from their settlement, and from their division of labor, and from their sedate dealing with the lasting things of the earth and Heaven, with the stars, with metal, with the things that are not alive, but are imperishable. And, you see, if you use it for two quite different orders, this word "civilization," then it gets -- goes wrong. Dismiss it. It's one of those American pet phrases; it's just as bad as "evolution." It's useless, because everybody thinks some -- about it in a different manner. You can't understand -- you people don't understand each other by using this term. Some people use "civilization" as against culture. Some use it as against religion. Some use it inclusive of religion, and inclusing of plumbing, and you never know.

You know what the lady in Kansas City said, that they had no culture, but if they got it, they would make it buzz.

It's -- all these Kautschuck, these rubber words, these weasel words, don't -- so please don't -- after this course, I hope to have -- I have to -- I have -- hope to have immunized you against these incredible words, which poison the atmosphere in this country. They poison it, because it is absolutely non-committal. "Civilization," I mean, for some people, just means plumbing, you see. For others, it means the pope in Rome. I don't know what's -- what it means. I don't use it. It's perfectly useless. It's perfectly superfluous. You can live without civilization, gentlemen, and feel much happier for it.

Go to Liberia. As you know, it is ruled by a black man from America who calls himself civilized. And they rule the people in Africa who are -- don't wear ties and -- and coats. And as -- I'm quite sure that the people who never left America are more civilized in Liberia than those who came from this country to Liberia. There you have a typical example. The -- the Liberians -- the ruling class say that they are civilized. All the worst. An American committee had to go there and to -- and to dispute the -- the civilization of Liberia very heavily, as you may know, during -- over the last 20 years. And -- and although Mr. Tubman has a "tub" in his name, it isn't civilization there. That's the name of the president of Liberia.

I'm quite serious, gentlemen. You -- you -- you throw sand into your own eyes by using these empty words. And if it makes -- I mean, Mr. Toynbee writes a book on 23 civilizations. The only answer can then be, "So what?" That cannot be the story of mankind. The story of mankind must be that a central unity despite these outer differences in plumbing. Obviously something is quite uninteresting if it -- these are 23 shells. Dead.

So I'm quite serious on this. And I hope I have widened the gap between the Egyptians and the old Germanic or Indo-European tribes now sufficiently that you see that everyone to himself. There are two respectable and very reverential orders. But they both do not deserve to be -- to be discriminated against by this damned word "civilization."

The house of an Egyptian, gentlemen, then, that is the origin of the English, "My house is my castle." Here for the first time in the history of the world, gentlemen, the hut is replaced by the house. All tribesmen have huts. You go to South America. All these people have villages. All right. And they have tents, or huts, or whatever you call it. {Bell} tents, now, when they can get them from Sears, Roebuck. And -- but a hut is not a house. Gentlemen, what is the difference from a house in antiquity, even today except for the last orgies of Mr. Gropius and company. The last, the modern house is on the way out, out of architecture into mere huts. Modern man is a nomad, again. He buys a house for three years, then he sells it again. So we are a -- on a borderline case at this moment, with our housing projects. They are no longer a house.

What is a house? House is an imitation of a temple, it's the secular form of the temple. If you go look at a Roman or a Greek house, it has still in the middle of the atrium a place where the -- the -- the Heaven can shine into it, on the earth. And the second point about the difference between a house and a hut: a house is oriented. It's very important where there is south and north and east and west. And any temple is oriented. You have to take the measure from the sun. You -- orientation today has become a mental word. But it comes from building. You -- you try to get orientation courses, God help you. You never get oriented. But at least your houses still in the -- in the 19th century, if you go to New York and look at these big patrician homes, of -- pseudo-Renaissance style, or the library in -- in -- in Yale, with its pseudo-Gothic, it still has orientation. That is, it imitates still the dignity of an -- a revelation from Heaven. Even the secular buildings. Look at the capitol, look at the -- the centers of our political legislature. They try to have something of the dignity of a place that isn't there by accident. The difference, gentlemen, between a hut and a house is that it -- the house is not by accident there, but that it reflects a permanent order discovered in the sky, read in the sky.

We come to the temple. The temple replaces the grave. It's eternal. The phar- -- pharaoh, when -- he go- -- begins to govern -- begins to build his own pyramid in order to become eternal stone. To have permanency. It's no longer the same as building the grave of your ancestor, as its -- his heir. In a tribe, the heir builds the temple -- builds the grave of the ancestor. Even in this country it's the law that he who inherits the property has to defray the expenses of the funeral. That's the law. That is still the old, family, genealogical, tribal law. In a -- in a -- Egypt, it's

very hard for you to understand this, gentlemen: you could -- must compare it to the behavior of Mr. Franklin D. Roosevelt against Hoover on the day of his inauguration. You know, they went in the same car, but they didn't speak to each other. In the same manner, if a son becomes pharaoh, he does not have anything to do with the pyramid, the grave of his father. That's at an end. He begins his own pyramid. In other words, gentlemen, the grave in Egypt, these pyramids, are -- have not the same meaning as they have where you have totem poles, and where you have the mourners and the wailers around the old grave.

A pyramid is oriented. We have -- yesterday was quite an exciting dispatch in the paper, that Mr. {Emery} has found -- {Professor Emery} has found a queen's grave of the First Dynasty in Saqqara. That's so very important because it confirms the theory of those who have held that from the very beginning the unity of the two parts of Egypt was the secret of the Egyptian power, and order, and discipline. People have held that in -- near -- Saqqara is near Cairo. It's near Mem- -- it's the -- it's the graveyard, or the -- one should say the pyramid-yard across from this capital of Egypt, called Memphis, in the old days. There has been much debate in the last hundred years if the Egyptian kings have not lived in other parts of the country first, and only gradually come to settle at that point where the Delta and the narrow strip of the Valley meet, you see. It's this point where you can already look on -- on top of the pyramid toward the North into the wide, triangular land that stretches into East and West, and where, when you look upstream, you only see this very narrow, narrow canal, at least as far as to the next corner, because it goes winding.

Now it is obvious from this excavation, which is quite new, that the condition of orientation in Egypt was this unity of both parts of Egypt from the very first day. I've always believed this because, as I told you, millions of years and all the problem of the Great Year in Egypt only makes sense when you, from the very beginning, conceive of these eternal return over the vast sky of Egypt the same stars everywhere, shining over different people -- but in the name of Heaven, they can understand each other -- they talk different dialects, sure, even different languages in the beginning, in Egypt, but invoking the constellations in the sky, everybody can understand that he must act in cooperation. What we today try to perform, most people don't understand it, when you speak in the name of Jesus Christ, and try to invoke therebo- -- -by the understanding of all the faithful, the Egyptians tried to say to each other from the North to the -- to the First Cataract when they said, "In the name of Heaven," because Heaven was one book, unified, and nature down below was diversified and looked very different in every part of the realm.

I like to tell you that same conditions, same results prevails in history. I've found in an old Latin poem on Charlemagne, the man who governed all of

Europe, nearly. He had his -- as you know, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Hungary, the whole East, Pol- -- even the Polish region, Denmark were under his rule. Even the kin- -- English kings considered him their -- him their superior. And the poet who describes this power, says, "Exactly as a pharaoh, you are more than sun and moon, because they can -- have to go down half of the time, and your government is 24 hours a day." I thought you might like this simile, to show you that this thing that has completely escaped historians -- the notice of historians -- that human rulers excel, that they are not just representative of the sun, you know, or of the moon, but that they can combine the virtues of Heaven -- at day and at night, that they can from south to north, which the star -- in themselves cannot. That this was re-discovered, so to speak, even in our Christian era, and I think if the people in Charlemagne's day had been able to, they would have re-established pharaonic imperialism.

As you know, Charlemagne was crowned emperor. And the emperors of Rome stand in direct continuity, "succession," I should say, of the empire of Egypt. All emperors, to the last king of Austria in 1917, claimed their domination of -- over the sky and earth. And the coronation of Charles VI, the last emperor of Austria, still had the sym- -- same symbolism as that of an emperor in Mexico City when Cortez arrived. When Charles VI was crowned in Budapest, he had to stand and take his sword out of the blade -- the sheath, and swing it in the four directions of the sky, and thereby prove that he was master of the sky. He could go south and north, as no star can. And people today have not understood this symbolism, what it means to dominate the four directions of the sky. It means complete freedom, you see, of action within a given district. Sovereignty, you may say, is expressed.

We have then here, gentlemen, the pyramid as the living divinity of the ruler of Egypt. And we have it built from stone. The sky is represented in Egypt in stone. The earth, of course, needs soil. The home of the mudhut of the Egyptian individual doesn't have to be built out of stone, because he is -- only reflects the order in Heaven by his garden, by his patch of field, by his raising his chickens and his -- especially the geese, and the ducks in which he is very great. So the pyramid embodies the imperishable material. If you read the Revelation in the New Testament, you find there always this praise of the gems, of diamonds, and amethysts, and lapis lazuli. It is very hard for us to excited over them. We can imitate all the -- these gems so very nicely today that people -- I think in America today prefer false pearls to genuine pearls, as in education, you know. You know what education is? No? Wie? Nobody knows? Casting false pearls before real swines?

So gentlemen, false pearls are today more popular. In antiquity, when gold and silver were discovered -- I told you this before -- the -- they were imperisha-

ble, and therefore man made sure that he was in touch with the inanimate world. And the Egyptians in a way prefer the inanimate world, because it is imperishable. When you get a re-evaluation of values, you get this granite order of life, of which the pyramids give you the best example. If the living pharaoh, instead of being in the flesh, can become stone, that's all to the good. Then he is genuine. Then he has found -- been found not wanting. His apprenticeship for Heaven has been crowned by his mastery.

You can see that this -- this life in Egypt had no future. There is -- the future is only the eternal recurrence. If you look at the marketplace, if you look at the fortress, if you look at the temple, and if you look at the home of the Egyptians, the only place where -- where nov- -- novelty can appear is the marketplace. But the marketplace, very differently from the altar or from the -- as we will see, there are other ways of expecting the future in Israel, and in Greece -- in the marketplace of Egypt, and the marketplace of New York, and the marketplace of Los Angeles, or of Seattle, or of Portland, or of San Francisco leaves life to accident. The landing of hundred thousand Puerto Ricans in the -- on the airports of New York has made life on Manhattan really very accidental. Everything is upset, as you know, in the last three years. Why? Because the port of -- of New York has suddenly thrown upon the shores these -- this unexpected humanity.

I'm quite serious, gentlemen. America at this moment also has to learn that the future doesn't come -- either from the frontier or by accident from trade, from marketplace. You have bought all your ideas cheap from Europe, gentlemen, just by the accident of trade. Somebody else -- somewhere in Paris they were produced, or Leipzig, and then you buy -- bought them, and then suddenly everybody is suddenly psychoanalyzed, just by accident. That's what happens in this country. Mr. Freud, after all, is an accident. It has nothing to do with the American necessities of life. It's just by accident. And you have lived too long by accident, spiritually, gentlemen. Every fashion, every worst fashion has been worn here to the bitter end.

The Egyptians have succumbed, finally, to the marketplace. As you well know, I told you that the first marketplace picture we have is against Nubia. The last marketplace of Egypt is the famous city of Alexandria. That was fi- -- founded finally by Alexander the Great, at the end of Egypt. Through Alexandria, everything came in, you see, which was not produced in Egypt, spiritually. Greek philosophy, Jewish prophecy, you see, Roman rule, Phoenician incense and commerce and foreign, in the end, domination. Alexandria and Egypt are very good examples to show you that at the end of empire comes when their future suddenly breaks upon them from the outside, because they have no way of an open future. They are circular. They are cyclical. The same of -- the same of -- is true about China. China was an empire that has lasted from perhaps 1100

B.C. I don't think it's much older. I think it's over-dated, but let's accept it for 1100 B.C. to 1911 of our time. How long is this? This is by and large 3,000 years. It's by and large the same age as the Egyptian empire, which I told you lasted from 2800 to 394 of our own era. It's quite interesting that they should have the same life expectation, or the same life duration. It's probably not quite accidental.

They have -- done something of which you cannot even conceive. You cannot conceive of an order of life for 3,000 years. And therefore, we today, who are too short-lived, must learn something from the Egyptians. Some discipline. I'm quite sure we must. We cannot escape this. We however have always to keep in mind that eternal recurrence is threatening these orders of division of labor, of too much division of labor, of specialization, and of sedate confinement of isolation within, for example, the frontiers of this continent. If you say the 48 states are self-sufficient, you immediately have embarked on the same venture of -- as China, or of Egypt. In Egypt, the desert, and the sea, and the Cataract form the frontier. In China, they had a wall. In Rome, they had a wall around the empire. In this country, you have the two oceans. And it's a great temptation to say "That's enough." Without the bomb, I think, you could not fight very well isolationism in this country, because it is too tempting to say, "God has protected within our continent to such an extent that we really should make life here selfsufficient."

As soon as you try to do this, my friends, you get into the rut of circulatory movement. Your use of the word "rut" is -- a routine -- is misleading, or what you call "static." You can have, as in Egypt, an eternal return over 1460 years. That would be pretty long in this country. And if you could sell the people here the Great Year of Egypt, they would say, "That's change enough," inside the circle, isn't it? I mean, nobody in his own lifetime would ever meet with the same situation. We just go on. You see, the cycle is not the same -- and that's very very hard for you to believe -- as what you call "get into a rut." The cycle is much more emphatic and much more dignified. The Greeks believed, for example, that there was a cycle. They were in this sense very Egyptian. Plato in his late age just copied the Egyptian mentality in his Timaeus or in his -- in his Laws, when he wrote that every government had to go through these phases, as you know, of monarchy, aristocracy, democracy, and dictatorship. That's thinking in cycles. Every one of you or me in such -- under such an order would only be hit by one of these orders. You might even participate in overthrowing democracy by mob rule. That's just happening today. But you would not have the impression that you repeated everything by a rut. It was -- would be quite exciting to have McCarthyism taking over, or Huey Long, or something like that.

And so I want to raise your sights. You can believe, as the ancient people all did, the Chinese, and the Greeks and the Egyptians, into an eternal recurrence,

and you would never have the idea that it was just a rut. It would take all the strength and all the discipline to go through the motions. You -- you understand? You think too easily: either you recognize sameness by doing the same after 24 hours again, or the next year again, at least, you see; or you say it's all different. The problem of the cycle and of real progress is much more intricate. You can move within a cycle and yet never do the same any day of your life, and yet have no freedom of action, really, because the cycle is pre-determined. You can only move within this certain, you see, recurrent dominion and sphere.

This is, I think, the challenge which you today have to digest. We have a scientific way of producing, gentlemen, and that is our saving grace, because to produce scientifically means never to produce out of the same material. The Egyptians had to produce all the time their livelihood, practically, from the same materials. Egypt, too. If you look at our problem, it is not cyclical for the very simple reason that we use up the materials, you see. And I think that is our progress, so to speak, our advantage. But we have to think through this problem of eternal recurrence mentally, I'm afraid. I think the American mind is very much inclined to believe in cycles. You only have to believe in the -- in the fact that -- that the businessman for a hundred years in this country has believed in the business cycle, as absolutely unavoidable. That's a very Egyptian mentality. And he doesn't like to be reminded of this today, because the Russians have said that we would be wiped out in the next depression. So nobody is allowed to think of the cycle anymore. But that's for purely political reasons. In effect, gentlemen, if you ask the modern American at this moment, "What's the future?" I think it is very -- it is not even cyclical.

I had a talk with an expert on South America. He was a senior fellow of this college, and so he thought he was an expert, because he had said this was his project, to study South America. Well, senior fellows after a year are not very much of an expert, I suppose. But they don't know it. So he -- we had a dinner in his honor. The senior fellows, you know, are very nicely treated here. And the people always take them very seriously. And so he got up and made his speech on the future of South America. And he said we should loan them money, and so on. It was very easy to see that he had nothing much on -- in his head. So he has become, by the way, by now the renowned expert for South America, of course. No -- people haven't found out. But the one thing that I want to report to you, which shows you the -- the state of mind of Americans at this moment, in politics, and in -- is that he -- I dared to to ask him the simple question, "Sir, do you believe that the 21 republics in South America are all equally God-given?"

And he said, "Yes."

Now, gentlemen, it is obvious that in the next 50 years, quite a number of

these states will disappear. They are absolutely accidental. As you know, they are nothing but the districts of the higher courts of the colonial system of the Spanish empire. That's what they are. The frontiers are drawn in line with the -- in lines with the appellate courts, you see, of the governors of the new -- novel Spain. Why there should be Uruguay, or Paraguay, or Bolivia, or so is very hard to say. But obviously, since history is history, and is not simply an -- herbarium of -- of old, dead -- herbs, your children will see that there will be a complete change in state lines, not only produced by the United States -- we have done our best to change the lines of the frontiers in Middle -- Central America, and we have succeeded. And I've heard, at least, that we annexed Texas, and that happened only a hundred years ago. That's not very long. And nobody mentions it. It's just a natural, here.

Now obviously, gentlemen, the state of affairs in South America can be eternalized by the folly of our American dogmatism, who say, "We must have an ambassador in Uruguay." Or you can see that it is quite impossible to consider these -- these different spots on the map as real nations. Purely accidental. And it is due to lack of communication that all is now different with the airplane, obviously, and even with the railroad is already very {different}. And if you look -- compare the map of Peru, that is straddling the Andes on both sides, and -- and the possessions of Brazil. I mean, I have -- I assure you I have no bonds and no shares in any South American enterprise. I have no financial interest in South America -- unfortunately, because I have no financial interest whatever -- but it has absolutely nothing to do with any insight into life, that this gentlemen there oracled that the -- the 21 states in -- South America were God-given. They may be devil-given, but they certainly are not God-given. I mean, they may be very serious. They may be a fatality. We may not immediately see what should be changed, but this is the way in which the static mind really works in America. And I think the American mind is so much in a rut. And if you look at the map, you even believe that Luxembourg should be there eternally. You even send Miss Mesta as ambassador there.

And so you confuse the joke of the present day, accidental existence, with -- with eternity. And so we have even less than circular thinking in this country. I think that your schoolbook- and map-thinking is very, very dangerous for the rest of the world, because you look at something and you think because you see it on the map it exists. I think that's absolutely no reason why somebody puts so many strokes around Saudi Arabia, that it is necessary that this devil there exists. I -- my conviction is that we have done a tremendous injustice when we s- -- liquidated Turkey to allow this bandit there to establish a state. He has absolutely no right to do that. But in a -- it's very hard to find any understanding in America, because the accident that he is there already since yesterday convinces you that he has to be there tomorrow.

That's how you live. You live not even a cycle. You live below the minimum movement of history, gentlemen. In a cycle, at least things do change.

So it is now my task to show you how even in the Egyptian cycle there has been change. There has been change in emphasis from Horus to Ra, I told you, to Osiris, to Apis. There is quite a history. And the movie, not respecting this -- the changes at all, has given you, in a way, I think, only three-quarters, or perhaps even only one-half of the development in the cycle. And before I now make the break, I wish you would ponder over this fact. Within a cycle, there is development, there is evolution. But when the cycle is started, that is a revolution. It is impossible to think of man's life on earth in terms of evolution, and it is impossible to think in terms of evolution. It is always both. The United States have begun with the revolution. And then they enter evolution. And as long as you can't get into your head that there is a cycle, that there is man's creative liberty to create new cycles, you have not yet entered the secret of the human -- of human history, of your own soul, gentlemen.

Now you live as bachelors in the cycle of your parental tradition. You may loosen it, but the cycle is still there. You still go home to your parents, or to your own birthday. And tomorrow you will get married, and you'll start a new cycle. That's a revolution. I hope it is. I know some young couples who go home every vacation from college, because they di- -- shouldn't have married in the first place, because they are still in the old cycle.

So gentlemen, Egypt tells you this -- this is a very important thing. Revolution and evolution are of equal importance. Egypt began with a total revolution, with an anti- -- antithesis with a dialectics against the tribe. Inside itself, it has -- has undergone an evolution. And I'll show you how it was done. Five minutes.

[Tape interruption]

... to know the movements in the sky. It is the first profession created in Egypt and obviously created in Egypt before anywhere else. That's quite important to know: solid profession of priesthood, set aside without any immediate usefulness, only for the purpose to proclaim the glories of Heaven to the people on earth. The Psalm imitates still this proclamation of the glories of Heaven to the people on earth. The scribes of the -- a pharaoh were at the same time his priests. To write was to meet eternity, to proclaim eternity. People wrote in Egypt for the purpose of eternal recurrence. It is very hard for you to understand that when they wrote on the temple walls, they felt that they tattooed the living body of Egypt, just as in an initiation ritual.

But without realizing this, the word "write," as you know, means to make a

dent, to carve. It doesn't mean what you think it means, to write with a fountain pen. But the word "write" and "writ" has to do with this -- with this carving business, you see, making a dent into a -- a relief in depth. And so when they carved their hieroglyphs into the temple walls, these were not philosophical meditations, and these were not newspaper reports. But in a way, I think, they were headlines. Only these headlines were to last forever. In the very late kingdom, in the temple of {Edfu}, which was shown in the movie, the temple of Horus, of Ptolemeic times -- I don't know if you recall it -- the -- the walls were shown of {Edfu} in the movie. There is even a -- a -- at the end, there is a story how the priests tell the -- the navigation of Horus down the river and pro- -- put it on the temple walls. That is, they -- then -- and they -- after 4- -- 3,000 years, they realize their own mythology, so to speak, as a reflection on the facts. That the utterance, after all, came after the fact. But for 3,000 years, gentlemen, when a man wrote in Egypt, he did something. They would never have understood your idea that to write or to speak was not action. They forced the stars to behave, as they said, here; and they forced men to behave, according to what was said on the temple walls. In the temple walls, there is the daily order, just as your commanding officer here gives out -- how do you call it? The daily -- what's the official term for the --?

(Order of the day.)

Order of the day. The order of the day. Only eternity was a little longer. It was not a 24-hour day. But the edict is the first idea of writing. An edict. Every first of the year, the emperor of China, down to 1910 -- finally it was the empress -- utter -- ushered or gave out an edict for the works of the year. The farmers' calendar, the hundred-years' calendar, gentlemen, in this country, is the last -- remnant, the last echo of these old imperial edicts. They were written on the temple walls, so that the priesthood knew for the whole county, for the whole state what they should demand from their subjects.

Writing, then, was more intense than speaking, not less intense. There was no literature. It is a mistake to think that as we use the word "letters," "men of letters," or the word "letter" for the individual sign in script, that people could at that time write at random. Perhaps they could already gossip orally, although our -- even this is, I think, a very late invention of human -- of the human scoundrel. I told you that children and women originally could not speak. That you could only use language as a sacred thing after you were initiated as a warrior of the tribe.

This is very important. The real language, gentlemen, of all peoples is highbrow, and is high English, high German. Pennsylvania-Dutch English, or idiomatic English, or dialect, or slang is only always an after-effect, is always a

deterioration, is always a cheapening, when it comes into people's -- mouth who have no responsibility, who can speak non-committally. The first man who speaks is the judge, and the king, and the commander-in-chief, and the priest. And they speak with a full voice. In Sanskrit, you have 10 times as many vowels as you have in English today, because today, the most people who speak English have nothing to say. But when any Sanskrit priest spoke, every word made law. He meant business. And he wouldn't say anything outside this. That is the history of language, by and large, gentlemen: that what you call language is a shorthand language. What you -- as in speech, you no longer speak with the full intonation of an Irish bard, or of a Germanic king. But you -- make every effort to speak through the nose and in such a way that nobody else can understand you. And you must not show any emphasis, and you must speak with the last acoustic effort. That's the New England principle. But the reason is why you want to express your absolute humility that nobody has to take orders from you, that you are quite out of luck that -- that since you have to speak at all, and that you only wait for the moment when you can sit down and be silent again. This you have to feign and it's the polite, modern man's fiction. But language dies in this manner.

Now today language not only dies, but writing dies. I'm quite serious about this. The future of literature is a very doubtful one. And I think that our new mass media may -- may save language, but they will not save writing, because you might re-enliven speech over the radio, you see, or television. But that doesn't mean that writing can be saved from its prostitution.

And therefore, if I say "writing in Egypt," I have to ask you to think a little more about the importance of writing. Writing is the power to make the stars behave in their course, and to promise everybody on earth that the stars will behave, and that they can trust this prediction of man, that the writing, you see, can be based -- can be the basis of action of man. It's a faith not in works, and it's a -- but a faith in writing, a faith in prediction, a faith in constellation, in horoscopes. What you still have in astrology today for the individual, gentlemen, was then done on a large scale horoscopically. The times could be predicted. But this era, gentlemen, in which the media for prediction had been invented, and now you did predict, is the time of Ra. And of this we have the most important monuments in the pyramids, because the stone pyramid was only developed in the second era, when the -- not the divinity of the king was so much to be, so to speak, established, but when he already was able to show proof that his buildings -- had achieved this clarity of purpose, and this absolute identity of Heaven and earth. And I call the second period then, gentlemen, that perhaps lasts from 2400 to 1800, or -- ja, that would be by and large true -- the epoch in which on our {monuments} you always read the name of Ra, the sun. But it was only the triumph that pharaoh had been now able to make himself totally the son of the

sun, the -- on earth, that there the harmony was achieved, but in his stone pyramid he had no longer to do any groping, any experimentation, any new observations ...

[Tape interruption]

... among the men of the minor sort. Mary is the comforter of the non-saints and the non-martyrs, so to speak, and of the natural man living under the shadow of the perfect man. I won't go into this simile, but it is quite an important one.

When Ra had governed, or the emphasis on Ra had been managed, the abuses of the Ra worship made themselves felt. The concentration of the building chores of these tremendous pyramids -- we have now 70 pyramids all told, and they took every one of them perhaps 30 or 40 years to build. The effort of a whole nation was concentrated on these, and our -- you can imagine that there was great unrest -- labor unrest, we would say today. People dead -- just lost -- many of them must have lost their lives in building these tremendous buildings. The hardships were tremendous, and after several hundred years, there was an -- upheaval and the local barons said, "We can build our temples now alone. We won't go to the center of the country. We know now all about pyramids now for royalty. We, little dukes and counts, want now to establish our districts in the same splendor." What's the new movie? Many-splendored, is it?

("Love Is a ...")


("Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing.")

What? What is it called?

("Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing.")

Ja. Many-splendored. Ja. The aristocratic revolution, very much like the squires in England against the king, upset the apple cart and we have the Dark Ages in Egypt in -- which breaks down the satisfaction that Ra, the sun alone, should be emphasized. And we come to the Osiris period.

Who is Osiris? Osiris is the seat of Isis. The eye of the -- Isis. What is Isis? Isis is the seat, I told you, it's the word for the settlement of Egypt. What I have to say now is -- may sound a little complicated. But I want to tell you at least that much about Osiris, that we know a little more than your books always mention. It is

always said with a kind of -- of secrecy that there were mysteries about Osiris. Not much mystery about Osiris. Osiris is the father of Horus. It is the dead king whom the son sends into the nether world to tame the dead spirits. Osiris receives the eye of his son, Horus, and with the help of this eye, flies to Heaven from the top of his pyramid and then judges somewhere in the sky the -- all the other dead souls. So he is the deputy king to the dead. This is hard for you to get, that the living speak to the dead. But I have told you this before and in Osiris this takes place.

Osiris, in order to make sure that he cannot interfere with his son's government on this earth, dies, very definitely. He is cut into 42 pieces according to the 42 -- originally 36 -- districts of the land, with these -- I told you, the 36 temples. They -- later they go into 42 by some annexation, because they had the Faiyum analyzed, and they had more territory. So they added a few temples. Well, whether he was cut up in 36 or 42 {things} -- makes -- the importance is that his power is dissolved. The unity of Egypt, of -- Osiris is dissolved. As long as he is alive, all Egypt is one living body. Every inscription covers one living body, Egypt, which takes the place, as I told you, of the individual warrior.

The mysticism of the ceremonial may -- can be felt only as long as you do not understand that to the Egyptian, the union came only over this scattered desert land if it really reflected a unity of the sky, and if the Horus really could go from south to north and thereby show his mastery over the four sides of Heaven. When Osiris is killed, he's absolutely -- how do you call it -- dismembered. His entrails, his viscera are taken out and put into the Canopic jar, as they are called. His heart is taken out, his stomach. Anything that can deteriorate. And then he is mummified. And you may well ask, "What's the mummy?" Well, the mummy is the eviscerate -- dead. The -- you can no longer do any harm on earth. Then he's put together again. And he is only brought to life because Horus, by very mystical operation, lends him one of his eyes and shows himself therefore superior to the dead. The -- the -- the sun-eye of the falcon of Horus is so powerful that he has, so to speak, a surplus of light. And he can, as we do when we switch on the electric night at -- night at night, and say, "There is no night, we have a surplus of electric power," in the same sense, Horus switched on the light over the dead by telling this dead mummy, "You rule the dead in my stead. I -- " and there was a great ceremony of opening the mouth of the phar- -- dead pharaoh, of Osiris, and making him now speak the judgments of Horus to those in the nether world.

Osiris could be universalized, {democracized}. When the revolution of the nobleman in Egypt was over and the country was, by some -- of course it took quite a while -- central power in Thebes was restored, the Valley of the Kings again was the center of -- of discipline of -- for the living and the dead. You have seen this Valley of the Kings in the movie. The result was that the kings were

very gracious and said, "Every man after death can become an Osiris." The -- Horus you can't universalize. There has to be one Horus. But with regard to the dead, you could liberalize the regime. The people -- the pharaohs did take no issue with the idea of -- that -- of every Egyptian that by the grace of God, as every Christian thinks, that he can be a saint, in the same sense, the -- we find that since 1800 on the coffins the idea that every dead man -- the nobles first, but later even the commoners -- could be an Osiris. And that's very strange.

I think the Roman priesthood, our churches, have done a little bit the same. After death, they allow everybody to be in bliss, and to become immortal. The problem, of course, of Christianity, is to be immortal in this life. And about this the Church is not so quite sure for the laity. Our transcendentalism, gentlemen, our saying, "Beyond the grave, you all survive," has a little bit to do with this -- with this same idea that all the privileges of perfect Christianity, yes, come to you, but in this life, it would be -- that's just too bad, would have no church and no taxes if you would behave already as God Almighty in this world, yourself. You can't. We have to found a -- one body of Christ. I think there's sense to it.

So the Horus never allowed anybody else to be -- call himself Horus in this world, but he allowed practically everybody to call himself Osiris. This is the strange story of religion, gentlemen, the deep, democratic feature. The -- you see here the bursting-in of the universalizing principle at a corner of religion when you wouldn't expect it. Osiris became the starting point for a universal belief in -- of the Egyptians in immortality. And this is the same time when people now begin to get individual horoscopes. It was of course quite impossible for the first 1500 years of Egyptian history to have anything but a universal Egyptian astronomy. It was one country, one pharaoh, you see, one Heaven, and one earth. That was the whole problem. If you loosen this up and you say, as the newspapers tell you today, that you can be born under -- in Gemini, or Virgo, and Lion, and get your special horoscope, that's of course complete nonsense. It breaks down the whole idea of the horoscope, and of the prediction. But in Egypt, it was a kind of comfort. Everybody had a special friend in the Heaven. Everybody liken -- could be likened to some constellation in the sky at his birth, some genii in Heaven had a special place and predicted his movements on earth.

But you see immediately that it is already the disintegration of the original faith. The original faith of all the empires is based on the central issue of one country on earth, you see, likened to Heaven, to the whole order in Heaven. The whole Heaven and a part of the earth are identified. You get a horoscope, and I want -- want you to -- to be able to tell your girl that horoscopes real- -- are really full nonsense, just absolute nonsense. It's absolutely nothing here in them. And no -- it's no excuse. If you look at the story of this astrology, how it has come down to us, it's already nonsense in Egypt, but there it's a political concession to

give the people status, you see. That under Horus, they already have some direct connection, you see, sideline, special wire, you see, to the -- to the sky, to the heavens. Here you can understand it. It is an act of de- -- of liberation. But to us, it's not an act of liberation. You are free, and then you connect yourself with this chain of superstition, so to speak, afterwards. That is really, I think, a tremendous waste of time, but of course the source of income for some people.

The last thing is Apis. Let me finish this thought. In the -- the Egyptians had found in the bull the one way of expressing the slow movements in the sky. The bull and the cow are so slowly moving animals, that the priesthood used them to emphasize the chariot of the sun and the stars by harnessing the bull to the car. As you know, the horse came only much later into existence. There is no horse before 1800 B.C. in the history of the Near East. So the Egyptians had to put up for 1200 years with -- without horses.

The Apis bull allowed, however, then the individual, earthly existence of the Egyptian to be re-connected with the old tribal totems. In the Apis bull, one order of life, imperial order of Egypt, comes to its full end, just as you get in China, at the end of the Chinese empire, a vast increase of ancestor worship. You know that the Chinese who emigrate to America were brought back in their coffin to China, because they had to reconcile the ancestral spirits. You get at the end of one such order a compromise, a desire to link up again with that which has preceded it. And just as the Jews didn't want to buil- -- remain without a temple, remembering Egypt, so at the end of the Egyptian cycle, these people on the Nile Valley catered again to some harmony with the bedouins and the -- all the other nations that after all, were still around them -- the Libyans, the Nubians -- without such an imperial order. And in worshiping the Apis bull, or worship -- I mean, sanctifying his -- his life and his body, and building the famous {Serapaion}, the famous temple of the Serapis in Alexandria, you see the fatigue, the battle fatigue of the Egyptian cycle.

The second order of life on this earth has never been without a struggle, trying to hold itself up against the surrounding tribes. But gentlemen, don't forget that the Roman Empire fell, and that the Germanic tribes took over. And any empire can always be overrun -- again by unsettled tribes. What we see in the Mediterranean -- in Algier, in Tunis -- strikes me -- in Africa -- as a purely negative danger, that a great empire, or empires are swallowed up by nomads again. There's absolutely no certainty. In your na‹vet‚, you believe in progress, but you do not see that it can disappear.

The empires are oases, gentlemen, in the desert of -- or in the ocean of tribal movements. So far as we can see, down to this time, gentlemen, the empires have always covered smaller areas than the nomads. Less territory. They have been

tremendous in their continuity. They have covered 3,000 years, but after this, they have disappeared. Egypt has disappeared. The Roman Empire has disappeared. And other empires -- China's empire has disappeared.

You -- you are -- first I think you must look in to this story completely unbiased, from you -- without wishful thinking. If you want to compare man's life on this earth so far, if you want to also -- want to, by the way, understand Mr. Spengler's pessimism, or Mr. Toynbee's pessimism, you must understand that an empire goes into those territories not favored by tribal men, because of the inundation. I told you this, you see. That they win there against all hope, from nature, a surplus, where there was a minus compared to the ordinary territories, because they solved this problem of the cycle, of the flood and the harvest, of the fruitland, that the har- -- flood produces suddenly the possibility of getting there more than you get in the migratory territories, where you just go through without any constant arrangement, without ditch-digging, and without irrigation. All the irrigated countries form a very small and minute minority, compared to those countries that are treated as we treat now New Hampshire and Vermont, that -- that just go back to wilderness with some Dartmouth students of the Outing Club marching through them occasionally.

Well, gentlemen, the way we treat our soil is just incredible, isn't it? I mean, it's -- nomads did exactly the -- that little as you do to the soil. In my town, 95 percent of the soil is not used. Ninety-five percent of the town of Norwich is not used. Thirty-six square miles, perhaps three miles are used -- not even three, I would say. Two. Or, I mean, are cultivated. This is America, today.

And before you, please, dismiss this problem of -- of the empires, see them in a constant wrestling bout against the tribal order. The tribal order is very tempting, because it is -- has a different discipline. You see, everybody is everything. The Apis civilization, gentlemen, is an attempt to reconcile the Egyptians and their -- the imperial discipline with what everybody else does. If you read the Bible, you know the Jews had to be constantly reconciled to the superstitions of the -- of the Canaanites around them. All the time, every prophet has to write, "It's unbelievable this king will to sacrifice again to Isis and Osiris," or to Astarte, I mean, to these Egyptian goddesses. Now in the same way, the Egyptians were again tempted to fall back on the nomadic order. Exactly, every order that has to stand alone is very much tempted -- I mean, you just have to think of Dartmouth College, how much you try to become just a grammar school. It is very hard to keep the -- the altitude which the soul might gain. You certainly don't try to, even. You say low-brow is better than high-brow.

This minority situation of the empires must strike you before you can look down on imperialism, gentlemen. This is -- has been the fashion in this country

to say, "Pooh-pooh, only undecent people are imperialists, and the English have to go out of everything." That's no solution of the whole problem, gentlemen. You can get a pre-imperial order which does injustice to the land. The land conditions men. The nomads do not want to be conditioned by the land. They will -- are willing to be -- live with the plants and the animals, but not with the conditions of the land, of one land. And the empires have taught man to put up with the hardships of one climate, and to look it through, and to stand and to remain in Hanover even in April, which is very difficult to perform.

This is the discipline of the empire, gentlemen: to accept the soil as God has created it. And it has not worked. As long as the majority of the -- of the people on this earth live in a different way, all the empires have been flooded, have been swamped, have been taken, have been overrun by the surrounding barbarians.

So if you would end this -- I'm glad that you have been patient with me. I must finish this now. The migration of tribes, which you learn in history as having happened between 370 and 17- -- 700 of our era, the migration of tribes is nothing exceptional. It's the rule. The empires have always been swallowed up by those more primitive ways of life again: once the irrigation ditches broke down and once the discipline gave out. You just have to go to the Mesa Verde to see that. Who has been there? I mean. Once the water gave out, good-bye. Isn't that true? You remember, Sir? I mean you. You said you went to the Mesa Verde. Have you seen it?


Who did? So -- so few? Well, as you know, Arizona was a flourishing country. It wa- -- had had all the benefits of this empire civilization, as long as the irrigation was kept intact. And once this discipline went, an older order of life took over again. And gentlemen, if Americans were left to their own devices at this moment, you just have to see how the farms disappear. You just have to see how the water at this moment is -- is eating out -- is -- the soil, despite all our so-called conservation, we pay just one-tenth for conservation which we should pay. But you know, our administration tells us they have no money for this. They have to tax -- cut taxes. This is terrible. Nobody here wants to pay the price for having still a -- a country, a continent alive 150 years from now. If you talk to anybody in this country about 150 years from now, they send you down to Brattleboro. And that's the nomad in your veins, gentlemen. You don't want to sacrifice for a country. "For Heaven's sake," you say, "I won't be here anyway. I will be elsewhere." You are unsettled. And the problem of mankind on this globe today is quite serious in my mind. Who is feeling responsible for the future of his town or of his country 150 years from now? You cannot, with any other feeling, do right.

And I think that you will have to give much thought to this question. How can you develop this spirit of settlement inside you, and inside your children, and inside your environment? It doesn't exist. Not one of you will die at the place where he is born. Obviously. You know this already now.