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{word} = hard to understand, might be this

[Opening remarks missing]

... is a very simple one, gentlemen. I want to convince you that the Jews and the Greeks could come before -- because the tribes and the empires had done their work, so that there is a rational, logical progression, which explains to you our own situation. We are the heirs of these great forces -- the tribes, the empires, the Greeks, and the Jews. And it is never brought to your understanding that they are four absolutely different ways of life, all created against each other, to supplement each other, and that to this day, whether you live in America or you live in India, man has no choice but to mix these four ways of life in the form of these various calendars of which we have spoken in the first half of the course. I have been very slow in letting you in on the tribes and the Egyptians, as an example of -- of settlement. I wish I had more time. They deserve, of course, since you know nothing of the two, much more elaborate traditions to be handed to you. But there is a minimum I think I have given you.

What I shall do -- now do, I think it will take me three meetings at least, is to convince you about the highly -- you can call "rational," or "scientific," or "orderly" character of human history. You believe that chemistry is orderly. You believe that biology is orderly. Strangely enough, human beings believe that human history is not all orderly. To me it is just as precise and as exacting, and it throws off any straggler, and any deserter just as ruthlessly. The sentence in the Ten Commandments, gentlemen, that God forgives those -- I mean, visits the sins of the parents in the third and fourth generation, and forgives those who serve Him in the thousandth generation is simply true. It's a natural law. It's an order of human history. For a little bit of merit, your great-, great-, great-, great-grandfather's effort, you are here alive. And for the -- and the side branches of mankind, like Nicaragua, or -- or Egypt itself, have died off. You yourself, gentlemen, with your own life, are incorrigibly and invincibly either shoved aside on a dead alley -- dead-end street, or you enter the mainstream of life. And to prove to you this, I'm now going to call, so to speak, on what you know of Jews and Greeks, and of what then came to make accessible all the four roads through life: the Church.

The Church is -- is nothing but capitalizing on the tribalism, on the imperialism, on the Greecism, the philosophy of Greece, and on -- and the arts and on the prophets of Israel. I must therefore invite your concentrated attention. I shall not dissipate for these last three meetings your attention by going to these reports. But we'll come back to them. The reports remain to me very essential. But simply for the reason of concentrating your attention on -- on this kind of higher arith-

metic in humanity, in human history, I want to have no deviation.

What have the tribes created? We told -- I told you this -- the formula could be: the dead speak to the living. Man enters a continuity of time. His parents, his ancestors are with him. He's not just this ephemeral being which you try to be. He's not just of one moment. He belongs to the ages. And therefore the formula -- when we now go on -- might simply be the -- the tribe has a past. It has a past. And we may say, vice versa, the tribe is the creation of a past. In the tribe, the people gain a relation to what has gone on before them. And everything that happens afterwards is related to this past. You have an ancestor. You have a founding father. You have a father. A grandfather, even. You have eyes that look upon you, that fasten upon you and keep you in line. So the tribes create a past, which is not natural, gentlemen. You have none. You have lost it. You have just by accident in libraries and -- here a past. But have you a real past? The tribe has a past. And the little past you have, you still have from the tribe, because you have a family, and you have a fa- -- your father's name. And so everything you have today you owe to the creation of these good people in -- in the caves of antiquity.

The second thing we found, gentlemen, that the empires created a present. They created this eternal present of the heavens. Those of you who have written these papers on the calendar have never -- made use of anything I have said in class. It is remarkable how schizophrenic you live. Some people have reckoned on the New Year's Day, and they have not even hinted at the fact that my paper, 360 And 5, which I asininely enough gave to you -- I shouldn't -- that this deals with the problem of the New Year, and with the collapse of the year for five days and its renewal. The -- people write Sat- -- on the saturnalia -- who has written on the saturnalia, on the Christmas -- ? Quite a number of you, but no idea that I have treated this in a paper which I took the liberty of -- of even giving you. It's remarkable with how little thought a human being can exist.

Well, what I mean to say, gentlemen: the calendar of the tribe creating a past goes from funeral to wedding, and from wedding to funeral, and from war to peace and from peace to war, from initiation to initiation. But it has nothing to do with the annual circle of the firmament. The invention -- the knowledge of the solstice and of the equinox, I tried to show you, is the invention of the countries. No migrating tribe can foretell the exact day on which anything happens. They have to wait till somebody is shot dead. Then they can mourn about him. A funeral is a rather insecure date, you know.

They -- I always tell the joke of a -- of a famous wit in -- in Germany, a banker, who had to do with a pompous ass. And this pompous ass of a manufacturer said to him, "Well, we have to get together, my dear friend. But I'm so terribly busy, I

really don't know when we can see each other again. This is November." And he looked, and he looked, and he looked it up and said, "Well, I think the earliest possible date will be in March -- perhaps March 17th. I don't see that we can meet before."

And the banker got very angry and said, "I'm sorry. On March 17th, I have a funeral."

This is good to -- for your memory, gentlemen, to show you that funerals are not in the astral calendar. If you want to know what the calendar of the tribe is, think of funerals. They happen without being known beforehand, you see. You have to -- you have to attend to them, and your heart has then to mourn the dead man. But you cannot predict it. But it's very different with the solstice. The -- the achievement of the Mesopotamians, the Babylonians, or the Egyptian priests was that they freed man from the interest in funerals. In- -- instead, they began to interest people in the return of the seasons and the stars in the same constellation. Very interesting. The Egyptians, when they counted the years of the king, they waited till -- to the next New Year Day and the swelling of the Nile, and called only after this is New Year Day, the king's { } the first year. That is, that the old man had died, and the new king was already emperor, you see, couldn't be mentioned in this new way of reckoning. All that mattered was in the stars. Therefore, the first half-year or quarter of a year, you see, fell under the table.

I think that shows you that I mean business when I say they are two different worlds. And those of you who have written on the saturnalia have missed the point totally: that the solstice was a very miraculous observation and that you could never in your life -- would have hit on it yourself. Nobody alone can observe the solstice. It takes a tremendous division of labor. And we found that this is just what Egypt, you see, introduces. A division of labor without which the movements of the stars cannot be known. They can be observed at the time, but they cannot be predicted. They cannot be studied. They cannot be reckoned out. They cannot be written down. They cannot -- you have no idea how late the solstice was. No, the Egyptians took them 5- -- in the 500 first years, there's nothing about solstice and equinox. They only knew the Nile. But in observing the {Soptid}, the Sirius coming forward and meet the sun on the day of the Ni- -- of the swelling of the Nile, they began to observe other things, too, and you show this all so gallantly and say "solstice," "equinox." It doesn't mean anything to you. Gentlemen, there is sweat, toil, and tears of many centuries of human specialization involved in this little knowledge of what a solstice is. And of course, what we today -- why -- why do we celebrate Christmas? Because in Egypt, it's the middle of the summer where the New Year occurs. The -- the Nile doesn't exist in other countries, and the solstice therefore is a dialectical reversal of this Egyptian calendar into the -- our regions, where we live by rain and by

the seasons, and not by the melting of the snow in Abyssinia and the -- the growing of the Nile. That's a very late, you know, afterthought, that other countries might have the same experience, you see, of the new year in the middle of winter, by reversing, so to speak, the observation, and having no river of special significance, depending therefore on the observation in the stars without an immediate interference with the -- with the fields down below except through the rain. So your solstice problem is a most fascinating problem. And it's a very late problem. And all this is to be found in my most interesting and thorough paper, in 360 Plus 5 and I think the gentlemen on Christmas should all read this paper and then write the paper -- their own paper again. It is really scandalous what you have done to me in this -- in this paper. Not one of you has even mentioned it. That's all contained in this paper. But you haven't found it there.

Now the -- the present of the year, and the presence of the Great Year, and the present of the 30 years, and the centuries, and the millions of years, that's the Egyptian situation. Everything is always here. There is no past, and there is no future, because whether you call on the year 1460, or the year 10, it is always inside a circle. And in a circle, gentlemen, there is no before and after. Everything can be looked upon at -- from both ends. It is -- it is just here.

So the very word of a present is an Egyptian invention. Now if you have these two worlds, gentlemen, one of a settled district under God in Heaven, and one migratory over -- roaming over the whole globe under the spirit of your ancestors, the tribe and the empire, the settled and the nomadic way of life, you have two ways out. You can reject the two as unsufficient, as unsatisfactory. Or you can combine the two. The Jews rejected both ways. The Greeks combined the two. Why? The Old -- New Testament says that the "Here is neither Greek nor Jew" means there is also no longer any need to speak of tribes and empires. The Greeks contain the -- the em- -- the empires and the tribes in their synthesis, in their combination; and the Jews reject both and transcend the 12 tribes of Israel as well as the pharaoh of Egypt. They are more than a tribe, they are the chosen people.

So gentlemen, the Jews are a people. And the Greeks -- you may say if you want to have this word, I'll give it to you today -- they are a civilization. The others before were settlements under Heaven. They were religious orders. Therefore they couldn't be called them civilizations. A pharaoh is a -- is a god on earth, and in Heaven, as I have tried to show you. He helps the gods to complete their realm, and he brings the gods down to earth. And such a theocracy, such a divine empire is not -- is not understood when you call it a civilization. But the Greeks are just a civilization, because they have taken the best of tribalism, and the best of empires, and that is Greece; and that is its glory.

In order to -- now to answer -- and I real -- want to try to treat the two side by side, the tribes have created kings. A king is a man of ancestry. The word "king" comes -- has to do with the word of descent. And the word "kingship" had always the meaning that you are a king because somebody before you was king, that you are the son of a king, you see. Where there is a kingship, there is a crown prince; there is a Prince of Wales. And so kingship was created in a tribe, because past was created. You derived your claim from the past.

The second position is priesthood. The empires created priesthood. You are not king because somebody before was king, but you are priest, because the heavens declare the glory -- your glory, and you declare the glory of Heaven to man.

So the firmamental throne in Heaven, so to speak the -- the celestial influences we express by priesthood. And the kingship is a creation of the tribe. The Greeks are the poets of mankind to this day. And the Jews are the prophets. So we get, in addition to kingship, and in addition to priesthood, we get in Greece the creation of poetry, of making things, because "poetry" is a very general term in Greek, and we get in Judaism, the opposite solution of prophecy. These are the four qualities of mankind, gentlemen, created before the coming of Christ: kingship, prophecy, priesthood, and poetry. Now any American, in his na‹vet‚, claims that he is a poet, if he wants to be, or a philosopher for that matter, I can also -- could also write here for "poetry," "philosophy," goes together. He is an adept of the nine Muses. That is, he uses his mind. The word "muse" is the same as our English word "mind." And the Greeks are, as you know, the worshipers of the nine Muses of Zeus. And that conta- -- contains the arts and contains -- philosophy, and contains music, and whatever you want as the ex- -- the artistic faculty of man, the crea- -- what you call lightly the creative faculty. The Jews have nothing to do with the Muses. They are the prophets.

We claim today that we are the heirs to all these four qualities {of man.} Every one of us says, "Well, what's a king? I'm just as good as a king. What's a prophet? We can all prophesy." And I believe this is true. "We are all poets, or are artistic inclined." You all play jazz, or at least you dance jazz, and that's the minimum requirement for artistic participation, and -- but you can go further. You may compose music. You may write a play. You may even go to Hollywood. And so you can even destroy the arts. And anybody -- a king can do more wrong, gentlemen, than a citizen. You can become a despot. That's what you can be. If everybody is a king, he can abuse liberty much more than a man who is only a citizen. And you see it in this country. The abuse of liberty is nowhere carried to greater length than in this country, because you are all royalty. And royals -- poor -- bad kings, you see, are much worse than bad civilians, bad subjects. And there's more bad art, of course, in this country than anywhere else. And there's

more Gallup polls than anywhere else, that is, wrong -- abuse of -- of the prophetic gift, because you all confuse prediction with prophecy. And there is wrong priesthood. There's Emily MacPherson, and -- and the Jehovah's Witnesses, and -- innumerable sects. That is abuse of priesthood, because everybody in this country says he's a priest. We call this the universal priesthood of the unbelievers.

Because of the abuses in America, gentlemen, it is very hard for you to see the claim. Every American claims quite na‹vely that he can't be even ever -- be prevented from being his own king, his own priest, his own philosopher or poet, and his own prophet. This is literally true, gentlemen, and you don't understand yourself, because you only see the abuses. And you say, "Well, everybody has a philosophy, so it isn't worth much. Everybody is a king, so everybody is just suspect in -- has ulterior motives." Kings are the people who act without ulterior motives, gentlemen, from a sense of duty. But that's -- nobody believes this anymore in this country. So it is a very strange situation in which we are. You can hardly take this great heritage very seriously, because you first, when you talk about the states, say, "Oh, the politicians. It's just politics." When you talk about the Church, you -- call it organized religion, and then you are through with it. When you speak of prophecy, you mean prediction. And when you speak of the arts, you mean The Saturday Evening Post, or the Saturday Review of Literature. And that's the end of it -- of all these things. It's destructive.

So I have a very hard time to awaken you the -- the dignity of these four great creations, gentlemen. Without a little bit royalty inside you -- of yourself, you cannot bring up your son. You may perhaps bring up your daughter, but not your son. It is very difficult to bring up one's own son, gentlemen. You have to live in a world of law and order. No father can educate his child alone. He has be- -- to be able to point out to his son the legal institutions around him which show the son when the father does wrong and when the father does right. Otherwise the father is just a tyrant. A father needs the law to explain his own position to his child. So kingship is always connected with the law.

The priesthood, gentlemen, is always necessary if you want to bring up your wife and daughter so that she has not the feeling -- the women in your home need your connection with the Church, with the -- with the -- the spiritual order, with the heavens, because otherwise you become to them an in- -- in- -- a despot, a tyrant. The Church -- a religion is the protection of the women against the male in the family, which you do not know. In this country, perhaps it is now the protection of the male against the women in the -- in the family. But ordinarily that isn't so, gentlemen. The Catholic Church is the bulwark of womanhood against the male. And again, this is no longer understood here, so that's why you don't understand this famous letter of St. Paul that a woman shall be silent in the

church. That's her great privilege. The poor men must talk. She is silent, because before she has had only the right to wail, and to mourn, and to shout, and to be excited. And when Christianity came, she was allowed to be sober, and no longer to -- to -- to be a tribal woman with her wailing. If you go to a Jewish -- Jewish burial or death, you still have these poor women condemned to wail. There are professional wailers, even.

In -- in Christiani- -- in our era, there begins this process of inter-penetration that a woman gets male -- men's qualities, and a man get women's qualities; you get -- the subjects get royal qualities, the -- the reader gets the poetic quality of the author; you are all small authors now. That is, there is an inter-penetration of these four orders that has taken place. And this is the difficulty for you to understand, that first these orders had to be created outside each other. A tribesman couldn't be an Egyptian. An Egyptian couldn't be a tribesman. A Greek couldn't be an Egyptian or a tribesman. And a Jew couldn't be a Greek, or a tribesman, or an Egyptian. That is, all these orders, which you now so happily are allowed to combine, every one of us inside one man, were created all in separation against each other, defending each other -- the {invasion}. The Jews went out of Egypt and turned away from the Canaanites. They were the Jews. They were no longer tribesmen and no longer Egyptian. The Greeks turned away from the old IndoEuropean nomadic existence of migrations. They founded cities. That's why we give them a civilization. They settled. But they became not empires. They were Republicans, as you know. They were civilized, and they abolished the priesthood of Egypt. We shall see this in detail.

But today, at this moment, I want to fascinate you with the -- with this strange, magic square of antiquity, gentlemen, that outside each other, as far as possible, every one of these four orders went to its extreme. The nomads, still known to us through the Arabs, and through the Germanic tribes, or through the red Indians in this country, and the bedouins in the desert, to this day, or the Eskimos, or whoever you take, and represented in our own {worlds}, through people like the Quakers and other Christian sects who represent the tribes, as I told you, today. And then on the other hand, the empires, the definitely settled people. Good example of this today is -- is not so easy to find. Under the Mikado, of course, Japan was the last such empire. Holland is such a country to a large -- certain extent, but -- Spain is. Usually {you get} in these empires a very strong state religion. And as you know in Spain, you still today are -- are a ruined man if you dare to become a Protestant or are -- not a Rom- -- are not a practicing Roman Catholic. Obviously in an empire where all the dignitaries are priests, state and Church cannot be separate.

What was then to be created outside past and present? Two things, gentlemen. The Jews created the future. There is no future in antiquity outside Israel.

All the others live by cycles. The -- including the Greeks and the Romans. They expected always the eternal recurrence. The Jews create the future. What was wrong with the two orders, gentlemen, which the Jews tried to transcend, was that there was no future. You had to look back, and everything that changed the order of the tribe was a crime that had to be expiated. You get human sacrifice, why? Because something has gone wrong. The future is dreaded, as a deviation, just as in the Communist Party, it's deviation. And the deviationist, like Mr. Trotsky, gets his murder executed even in Mexico. He's a deviationist. Cannot be tolerated.

The -- there is no future. The past has already revealed the truth, the ultimate truth. That's so funny about the dogmatism of the Communists, that -- that in 1847 everything was already allegedly known. And woe to the man who tries to say something new. He's -- he's a deviationist.

So the second thing that was wrong, gentlemen, for the -- for the -- these two order -- in these two orders was: if you worship the stars, and if your emperor is the son of Heaven, and if he unites Heaven and earth and south and north, man is in a turmoil, in a juggernaut, in a maelstrom of constant movement, gentlemen. You know what the Jews have invented? They have invented a quiet god who is not part of the constellations in Heaven. The first sentence of the Bible is shout of triumph: our god is outside Heaven and earth. He created them. And therefore we can rest with Him. We are not just wheels within wheels. Egypt, all labor -- division of labor, all imperialism, gentlemen, of the ancient order is wheels within wheels. That is, constant revolution, constant perpetual movement. The stars move constantly. There is not one sign in Heaven, except the Northern Star, that does not change and even the Northern Star sets at night -- in daytime. It isn't visible; the sun sets.

And I asked you -- I was willing to pay five dollars. Nobody has asked me to give him the five dollars among you. I was going to give you five dollars for finding the fault with Egypt. The only fault with Egypt is constant movement. The last thing you would expect. There is no rest. The invention of the Sabbath in your papers is treated very poorly, gentlemen, because you do not understand how unnatural it is to discover that man at least has this much of divine -- divinity in him, that he may do less than he may do. Here, you are all { } here is your pulse beating, your digestion working, you are -- have your metabolism. You go from place to place. You drive a car. You breathe. Everything is movement. You can't sit still for five minutes. Judaism is a fiction, because no man can be absolutely quiet. Only death can -- is quiet, and that isn't quite true, because there is disintegration, and the -- the worms take over. And a -- I -- {at the begin}.

Gentlemen, we do not know rest. But the belief of Judaism is that we must

tend in the direction of rest if we want to have freedom, if we want to be divine. The discovery of the Jewish people is that the -- the God who set in motion this world must be superior to motion, that God is rest, eternal peace, that He is the god of peace, and therefore superior to this -- your -- and all our belligerent aggressiveness, and unrest, and turmoil, and quest, and doubt, and commotion, and -- and hurry, and -- and speed, and all these minor divinities of which we have already talked in the first half of this course.

So you see, gentlemen, the Jewish discovery is a very small one. If you keep all things going, nothing new can happen. Has never dawned on you, gentlemen, that if you only proceed continually from cause to effect, that you live in a mechanical universe in which everything is predictable and everything is caused -- well most of you believe in this nonsense of a world -- in your heart, you know that it shouldn't be so. You can break away from your routines. You can do something new. And the -- all mankind's history is only the record of those actions of freedom by which people did something that had never been done before. So we have a record of such achievements. People one day began not to run away from the wood -- forest fire, but to use it. And suddenly there was fire among man and no animal can cope with fire, but we can. And men began to speak to each other, and men began to stay with the dead instead of running away when a person died, and to receive their last breath into their own heart and make the most of it, and continue this breathing, this spirit of the ancestor. All this is newness. Now the Jews said, "All of you tribes have experienced at least your own tribe. There is a spirit that didn't -- it wasn't before. You have created one past. You have created an ancestor. You have names for these ancestors. You have name -- names for all the descendants of these ancestors. You speak of mothers, and fathers, and daughters, and sons. You speak to each other about your descent. I speak not of the descendants, but I speak of the event that every one tribe on this earth had once begun: God is He who can begin out of nothing. God creates the world out of nothing, because He's at rest, and then He sets things in motion. And any human being experiences this at this moment when he says, "Cause will have no effect on me."

I tread on your toe. And I say, "Excuse me." What do I say? What is "excuse"?

And you say, "Of course, never mind. I mean, it doesn't -- don't mention it." How can you say this? How can I say, "Excuse me?" In a tribe, that's impossible, gentlemen. Cause is effect. That is, where there is cause, the effect must take place. There must be expiation. In a tribe, when the king has be- -- or the mother has been hurt, or I tread on your toes, we have to go and sacrifice on the altar something to make up for this. We, in our era, are -- have become free of this, gentlemen, because the Jews have introduced this simple form of ex-causation. What is ex-cuse? To do away with the cause, so that it has no effect. You have

never thought of this, gentlemen. But you all think that you have the privilege of forgiving another man his crime. I think you are even very liberal with this. You really think that the crime hasn't happened if you excuse it. That's not true. It has happened. It has happened. Don't believe this, gentlemen.

I'm -- got -- always get very angry. Somebody -- some one of you hurts me very deeply -- I have an appointment with one of the students the other day. He doesn't show up at all. Never mentions it again. He takes it for granted that I have to excuse it. I don't think that I have to excuse it at all. I see many of you -- you do something terrible to your parents or to your friend and then you say, "Oh, please. I'm very sorry. Excuse me." And you think the thing is over with. It isn't. You have absolutely no right to rely on the other man's willingness to forgive you, from the very beginning. You have to do something about this, first. And I think one of the reasons why you cannot understand reality, gentlemen, is, for example, that you have abolished any effort to make up for your shortcomings by deed. You think when you use this magic formula, "Excuse me," that we have to excuse you. I don't see why I should. I do you a much greater favor when I am very serious and say, "I won't forgive you so cheaply." You have ruined the great tradition of human freedom by taking it for granted that by just using this -- this dead formula, "Oh, please excuse me," or "I hope you will excuse me," that I am then obliged mechanically, because you set the cause, that I then have to fall in with the effect. That is, you have lowered, you have ruined the wonderful power of man's forgiveness, do away with cause and effect, into such a mechanical process that now it's in a cause-and-effect chain again. Because you tell me, "Please excuse me," I have to forgive you and I have to excuse you. Why should I? This is something absolutely in my free-choos- -- choice. As soon as you expect me to be the slave of this arrangement, I will break through it. I'll slap you in the face and say, "You rascal. I shall not forgive you." Why should I -- cooperate in this absolute cheapening of all the order of life? This is what makes America such a sad country, that you take grace and pardon for granted. You don't ask for it as a special favor, but you say, "I can subscribe to it, 365 pardons a year."

This is absolutely rotten in this country. You ha- -- want to have Christianity without the law. That's impossible. First the law, and then the pardon. But you won't take this risk. You are out of -- if you come to a professor and say, "I couldn't ke- -- here, one of you had the effrontery -- Mr. {Gunderson}. Where is this gentlemen? Yes. This is quite a story of yours. Gave me a paper yesterday and say the reader can hear your reasons. I'm not the reader. I'm your professor, my dear man! You can't write to me as the reader of your damn paper! I'm not going to read this paper, just because of this silly inscription. If you do wrong, then you have to use all the paraphernalia of formality to get even again. But you do n- -- didn't even make an effort.

This is how we -- how far you have gone, gentlemen. You live just like lice on the surface of a tremendous tradition. You only want to have the cream, but not this -- the basic elements. The basic element is the law, and that I give you an E. This other element is that perhaps I am willing to have you talk -- and explain to me, and then I'll consider it freely. But you can't force my hand. This is absolutely stupid on your part. And you ruin all the privileges of your comrades by acting in this manner. This gentlemen brought in his paper on the -- on the holiday yesterday. Then he says he was willing to explain to the reader the reasons for his action. And I'm the reader. Again, how can you force me to read this stuff? I'm not your reader. As long as I'm here, I'm in authority in this class, { }, and you are not. A reader is just your slave. But you have absolutely no feeling for the law that has to precede before freedom can prevail. I'm all for the higher virtues, gentlemen, of liberty, and of grace, and -- and pardon, but not when you take them just as the only thing between human beings. This is impossible.

So this is the inv- -- the discovery of -- of the Israel, gentlemen. It is a great thing. Their god, and they themselves on the Sabbath escape from the juggernaut of necessity. They are outside fate. All antiquity is under fate. That is, the wheels turn, the sun comes, the moon comes, the constellation comes; therefore everything is always the same. And the Jews say there is a new beginning. They begin with the exodus of Egypt, with the negation of the firmament. They -- not Heaven and earth are divinities, but there God creates Heaven and earth. This sentence is never read by you. Otherwise you would have never understood -- I still can't understand it -- why Genesis has anything to do with Darwinianism -- or is refuted by Darwinianism. Isn't it simply true, that you have to decide whether you believe in fate or in the creation of world by an act of freedom? That's all. This is -- has nothing to do with natural science and all this stuff. If you read the chapter on Genesis, it's a history of the generations of freedom created, each time by a revolutionary act.

Now gentlemen, my own life is an ex- -- a chain of experiences of such free actions. I have always acted in time. I've always despised people who act 30 years later. Now everybody in Germany knows that the Nazis were bad, but 30 years ago, they didn't. Or they know now that the First World War was lost; 30 years ago they didn't. Free men accept events, gentlemen, freely, before it is necessary.

The -- lieutenant-general of the engineers, of the Corps of Engineers, General {Sturgis} had an interview. Have you read it perhaps in this paper, United States News Reports? Where he said it is so difficult for a nation to do a thing in time, voluntarily, and not to wait till we are compelled to do it. It has to do with water conservation and such things. And it's funny that this general -- this military man sees so very clearly the distinction between free men and slaves. Everybody

acts as -- when it is finally forced, but the freedom of man is to act beforehand. The Jews were lawful before the -- are lawful before the law, so to speak, forces them. It is this voluntariness of the Jewish order, of the Jewish law, which has allowed the Jews to last out all other nations. That's why they're still there. The only nation after Egypt that has lasted now for 4,000 -- 3,500 years.

Freedom, gentlemen, for the future, is the creation of the -- of the prophet. What is a -- who is a prophet, then? We have to see this straight, and after this definition, we shall go over to the Greeks right away and I -- I want on purpose, as you perhaps now understand, balance these two constantly, before your -- before you so that you are forced to understand the necessity of Jews and Greeks. They are not just aberrations or oddities. The Jews have prophets, live by prophecy. Moses is the first prophet. You make this distinction that Moses is not a prophet, and your liberal textbooks who try to destroy Judaism by calling it just a tribal religion, or some such nonsense, all your hund- -- last -- books of the last hundred years are written with a terrible prejudice. You see it already from the term "Semite" and "anti-Semitism." Gentlemen, the Jews, as you know, separated from the Semites to become Jews. Their great enemies are the Semites. So if you are an anti-{Semic}, that is just the liberal way of hidding the fact -- hiding the fact that in order to deal with Jews, you must hate the Jews, and not to be an -- it doesn't help you to be an anti-Semite. Because if you are a Semite, you just don't hit the Jewish question.

The Jews were, among the Semites, the Israelites, the -- or the Jews, Hebrews, if you want to -- who believed that the future made the devotee of the living God speak into the present. There would be no break-out of tribe or empire, gentlemen, if these people just were Gallup Poll people, who try to -- to presume on the future. That's what you think prophecy is. You all have this absolutely silly notion about prophecy, that it is speaking from the past into the future, or about the future. It's utter nonsense. The future -- prophet speaks from the future into the present. He is at home in the future. He is in God's will and speaks from the end of time backward into today. And that's why he can judge today, and can see how wrong today is, and why -- part of today has to be destroyed before the real future can take place. A prophet is not at home as the medicine man with the dead ancestors. He is not at home as a priest, with the -- circulation of stars, as of today. But he is at home with man's destiny under Heaven. What are we made for, finally? Well, if a man feels deeply what man's purpose is, he can see that half of what we are doing here today is nonsense. So any prophet, gentlemen, a real prophet, is always distinguished from these Gallup Poll predicters and these Arthur Brisbanes and these {Hector} people of July 4th, et cetera, that he has clearly to say that half of the world as it is will first have to perish before we can go on and make progress.

All prophets must be partially prophets of doom. They cannot help it, because from the vantage point of the future, these United States certainly cannot be the final word. They'll have to vanish. They -- stand in the way of a larger unit of mankind, obviously. All the states of today, gentlemen, 200 years from now, may not be allowed to stand. That's very disagreeable for us to see. And we hope that we are not going to see it. But that doesn't alter the fact that in order to -- to carry out God's purpose, obviously many of the orders of life today will have to vanish. Can't you see this? It's obvious. You all are schizophrenic, and you say, of the one-hand side you want to have one mankind and peace; and on the other, you want to have the United States to go on forever. Well, that is impossible, obviously. We don't know the answer. It isn't so simple. The bloss -- daydreaming today, that you picture in your mind, the United Nations or some such world -- one world, that isn't prophecy.

Prophecy is quite indifferent, gentlemen, to the temporal orders. But it is not indifferent to the destiny of man, to man's relation to -- to God, to man's freedom. The prophet sees how little freedom we have. Look at this chain of cause and effect in this formula, "Excuse me." As long as people in -- in -- today believe that while they say, "Excuse me," there must be the answer, "Oh, of course, don't mention it," there is a total abuse of the cosmic law. God created cause and effect, and He created man to supersede cause and effect. We are His children, because we share His freedom, that although we have to recognize in general gravity, and death, and illness, and -- and hunger, and thirst, and all the needs of our body, you see, we can, by act of freedom and in every individual case overstep these limitations. You have Gandhi's hunger strike, and you can go to the Cross voluntarily, or peacefully. That is, you have under necessity still freedom. But it costs a terrible price. And the prophet reminds people that when they are environmentalists, and -- and existentialists and adapters, and adjusters, and psychologists, that they are -- have ceased to be His children. The condition of freedom, gentlemen, is a very difficult one, that you have to affirm the law and say, "I take upon me the consequences of the law, and I'll super- -- go beyond them."

If you take -- do something that the community doesn't like, gentlemen, your answer always is, you can't do it, because the community is going to disapprove of it. That's -- then, you are, obviously, the slave of your environment. You are an Egyptian. Most people are Egyptians, today. The -- real answer of Israel is: you have to do what your environment doesn't like, and you cannot complain if your environment then acts and doesn't like it. The reason for your not doing is not in their disapproval. You have to stand their disapproval. And that's what you don't want to do. You want to have the approval for everything you do. You cannot have this. If you want to have the approval of what you do, gentlemen, you no longer do anything. You are just lived by others. You are -- become their

slave. You are a joiner.

Now in Egypt, or in China, or in this American society of businessmen and Rotarians, obviously you behave. You are behaviorists. Everybody does as -- he thinks others expect him to behave. And the funny thing is, when you look into every man, he only does it because everybody else does and there is nobody who knows why -- why he is doing it. The funny thing, you can meet 20 people, every one adapting himself to the 19 others, but there's absolutely nobody who -- who says it has to be this way. He says, "I'm only doing it because the 19 others do it." And you move in this vicious circle of behaviorism.

The Jews broke with this vicious circle, gentlemen. That's all they did. But it's a -- mighty unpopular thing, and that's why anti-Semitism is wrong, gentlemen, and the hatred of the Jews is right. The Jews will always be hated as long as there are Jews, real Jews. There are very few, today. Judaism is to be hated by the Gentiles, because it is un- -- is the courage to be unpopular. In the light of the future, the present-day empires look all very phony. Why should you kneel before the king of Persia, or before the emperor of Rome and call this -- ? For the Jew, that's just funny, because he is not interested in present-day affairs. He measures these present-day orders from the end of time when he says, "You look silly, my dear man." And they do look silly, in the eyes of God. But it doesn't make people popular, gentlemen. Pogroms are a part of the Jewish story. You can't abolish this by -- by niceness and say, "All men are equal." The Jews are not equal to the Egyptians, gentlemen, and to the tribesmen. All three live in different -- have to represent something different. The tribesman represents genealogy, and pedigree, and the social register, and descent. And the -- the expert, that is, our modern Egyptian, represents business interest, and departmentalized interests, the necessity of expert knowledge in all fields -- engineering, and medicine, and so on. Agriculture. And the Jew, if he is an Orthodox Jew, or a prophetic Jew, represents the criticism of these departmentalizations and of these genealogies. And so he cannot be popular, but he is necessary.

This is very hard for you, gentlemen. A dentist is necessary, but he -- I -- he is not popular with me. In the same sense, the Jews are necessary, but not popular. You want to have it the other way around. You want even to make the Jews all popular, gentlemen. And so they cease to be Jews, and the whole world is just in a terrible -- mess today, because we have no prophets. We have only predicters. Partly, of course, the prophetic element has entered today the Church -- I mean, in a good pulpit, you hear a man still speak like Isaiah in criticizing the times. The Church is the heiress of genuine prophecy, or could be.

Now let's have a break here.

[Tape interruption]

... for their arts, and their philosophy. The liberal arts college is a Greek institution. Everything we do here is Greek. Every do -- thing we do in the churches is -- is Old Testament. Is prophetic. Everything we do in the college education, gentlemen, is -- is {artistic} in the widest sense. The Greeks lived as a first people, gentlemen, confronted with tribes and empires. They lived between them. The whole problem of the -- of the -- of the Greeks is comparison. The great thing that you learn here in this college is to compare: to compare notes, to compare different civilizations, to compare different creeds, to compare different people. Your own -- your own relationship to each other is that you can compare how people from 48 states differ. Or then you have Norwegians, or you have Germans, or you have Englishmen, or Irishmen, or what-not. And you compare. The Greek mind, gentlemen, is a mind of comparison.

What we call humanism, gentlemen, is the admission that there are people here and there, and that the differences between these people have to be taken for granted. No judgment involved. It is the weakness of the Greeks, gentlemen, and it is the power of the Greeks, this humanism. You use this word "humanism" usually in the {foul} sense that you think it is to be nice. Everybody is everybody's friend. Now, that is not the Greek spirit, gentlemen. The Greeks did destroy the Persians, and they destroyed each other. They were very war-like. And -- literally. And it is quite mistaken to think of the Greeks as not sharing the tribal feuds and the vendetta, and the ambition, and the imperialism of the Egyptians or the tribes. The Jew -- the Greeks have partly tribal instincts: defense, conservatism, and they have partly the -- the arrogance of the dwellers under temples. They also had temples. It has been said that it was remarkable that the Greek philosophers and artists had not been able to do away -- in 1500 years of writing and -- and teaching -- with the slightest superstitions of Greece, or with any political abuse. The philosophers and artists, gentlemen, are impotent with regard to the state of the Church.

Beware of this, gentlemen. Don't be -- because you study all these philosophers, gentlemen, that doesn't mean you already have done any -- any dent into the existing abuses of society. I learned this -- my all -- my whole life has been a repentance for the uselessness of this liberal arts college. It is useless today, because most of you get just their mind fed with nice things, without any influence within your real family, or real life, or your real business. That goes on as business as usual. And it is very difficult to un- -- make you understand, gentlemen, that the Greeks take the mind away from their own political existence and their own religious beliefs into another realm of comparison. You develop, you cultivate your mind here. You call this even sometimes intellectual curiosity. Well, I don't know why, but I always connect it with prostitution. Intellectual

curiosity. To lift the veil of things that aren't your concern. I doubt that intellectual curiosity is a decent thing.

For the Greeks, gentlemen, something else was a neces- -- necessary for -- vital: comparison. You have to compare. If you live on Thousand Islands between great empires and a great continent, Europe, filled with migratory tribes, if you look where the Greeks lived, gentlemen -- you know perhaps that much geography without a map, so you know that when they become known to us, they had just crossed from the mainland of Europe on both sides of the Olympus, the highest mountain -- never climbed before 1913, in the Balkans -- over into the fruitland of Thessaly, and then down to the Mediterranean. Then they had crossed over to { } and the other islands, the so-called archipelago of the Mediterranean, eastern half, where there are perhaps a thousand islands. After the First World War, we always jokingly said we are going to buy a cheap Greek island for $3 and settle there. There are so many. It's like the Thousands Islands in the St. Lawrence River.

This is very important, gentlemen. The Greeks were thrown into a situation between these older orders. They came from the tribes, reached the sea, and found themselves face to face with the great palaces and temples of kings and priests in Crete, in Asia Minor, in Egypt, in Persia. And therefore, they had to make something out of this. And the answer they had to ge- -- find was: the other fellow has a point, too. The Greeks weakened, therefore, the integrity of the mind. They made room in their mind for an order of other prayers, of other laws, while they had to go on following their order and their laws. Take a sailor, take a man on a Norwegian ship who goes -- the Norwegians, as you know, had the -- had the third largest mari- -- how do you call it?

(Merchant marine.)


(Merchant marine.)

Merchant marine, thank you very much. Merchant marine, before the war, a people of 2 and-a-half million inhabitants, souls. That's -- means, that every Norwegian had to give in to any number of laws and ways of life of other countries, and yet to remain a Norwegian. And so, if you meet Norwegians, this is very puzzling. They are very, very much Norwegians, very inaccessible, very dark, very neurotic, very pessimistic on the one-hand side and very versatile, and very seemingly adaptable on the other side. You just read their literature, their poetry, it is gloomy. It is not at all very cheerful, because it takes a tremendous effort in those fjords and in those lonely districts and in long winters on skis to

remain articulate at all, and not to succumb to all kind of -- of glacial influences. The maritime -- how is -- the sailor has to get along in every port and every ...

[End of tape]