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[Opening remarks missing]

... and the Jews. Gentlemen, when you open the New Testament, you will find that sometimes the new era in which we ourselves live today is called the end of the partition between the Jews and the Greeks. And sometimes it's a question of Jews and Gentiles, where then the Greeks would be just one part of the Gentiles. This is, as you may now begin to understand, very reasonable. The Greeks have compromised between the tribal and the country system, and tried to get between them as sailors, as -- as livers, people living between the tribes and the empires, exposed in the -- Mediterranean to two different backgrounds. So when you hear a sermon in which this is {called}: Greeks and Jews, or Jews and Gentiles, as you speak today, both means the same thing. The Greeks are neither tribesmen nor are they Egyptians or Chinese. Everybody feels this who looks at a Greek temple. It is not like an Egyptian temple as you have seen them in the movies. And it is not the same as a red Indian, a Greek.

So today I want to complete the story: how the Greeks made out of two orders one, and how the Jews steered clear of both orders and took us forward, and enabled you and me to outlive this antiquity. We have today a world which came after the end of the world, the end of the ancient world. And there's a famous verse in Chesterton's Ballad of The White Horse: "And the end of the world was long ago." That's the year 0 of our era. There the old world of the separation of tribes, of empires, of Romans, Jew -- Greeks and Jews ended. And you cannot understand your own situation if you do not know that we all live after the end of the world.

Modern man is so Greek that he pokes fun at this. For a Greek, there is no end of the world, because he thinks cyclical. But for most academic people, this country had to be shocked into awareness that there is something like eschatology. For the last 10 years, our poor American brains have been -- have been tortured by the new invention of the word "eschatology." That is the doctrine of last things. Or "apocalyptic." That's another word that's today a little bit more in use than before. But the simple fact is, gentlemen, that what was announced, the end of antiquity, in the year 0, when the coming of Christ was finally carried into -- to conclusion in this last century, and today nobody can afford to be just a Jew, or just a Greek, or just a tribesman, or just an Egyptian, or Chinese. The empires have fallen. Eleven empires were destroyed in the 19th and the 20th century. All the last empires of antiquity: the Austrian-Hungarian; the Russian; the Chinese; the Japanese; the Hindu, because the king of England was emperor of India and that's gone -- it's a republic now; and the emperor of Brazil; the emperor of

Germany. So there are no empires left, but it took -- takes for history, gentlemen, sometimes 1900 years to achieve one program. The fall of empires began with the coming of Christ, with the declaration that no man could be God. And it took 1900 years before this is carried into execution.

The difficulty of our era is, gentlemen, that in many ways, only today can we be Christians, {before} there were still Jews. Now there aren't. They have now the state of Israeli. So no Jew in America can stay simply a Jew, because he has to decide: either he goes to Israeli, or does he still wait for the Messiah? If he can't wait the -- for the Messiah, he can't be a Jew. It's a very difficult situation. Most people dodge the issue. But it is true that with the founding of Israeli, the whole religious campaign of the last 1900 years in a certain extent is at an end. If you open the New Testament and read Romans 11, St. Paul said at the very moment that the Jews will be back to their own, you see -- realm, the whole mission is -- is changed, the whole transformation of the world.

You don't live anymore in the Year of the Lord 1900 or 1850. You live after two world wars, gentlemen. And you don't want to accept this. You want to be children. But on your generation has fallen this tremendous responsibility to realize that the year 1945 and the year of the Crucifixion have very much with -- on -- some -- with each other to do. The program set out at that time is finished. And now you all live in an era in which you all know that you are the heirs of all four qualities: kingship, prophecy, poetry, and priesthood. And nobody can say, "I'm just for one" or for the other. Not one of you can. Practically, you all already do these things. But now, even your mind has to participate in your doing.

The school mind, gentlemen, the Greek mind is, as I told you last time -- {is} the mind that deals with other orders of existence outside our own. That is the Greek mind. It compares. And for -- therefore, as soon as a Greek mind touches on religion, for example, it is funny. When professors deal with religion, it is very funny. I can only talk about religion as a layman, because I can only have one religion. But as soon as the Greek man speaks, he can speak of many religions. So he has none. He doesn't know what religion is. Religion is where I have singleness of purpose. So all this nonsense of comparison of religion, which Mr. Davis studies, this is just nonsense, Sir. Absolute nonsense, because it is -- religion is where you shut out plurality, where you say, "This is my way of life." As soon as you say, "I have many ways of life," or "There are many ways of life," you look at the world from the outside as a Greek who travels between all these various temples, and religions, and tribes and says, "Well, here this man lives this way, this man lives the other way. And I compare."

So I -- what I have tried to do in this course, gentlemen, is to redeem you from your own Greek mind, to show you that nobody who lives can just be a Greek.

Greek is in interim activity of study, of orientation; but later on, gentlemen, every one of you has to choose his single path. You cannot remain in this mental Olympus, in this mental, academic -- what you call ivory tower -- or library, Baker Library, or this classroom, with many possibilities, gentlemen. It's -- the difficulty of talking to students, gentlemen, about antiquity, or about reality is that you all identify yourselves at this moment with this Greek mind of comparison. You are outside life. Most of you are not married, fortunately, and so you still can compare. You are not committed. But this is an interim existence; it's a highly unnatural existence, gentlemen. And it is a transient existence.

The student, gentlemen, or the Greeks are transient. They can only be used in an interim, in between final orders. The Greek mind is the temporal mind. Today we speak of the secular mind. You have heard that modern man is secularized. You may -- who has heard this term? Well, gentlemen, it is a poor word. Use "temporalized." That is, your mind is interested in one thing after another. And it is -- that comes out more clearly if you speak of "temporal." It's the same meaning. Saeculum in Latin means a passing, of this time, of one time only, not forever. It's the opposite to eternity. But it is not the -- quite the right word. It's a -- too polite a word, if you say, "secular." It doesn't cry for its opposite, whereas if you say, "temporize," "transient," it is obvious that there could be always something more permanent.

This is my difficulty now in taking you back once more to this two achievements of the Greek mind and the Jewish heart. Opposed are two different emphases, two different accents. Of course, Jews and Greeks are both human beings. If you -- begin with Homer, there is much universal religion in Greeks that they have in common with the Jews. For example, the Babylonian -- building of the Babylonian tower in the Old Testament is matched in the Greek mythology by the tradition of the Titans, who -- tower -- who build one mountain on top of the other to get into the sky. In the original beginnings of Greece and Judaism, the peop- -- both had the same yearning. You see it with the story of Noah, and the story of Dionysus: whereas the old empires celebrated the wheat, and the bull, and the plow, and the agriculture -- I mentioned this to you -- and you find in Noah suddenly a stress on production of the wine, that makes -- give- -- makes men drunk. And there is a description in the Bible how -- who deeply drunk Noah finally is found by his sons, and how dastardly they behave towards his drunkenness. Well, obviously the same problem exists in the beginning of the Greek tradition with Dionysus. The god -- we talked about this god of youth, this god of drunkenness, this god of ecstasy, and {with} Noah and Dionysus, you have again something that show that both these nations were concerned with one gift of the good earth, which makes people imitate the divine inspiration, you can say. It's an artificially induced enthusiasm, which we get by drunkenness. And if you have no spirit, you need spirits. That's an old

story. Wine replaces the inspiration.

You don't know this, gentlemen. You drink because you have -- have a guilt complex, and you even drink alone. Reasonable people drink in company and -- because they are inspired. The good use of -- of wine and alcohol is that, you see, that you add to your own good spirits, and express it by wine. In this country, it's a terrible tradition, you see, that when a man is melancholic, he pours himself a glass of whisky. Well, he goes to Hell right away, because if you are sad, you must weep. If you rejoice, you must drink. Rejoicing is underscored by alcohol, by wine, you see. You do it for the opposite reason. That's why it is not becoming. I don't believe that any American student wants to drink beer. It's just a habit. In -- in other countries, they like beer. But here they -- you drink be- -- just because it is something rash, or bold, or audacious. You drink. Absolute nonsense. I have always the feeling that you would all feel much more happy if -- if there was no drinking at all on this campus. No -- not one of you wants to drink. But it is only that you have to break a taboo, and so you tell yourself all the time how independent you are, that you can drink beer, or can drink liquor. It's funny. If you really follow the -- your own deepest instinct, you would not drink, because, gentlemen, drink is only enjoyable, and the natural use of drink is only for the group. It is absolutely nothing for one or two men on -- for your room. To drink in your own room is absolutely fatal. But for an occasion, at a real wedding, but who celebrates a wedding here? Weddings are receptions here, or funerals, you see, where you all get high. Then you can -- it is natural to drink, but then you wouldn't drink whisky or gin be- -- not -- not these terrible cocktails. Cocktails are an insult, I think, to humanity. I think so, because before you can have any mood, you are already drunk. Two cocktails and you are knocked out. And that's the essence of it. That's why enemies -- business enemies can get together at cocktail parties without shooting each other. But why do you do this, gentlemen? You are young, and you are not in competition so much. Why must you imitate these -- these robber barons? Now they are called God Almighty, corporations.

Well, only to show you that there are serious parallels in the -- first beginning of Greece and Judaism, the roads of these two people is not quite as far apart as it looks at the end. Judaism and -- and Biblical faith are farrest apart at the end of antiquity. That's again against the -- the books, but the specialization increases if you want to read -- want to know what the Greek at the end of their odyssey, of their errancy is, you may read the memoirs of Emperor Marc Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius, towards himself. It's the great diary of a -- the emperor of Rome. Pure stoic, pure Greek philosophy, and the opposite from any -- any Biblical faith. A lonely man revolving the world in his mind, not receiving orders, but trying to get organized with his mind towards -- objectively. Your own ideal. He's the -- your own mind, I think, spelled out large. A very sad man, and a very impotent

man, and a disaster for the Roman Empire.

What happens to the Greek mind, gentlemen? The Greek mind wants to be objective and outside the -- these -- these orders. He will -- wants to look at these orders, which demand sacrifice, and discipline, and war, and observations of festivals, and of calendar discipline. They want to get outside the discipline of war, and the discipline of work. The -- the time has no discipline of work, but discipline of war. Migration, including war. War and migration is, so to speak -- being the same thing, you see. The enterprise, the campaign, the march. On the march, the tribe is at its best. The empires, and the settlement are at their best. There is the discipline of work, the very opposite, you remember, the -- the diversification of technical skills. The Jew -- the Greeks try to get out of both. Division of labor and martial law are, for the Greek mind, only here, up to the collar, so to speak. They try to stick their neck out -- or their head outs- -- above this collar and look around and dominate these two orders, as you do. It's very much like the eternal student, the Greek.

How do they do it, gentlemen? They call everything that is not tribe and not empire, nature. The Greeks have invented a very funny idea of which you all -- on which you all believe. This word {phusis} is in Latin "nature," natura, and unfortunately in English, it is also now in use, "nature." You should use the word "world." "World" is better for -- than "nature." But I can't alter the fact that you all believe in nature, and you don't know what the world is. The world is something that over-awes us, gentlemen. But nature is something for which Mr. Thoreau has even founded -- and Mr. Rousseau have even founded a kind of religion. And most Dartmouth boys believe that they must commune with nature, and that you can worship nature. Well, worship -- nature is a self-made goddess. It is the world outside the two orders of the family, and of the state, outside your work and outside your war. And that's very easy to -- if you deduct the two serious orders, which really make demands on you, and call the rest nature, then nature looks very innocent and very nice. That is nature to you. You have never investigated, gentlemen, clearly what you do not call nature. Now you don't call the Church of Christ in Hanover "nature." You don't call Dartmouth College "nature." You don't call the government in Washington "nature," and if you are in your five senses, you don't call your father "natural," because if it is a natural father, he isn't your father. We call a child of nature a child that has no legitimate father. The opposite of nature is the law. The law is that which is man-made. And the Greeks oppose, therefore, nature and law.

Today that's very difficult for you to understand, because you have -- we now talk about natural law. But at this moment, we have to go back to antiquity. And there the opposition is nature is that at which a man can look without immediate commitment of himself, on the warpath, for his ancestors, or for the defense of

his frontiers in his city, you see. They are not natural. They are spirited. You must know that the word "nature" does not exist in Egypt, or in the tribe. I told you that for the tribe, the world is animated. How can it be "nature"? That's my own spirit that the serpent has, or the lion. I and the lion have one spirit, so they are not separated from me as nature, and I against them with my mind, you see. I -- we are the same breed, are we not? You see. They have a spirit. I have a spirit. We try to speak to each other. In all fairy tales, the animals and the people speak to each other. There is no nature, because there is no mind, objectively, you see, looking at nature.

Can you see -- begin to understand this? There is no nature, gentlemen, where I myself am articulating nature. The nightingale, singing, is articulating the beauty of nightingales, and of -- of the world. She's the mouthpiece of the universe. And I am, too, gentlemen. I am not a Greek. I don't live in nature. I've never met with nature. I decline to commune with nature. To me, this is all nonsense, all these natural -- nature -- poetry. Nature speaks through me. That is, in myself, I am full of cosmic energies. I am a creature. But "creature" is not the same as nature, because nature can be separated from my mind, gentlemen. But God created me, body and soul. And if I say something here at this moment, gentlemen, it is in the -- inside the cosmic process. I'm not facing any -- confronted with anything, but through me, the universe tries to reach you. I'm uttering certain sounds that have now to be made in the life of the universe. I cannot split myself off. How can the drum, or the pipe, or the clarinet, or the violin be separated from the universe, whose tones it -- it formulates? I'm articulating the universe, gentlemen, as a creature, you see. But the Greek mind looks at nature. And it is your curse that you try to do the same. That is, gentlemen, anybody who objectifies nature is on the way to schizophren- -- become schizophrenic, because he doubles himself.

I give you the most outstanding Greek example that I've ever met with in modern times. He's quite a well-known man, Professor Wolfra- -- Wolfgang K”hler. He's a psychologist. He was professor at the University of Berlin. He's quite famous because he investigated on the Canary Islands the intelligence of the apes, of the monkeys, the large -- the larger kind. And obviously, that had some influence on his thinking. He thought he was very near to hu- -- humanity in investigating these apes. He came to Cambridge. These are very good friends. And he gave away the secret of the Greek mind. He gave a lecture there. And he said it was his ideal to attend an operation on his own brain, and to be able to look at himself while the brain -- the organ with which he thought and could look at himself -- was operated upon. Now that's an extreme case of split. But I want you -- invite you to consider this very seriously, gentlemen. As long as you believe in nature, and as long as you believe in the human mind, you drive a wedge in the integrity of your own unity. I'm a flute, and my maker plays on it.

Mr. Wolfgang K”hler is a professor, who tries to objectify even his own body, in such an extent that while he is in danger of life, and is operated upon, he wants to look with the same organ on which the surgeon is now operating, you see, what the op- -- the surgeon is doing.

It's absolute perversion. But it is the Greek mind ideal, and it is your ideal. And that's why you can't love, but have -- only know sex. Sex is love, when you try to look at it. If it is -- if you are healthy, you just are in love, and all the rest is expression of this, articulation of this. But if you want to study love -- sex, buy {Hunter Bellow}, or some such interesting book, and you look at the situation. And you can't love, anymore. It's just a -- a -- dirty { }.

America -- this just goes rampant. People think that to -- to recommend nature is -- is a -- is to make a real recommendation, gentlemen. It's the destruction of your integrity. We -- when we are overwhelmed by a feeling, we -- we sing. Or when we are impressed by an experience, we speak. An historian is overwhelmed by an event, he must tell the story of World War I. And so then comes -- then Homer. That's the historian of the first great world war, isn't it? You see. But he didn't look at the world war. But the world war threw its waves into this man, and out of Homer came the -- The Iliad. That's how great works are written, testifying that this man is under the weather, that he's overwhelmed by the event, that he's under pressure.

The mind wants to be outside the pressure. You -- you wants to -- you want to stick your neck out -- so wide out that you are no longer under pressure. And then what you see, gentlemen, is a {liveness}, what you call nature, what Mr. Einstein describes as the universe. Thank you -- do you really think we could be alive if this is the universe, what the physicists describe us? This is nonsense. How can it be? Here I live, you live, gentlemen. And then we are told that -- that -- that we are electrons. Isn't that funny? Who can believe such stuff? Certainly not the physicists themselves. They go now into monasteries. They have nothing to do with electrons. They're running away from their own results.

But you believe all this nonsense, gentlemen. Nature is a self-made Buddha of mankind. We are all Buddhists in this sense. You all believe that what your mind has thought out, by getting outside reality, nature exists. It doesn't exist. God created obviously a lump of a {dizen} of a world, in which we are His eyes, and ears, and mind to speak it, to testify, to act, to unify. Obviously -- who are we, gentlemen? We are this one bacteria on this globe that has to make the -- the globe one. You can call -- compare us to -- to simple bacteria. But we -- we are doing something, hopping ma- -- around like mad, aren't we? Driven by some impulse that we must unite the globe. And we are doing pretty well, you know,

but only as long as you admit that we are forced -- you see, that's our destiny. We are meant to do this. We can't look at this thing from the outside. We are moving. We have just -- just as much a function on this globe as all other people. And the function is not to look at things, but to -- to perform. Just as a lion has -- has to eat and to roar, so we have to eat and to study. But to study is just as much a function of our fulfillment, it is not getting outside the world and looking at it. There is no way to get outside.

So this is the Greek creation, however, gentlemen, this -- illusion, that the mind can look at nature. Wherever you find the mind and nature, you find the Greek at work. There's another word by which you can recognize the Greek mind. It's now in La- -- in English in use, with the Latin translation. But it is the Greek principal. It's the word "principal." The word "principal," gentlemen -- in Greek it means arkhe. You have -- know the word "archaic," and the Greek word -- arkhon, the ruler of the city in Athens. Now arkhe means both rule and beginning. The New Testament, for example, in Greek reads, "In the beginning, was the Word," in arkhe. Arkhe.

You may take this down, gentlemen, as the Greek version, a-r-c-h-e [German transliteration], for the Latin word {prinsum}. A principle, gentlemen, is a compromise between the tribal pedigree and the astronomical experiences of the Egyptians. Principle is an abstraction, so to speak, valid for the return of the constellations in the sky, as much as the beginning of an ancestor's pedigree, you see: "In the beginning was Wodan," or Zeus, or Odin, or somebody, you see, or Romulus, and all the other Romans descend from Romulus. The name-giving hero is the principal of any Greek city, but also you understand we use "principle" now when you have a real, Roman conviction like Daniel Webster and you speak on -- by principle. Wherever you find a secular mind, the only thing he can defend himself with, or can reason things out is by principle. We stand on principle. One of the most funny standings I know. I wouldn't like to stand on principle, gentlemen, because then I would be dated. "Principle" is what I thought yesterday.

But this is a good American tradition, because in the 19th century, the world went Greek, tried to -- go as far in Greek thinking as possible. So the word "principle" is very famous among you. You think that you -- if a man stands on principle, he is very wise. Well, he is a Greek. The Greeks did stand on principle.

There is another similar word in Latin, which I may, for the fun of it, analyze, by which you can see how the Greeks -- and the Romans were only their stepbrothers, and their nephews, so to speak, they imitated the Greek -- how they tried to draw conclusions which would summarize the tribal and the Egyptian tradition. The word "origin" is a very -- funny composite. The first half of "origin"

has to do with the Orient. It means the sunrise, and it is clearly an -- hint at the orientation from the astronomical constellations in the sky. If you -- if you take the word oriri, which is -- of which "orient" is the participle, you see, it means to rise. So "ori-" is for -- taken from the ri- -- sun of -- rise of the sun. And you would expect then that "origin" points to the fact that we take all our principles, all our origins from the observation of the stars. That would be true of the Egyptian influence on Rome and Greece. Now you take the second half of the word, "- gin." It isn't gin, but it's in Latin g-e-n. And it comes from "genes," and from "genetics." It means to be begotten, to -- "genealogy" is the same word. And there you have a tribal root. And so the strange Latin language has, formed this compound in which the tribal motivation -- genealogy, and the Egyptian motivation -- sunrise, are juxta- -- juxtaposited, in a strange, hybrid form. The word "origin" certainly is one of the most interesting words, because it covers two layers of human thinking: sunrise thinking, so to speak; astronomical thinking, we would say, and genetical thinking, descent, you see, by birth, and by -- by marriage. And it says the true -- the origins of Rome is in both, because Rome has a temple which is oriented according to the sun and to the stars. But it has also a genealogical principle. You have to be born from Roman parents in order to be a Roman citizen.

So today, as you know, we speak very much of origins, not knowing, of course, how complicated the geology of this word is. The word "origin" is coined after these two worlds already existed: the tribal world and the imperial world. And it's a way of taking stock. Ma- -- things can be derived among people by origin means: they can come from tribal family rite, you see, from blood, or they can come from place. They can come from settlement, or they can come from migration. In both cases, we speak of the domineering principle as saying "originally," you see. And then come these -- these conquerors, these late-comers, these -- this third group, the Greeks, the Romans -- there are others -- the Galatians, the Celts -- and take over and penetrate into these empires, and -- and into these old tribal orders, and mix them. And this we call now, then, the addition to the original. What would you oppose to "original"? What is the op- -- the contrast to "original"?




I don't see that there any contrast in "eternal" and "original." Wie? What it would be -- I don't understand your logic, Sir. Would you explain? Why would "eternal" be against "original"?

(Well, because "eternal" would be without beginning, and "original" would have some beginning.)

Ja. I'm afraid, however, "eternal" is really the sun -- the eternal recurrence of the stars is much more of what we say with "eternal," you see. Never -- have no beginning and no end. That's what the Romans tried to say with their sunrise term. Their "original" meant, you see, set by astronomy and set by pedigree.

(Ultimate. Ultimate? Ultimate.)



Well, if I say, "He is an original poet," I praise him, don't I? And if I oppose this, what would you say of a poet who is not original?)




Very good. Excellent. Thank you very much. Eclectic, you see, having already a choice between things he hasn't himself created, he is not himself responsible for. No, Sir. That's too eclectic.

Pardon me?


When I prepared this, I'd just received a -- a book from Holland, quite unexpectedly. It hits in the { }, which just came out, and is written by a gentleman, van {Groningen}, who is a professor of ancient Greek in the University of Leiden. And it's called, In The Grip of The Past -- An Essay on An Aspect of Greek Thought. And to my amazement, he, so to speak, underpins everything I have here tried to tell you, and I have done it for years in a -- just in a special analysis of Greek style, Greek tragedy, Greek history. And he calls it In The Grip of The Past, but it is really, as he proves by his examples, more that it is in the grip of past and present.

When you read today of a book of a -- by a mathematician, by the famous Mr. Laplace, you can read this sentence, which is very Greek, that the past produces

the present, and the past and the present together produce the future. That's stupid, but Greek. And you don't know that it is stupid. There is no present in your experience. In your experience there is only future and past. And how then the past can produce the present, and the past and present together can produce the future, that's one of the necessities of the Greek mind, that has no future. There is no future. For the Jews, that is all nonsense, because the future conditions the present totally. That is dead in the present which cannot reach the future, and that is alive in the present that is already part of the future. So the future has already started yesterday, you see. And we remember only those things, gentlemen, as past that are already the cornerstones of the future. We have talked about this in the first half of the course. I come now back to this. We have already debated the Greek question before, you see, without telling you so. But I -- you all, I know, are Greeks; and you believe that Mr. Laplace didn't say any nonsense when he said that the present and the past together produce the future. God forbid, if the past and the present would produce the future; there was -- would be no future. Then there would be eternal recurrence, you see. There would never -- never anything new could happen. Mr. -- never could Mr. Laplace write a book on physics, because that's a new thing. You see, that has never been written before.


"Nature," "mind," "principle," "origin" are very simple, little words and in opposition to the great scenes of Homer -- The Iliad, for which I spoke last time, they may -- be -- have a sobering effect on you. This man here gives it even more harmless example. He says, whenever the Greeks says -- say -- use the phrase, "not yet," they mean "never, because they reason that what hasn't happened, cannot happen. Very interesting, that he proves this from Greek texts. In a chapter called "Language," he says, "Whenever the Greek writer says, `not yet,' he means to say, `therefore never.'" So that very often when you read this phrase, "not yet," in Greek it's {ou po}. Who knows this? {Craddock}, you know Greek, don't you? Is he here? No. Illustrious through absence.

So that "not yet" becomes "never," because -- Aristotle says in one place, "That what has happened can happen, but that what hasn't happened cannot happen." That's Greek logic. And that's what you call objectivity. You also prove -- for example, when I came to this country, they proved that America would be an obsolescent country by 1960, because the majority of the people would be over 45. So of course, as -- there was still a spark of life in this country, and so the prophets of doom had to be repudiated. Men are free even to get -- beget too many children, so they do. And so all the statisticians are wrong. But from the Greek point of view, that's not possible, because since, in 1935, the families were dwindling to always smaller and smaller size, the logic is, you see: it has not yet

happened that families increase again, therefore it can't happen. You must laugh at these statisticians, gentlemen. Before, you -- we are not safe in this country. You must wake up to the limitations of the Greek mind. And you must know that this is the curse of the objectiv- -- objectivity. Objectivity means that you yourself are not a factor in the life process.

A colleague of mine, I am told, in his class -- about marriage was asked what his idea about marriage is. He has said he had none. Well, gentlemen, then he shouldn't talk about marriage, if he has none. If he only reported other people's opinions on marriage, he is destroying marriage, because marriages, and all orders of humanity only live as long as every one of us contributes to their existence. The funny thing, you see, between a tribe or a family and nature is that you can rel- -- do relatively little to the Mont Blanc, but if you speak disparagingly about the religions, or your father, or your mother, and say that your mother -- that you want to sleep with your mother, or some such nonsense, then you destroy marriage. That is, there is not a word in human society, gentlemen, that isn't either destructive or life-giving. And there is not a thought in your head that is not either life-giving or destructive.

The illusion of the Greek is that he can declare all these things as -- to be natural, so that he is not committed. Doesn't exist, gentlemen. If you say, "Europe is a great civilization," you hope to make Europe exist. If you say, "Europe once was a great continent; now it's completely washed out. Look at France. Just dead," gentlemen, you condemn it. It dies because you say that it is dead.

Any statement about life, either increases the life or weakens the life. You cannot speak about living beings, gentlemen, as nature. There is no objectivity. Nonsense. Fortunately not. With every word you either call into being, or you execute. And these objectifiers, gentlemen, are nothing but killers, murderers. They may -- they may -- sometimes it is necessary to -- to kill. And some of the families which the analysts analyze just deserve to be killed, because they're dead. They're divorced. They are -- the father has a mistress and the mother has three lovers. Well, then it is better to tell the child that it has no parents anymore. I -- therefore, for sick families, psychoanalysis may be a good thing. For healthy families, it's murder. And you don't distinguish between -- two things. You don't know that Mr. Freud, after all, only practiced on -- on sick families, on families that didn't deserve to be saved. So you all go to the psychoanalyst and destroy your family, because you are weaklings. You want to be comforted because you are -- have some mishap in life. That's no reason to go to the psychoanalyst, and then help you to destroy the rest of the structure in which you live.

But you are all Greeks, gentlemen. You all take this liberty, and this shamelessness, because the Greek mind -- now comes the last thing -- is shameless.

When it comes to facts, they make no distinction between shame and non-shame. Now gentlemen, all living beings live only by postponing utterance, by attention, by patience, by waiting for the right moment to speak. If you say -- declare your love five minutes too early, she'll turn you down. You have to wait for the one hour in which it is right. Don't speak too early, and don't speak too late. And the same is true in politics. Any community has all the well-wishers and gooddoers always among them. But they are terrible, because they don't know when to act. They always wish for everything at once. That's not -- nothing gooddoing, gentlemen. The man who has reverence, or shame, says, "This may have to be said one time, but I still don't know when," you see.

So shame is nothing very moral, gentlemen. It is simply a deep immersion into the life process of the whole, inside which we live: the cosmos, the creation, the -- world, as I say. But not nature. As soon as you talk about nature, nature has no obliga- -- doesn't put any obligation for you for the timing. You go out into nature, you kill all the redwoods. You go out into nature, you go -- hunting. You -- you do as you please, because the rhythm, the time of nature and your time are not the same. You have your own time, your own principles. You want to write a book on nature, and make money off it, so why not describe nature? It may be very harmful to the elk, that you write a book. When the first book on Africa was written, you know, on the hunting of the -- elephant there, The Tiger, it made a lot of money, and it destroyed all the wildlife in Africa as a consequence. So if the man had -- had any decency, and any shame, he wouldn't have written the book, but it made money, went through all the editions. Now in a few years, there won't be any wildlife in Africa, because all the people from Chicago, driving in their limousines and shooting from the -- from the -- from the -- how do you call the board there, the --? And bang! Bang! Bang! All the tigers are gone.

Nature worship can also be nature destruction, gentlemen. But if you live inside the world, gentlemen, you do not distinguish between the tiger and your own existence. You are -- share the rhythm of this world, and therefore you are very careful not to give away the secret to people who don't deserve to know something. As you know, in your country here, you are very mentally sick because people travel in order to write a book. They go to the North Pole only in order to write -- shoot a movie. Then and -- that's the end of the world; {that's} the Greek mind running riot.

I had a -- knew a couple. They even called themselves my friends, I'm ashamed to say, who decided they needed money. So they had to do something extravagant. So they decided to climb the Alps from -- from Nice, from Monaco, from Grace Kelly, to Vienna, crosswise. Now all the valleys in the Alps run you -- north-south or east-west in the Fran- -- French part. And it is absolutely idiotic to traverse them, you see, in this manner. But it was -- nobody had ever done it, you

see. It was really original, in the Greek sense. And -- and so they {thought it} would be a bestseller. So they only made the trip in order to write the -- the exotic book.

Now ask yourself, how many of you are in the same predicament, gentlemen, that you do something for publicity's sake; that is, for exploiting the { } -- by putting it under the nose of other people? Whenever you do this, gentlemen, you go to Hell. Don't marry for the approval of your parents, or for the proof of anybody, for that matter, of course. There you have a very clear case. Anybody goes to Hell who goes -- who marries for the satisfaction of somebody else, for the approval of somebody else, you see. As you will admit. This is very simple -- looks very simple. But it is with all our other actions, gentlemen. You cannot do anything in order to make it known that you have done it. Can you see this? That's not a good reason for any action. If the action is not determined in its own value -- whether God alone sees it, or everybody else knows it -- you cannot act at all. Don't -- please omit the act. And certainly -- these scoundrels who went there across the Alps, it's a very minor topic. I -- therefore I mention it. They only reflect, gentlemen, millions of Americans today who do not think it wrong to act so that other people may know that they have done it. That's the whole story, gentlemen, in charities, and in going to church. It is wise -- it was wise that -- you have nearly probably forgotten it -- from between 1947 to 1952, it was socially wise to go to church. Now it's wearing off, obviously. It's no longer necessary. So now a decent person can again go to church, because it is -- he's no longer -- he's no longer mistaken for these social climbers, or these Social Security agents, who -- who don't -- who don't want to have a McCarthy on their -- doorstep.

But you learn to despise mankind when you live long enough, gentlemen. I have now seen these {weather vanes} operate in Germany and operate in this country, and go from one extreme to the other. One time in this country, you had to be a Communist; and the other time you had to be -- you had to be a -- a fascist. And I don't know, now you have to be a corporation lawyer. It is very dirty, gentlemen, when you see that men live only -- to make other people see that they do something. This is, however, inevitable, once you think that the -- mind can be the bystander of life.

I'd like to scrinch this Greek side of the picture, because then we will go over to the Old Testament -- again, by a story, which shows you the perversion of the mind very clearly, I hope. It was in the First World War, and we had -- I was at the front, and had been a soldier for three years. And of course, in the fighting lines, at that time, we had no air mail. We were very far away from home. And suddenly we woke up to the fact that the war was going bad. America entered the war, and so the Russian revolution broke out. And so even a simple lieutenant at the front woke up to the fact that something was happening politically

which was not very favorable. So I asked for and -- I was already a professor of public law, of constitutional law at home, so I felt my obligation to learn something, and to speak to people about my -- my worries -- I asked for a leave of absence from the front and I wa- -- went to Berlin. And I met a classmate of mine from school, who was in one of these safe positions in our Washington -- I mean, in one of these innumerable superfluous agencies, and you -- you see, the real rift in a war is between the front and the home. You love your enemy on the front, but you hate the people at home. And that has brought on much tragedy between the soldiers in Korea, as you know, and the American home front, and especially -- no, I won't say anything about movie stars.

But the gist of the matter was this room- -- classmate of mine was willing to -- to convene a meeting of the -- our generation -- I was 26 at that time, so -- people of that age, what they thought. There was a Russian revolution in Moscow, in St. Petersburg, and there were the Americans coming. And so what was Germany going to do? And we convened under the wonderful picture of the famous B”cklin -- painter B”cklin and -- still see this, in a very smug atmosphere, and all these civilians -- all these people -- we call them "reclaimed," you call them "4F" -- gathered. And I was the only man in uniform. And to my amazement, my friend who was in the chair, because he was the host of the -- at the -- of the occasion, said, "Let us have a debate now on what we shall do when the people make a revolution," because Russia, you see, world revolution -- it was, you see very much in the air. Lenin was already -- had just taken over. Very -- this was a very time. It was November -- beginning of November 4- -- '17 -- 1917. And the war was still going. You see, it was all tense. All in-between.

I was flabbergasted over this question. "What are you going to do when the people make a revolution?" And so everyone in -- in this -- in this most formal and solemn way said, "Well, if the people make a revolution, I guess I will join them."

And I -- at the end was asked myself and I said, "For heaven's sake. Where am I? I am here in uniform. I am representative of the German government as much as any general or as any president of the Uni- -- emperor. And I am the people. And you ask me, whether when the people make a revolution I would join them? The only question before me is: is it necessary for my -- for the sake of Germany to make a revolution, then I am going to make it, first. Or I'm against it. I'm for order and discipline, then I'll fight it. But to ask me whether -- if the people make a revolution I have to join them, is the whole question -- is it -- I can declare this to be a mob. Lawless people, gangsters, you see. Before I say "people," I must identify myself first. That's my judgment, my responsibility. And I can make a revolution single-handed. I don't need the mob for this."

They didn't understand, and I didn't understand them, and you don't understand. But -- but gentlemen, that is the rift between the Greek mind and the people. Nobody who belongs to the people ever asks such an idiotic question. It's an insane question, which the whole American intellectuals now ask. This whole intellectual group in this country deserves to be wiped out from the surface of the globe, because they all think that they have to look at the people and to study them, and observe their behavior, like Croatian folklore. I'm folklore. I'm a Croatian. I'm a peasant. I'm just as superstitious as anybody else. Therefore I can wake up from -- from my superstition. You all try to be intellectuals. You say -- you always talk about -- your papers, which you wrote for me, gentlemen -- you always talk about pagans. You are pagans as much as the -- you talk about folklore. You talk about superstitions. Gentlemen, you don't understand anything about life if you do not say first, "I'm superstitious." As long as you cannot identify yourself with the world as is, you see, and look at the rest of humanity as nature, you are Greeks. You are split, because you don't know the workings of your own mind. Aren't you full of superstitions? Wasn't it -- for two years ago impossible to be a Communist? Now it is very good fashion to take a ticket and go to Russia. Don't you know how superstitious that is? Aren't you all -- all victims of constant superstitions? The first thing a decent person says, is to say, "I am superstitious. I need myths. I live in a -- a mythology." No, but you are enlightened. You are Greeks. You look at everything. You are so clever, so intelligent, gentlemen, that you become -- have become the most stupid people on earth, because a person who says I -- that is not stupid, is certainly stupid. And a person who says that is -- he is not superstitious, certainly is superstitious.

You can only emerge from any part of your worldly existence by first searching that worldly part, and then you can diminish it, you see. You can become less superstitious. That's what we can do, you see. And the man who doesn't say that he is dependent on his parents, he cannot -- never conquer his freedom. If you are born with the conviction, "I'm independent," then you, of course, will -- well remain for the rest of your life at your mother's apron strings, as so many American boys, who deny that they are dependent on your mother, so they have to stay. But once you say, "Of course I am dependent" on your mother, you can break away. You can limit the dependency. But always first by assuming your -- servitude, your dependency, your par- -- being part and parcel of the existing order of the world. We are beasts. We are animals. Of course we are. But gentlemen, only to -- by saying this, we already begin to be able to -- to limit this influence. But you do neither. You want to be objective. So you either say cynically, "I'm a beast, don't change," or "I'm a free man." It's both nonsense. You are neither free nor beast. You are something very strange in between. And only by the admission that you are both can you determine the proportions.

But a Greek mind cannot do this, because he -- he has his -- this wonderful

mind outside the stream of -- of reality, and there is nature. And you think that you can look at nature, like my friend Wolfgang K”hler, and he's quite {betrayed}. He cannot. He needs a doctor who puts him under anesthesia, and who forbids him to look at -- at his own operation.

I think this -- my story is -- is -- if you think this through, gentlemen, this vote describes the curse of the intelligenc- -- intelligentsia, the intellectual, and then their -- their uselessness. People who, in a crisis of their country can only ask, "What am I going to do when the other people act?" they have ceased to be a member of this group. A healthy member, gentlemen, hurries to the place where something has to be done, perfectly under your own steam, under your own responsibility.

I could go on and enlarge on the story, what happened to all these men who were at this -- at this vote. I think I am the only man who survives. They all tried, of course, to -- to -- to imitate then other people. Most of them became then Social Democrats, and were all -- all -- all then got in trouble -- were shot by the Nazis. They never were Marxians, but they thought the people were Marxians, so they had to join them. It never pays, gentlemen, to join another man's conviction.

So it's a story of the last 30 years, gentlemen, in -- in millions of people, which I've tried to condense in this little anecdote. This is not a private story. It is your story, too. Most of you would never have found out the gist -- the moral of my story. You would have thought that it was -- is quite a normal question: What do I do when the people make revolution?

If you are a real patriot, you would only -- if you -- real patriotic, gentlemen, you would only be afraid to come too late. I mean, usual to have -- either you are the first make revolution, or you are the last to fight it. You can be a -- in -- you see, you can either adhere to the ancien r‚gime, or you can be the -- the -- the -- the {stormy} people of the next order. But just to stand by and wait where the other people run, gentlemen, that's absolutely despicable. And I assure you that these people make themselves superfluous. Such people are not needed in the world. God -- God's economy has absolutely no place for these people, except as reporters in newspapers, or commentators, or broadcasters. But these are superfluous people, too. I could do very well without all the broadcasters of the United States taken together and shipped to Antarctica. The world wouldn't change at all if you took all these commentators. They are perfectly -- they are locusts.

So have a break here.

[Tape interruption]

... in between. Therefore everything the Greek's mind tells you seems to be convincing. I have to plead with you to understand that you are in a very unique and special locality when you go to a college, or to a grammar school or to a high school. In all these classrooms, life is as bleak as these walls. You go into a family; there is the -- are beds, and there is a stove, and there is a kitchen, and there is a toilet, and there is real life, with all its implications of dirt, travail, sickness, danger, incidents, and accidents. And misery. And there may be starvation. The people may be unemployed. All this is blotted out here in this wonderful world of the mind, gentlemen. A classroom reflects the -- effort of the human mind to go it alone. We are here, so to speak, regardless of your shoulders, your bowels, your stomach, your legs, and your arms. It's all the brain. Therefore, you emphasize, of course, your power of understanding foreign lands, other people. The other{ness} for you is nature. The otherness is -- is something outside of you. And you -- once you get this habit of pluralism, you have a hard time to understand that you suppress what they call now {depth} psychology -- brings this very clearly out, that you simply dispress -- repress, suppress all your immediate loyalties, all your immediate responses, all your unconditioned surrenders to your mother influence, to your sweetheart, to your professional ambition, to all your prejudices, gentlemen.

So long have you been told that you should wipe out your prejudices that it's high time that I invite you to -- to see the necessary prejudices, those prejudices by which we live. For example, one of your prejudices is that you should have something to eat. But a much more important prejudice is that you have somebody who -- must have somebody who loves you. The Greeks, you see, did not admit this to the mind. And so, while they were in their schools, they fell into this vice of substituting pederasty -- homosexuality for real love, because you couldn't be -- have this avocation of getting married, or loving a real woman, because you wanted to study. You wanted to -- to be scientific. Anybody who indulges in the over-exertion of the mind, of course, is plagued by his body in some form or other. But since he can't -- has divided his mind from the rest of his existence, calls it even disparagingly "body," or "material" world -- or the "world of the senses" as Plato calls it -- he dismisses his heart and his soul. And they go empty. And so he plunges for some sweetheart of the same sex. All pederasts, gentlemen, all -- all homosexuals, are victims of such mental hubris, of such mental arrogance, that the mind can get outside commitment and life and compare notes about the rest of the world.

Well, gentlemen, the mind is simply -- between my shoulders, it's only my mind. And my mind is subservient to my heart, and my loyalties, and my mind is subservient to the needs of my existence. And I do not trust my heart -- mind. I know too much what is wishful thinking. And most philosophies are wishful thinking. How else could it be? A man alone, gentlemen, who is not satisfied in

his needs, you see, of the whole person will, by his mind's arrogance, or his mental dreams, or his mental visions as you call it, will substitute all kinds of things. The Greek mind, therefore, gentlemen, says that the senses are unclean and the mind is clean, that the -- the brain, the mind, the thoughts, the life of the mind is pure, and that my body is impure.

The Jews say the opposite, gentlemen. And I think that every man in his reason says the opposite, that the only thing that is impure is the mind, and that the whole body is a wonderful creature, and is perfectly pure. It is terrible when I see today, gentlemen, you are all confused. You are all three-quarters Greeks. And you think that when you read in Plato, or by reports in -- by indirection in modern philosophy, that you have to accept it, just uncriticized, that really, your body is unclean, and that your reason is divine. And I have never seen a divine reason so far, gentlemen, but I have seen divine beauty in bodies, and I have seen divine hearts, and divine souls. The mind -- most people I know, gentlemen, are stupid. Lazy, prejudiced, blind, wishful thinking. I have never seen a pure mind, and I don't wish to see a pure mind. We are not pure minds. That's the least important thing about us. But we have pure-hearted people, gentlemen, fortunately among us. And most bodies, if they are chaste, should be pure. But of course, if you send all the girls in the country to the liberal arts college, you cannot expect their bodies to be very pure.

I'm very serious, gentlemen. You have to reverse all your -- all your adjectives, before you can understand the world of the Bible. In the Bible, the only folly is committed by the mind. Otherwise, man can walk -- can be with his creator, if he follows the wisdom of his heart. And the problem of the Devil on earth is to whisper into your ear that your mind can be separated from the body.

When Abra- -- Adam goes through the garden in Eden, it's a very simple story, gentlemen. It is not a myth. It is simply the shortest way of expressing your own predicament and my predicament. Adam and Eve have done something together which they were not expected to do. Whatever that is, is absolutely indifferent to the story. And the first thing the mind whispers into the ear of Mr. Adam is to say, "I didn't do it. She did it."

And the lady, of course, says, "The serpent did it."

That's what the mind can do: get yourself out of your immediate responsibility. Somebody else has done it. Don't you know that this is the beginning always of every world war? Somebody else is at fault. Or of the Jews -- the persecution of the Jews by Hitler -- the Jews have lost the war, not we.

Always when you say somebody else did it, gentlemen, your mind tries to get

outside the loyalties of life itself. We are deeply immersed in anything what happens ourselves, totally. And the only -- the way in which Adam could have solved the question, you see, put before him was that, "Of course, I did it. I should have been stronger than my wife. I was, after all, the husband, and according to the old theory, the husband is the head of the family. I forgot that, and -- and she, you see -- and I'm sorry." Instead, he said, "She did it." That's the whole story.

Wherever you have companionship and unity, gentlemen, you break up the paradise, the Heaven on earth, when one of them dissociates himself from the responsibility and says,"I did not do it. Somebody else did it." This is very simple, and we do it all the time.

Now the whole Biblical tradition, gentlemen, against the objective mind says this one sentence, gentlemen: "Nobody can be saved unless everybody is saved." It's the story of the solidarity of the human race. The Greeks say, "We go to Persia, and we go to Egypt, and they are foreign. And look at them. They are barbarians." The Greek word for the -- for the natural world among people is "barbarian." Therefore they are dismissed. You call them "uncivilized," or you call them "primitive." It's another way of getting out of your responsibility for the red Indians. They are primitives, so what else can they do? They must die. Take away their land, push them on these miserable reservations, because they're after all primitive people. What do you expect? They don't know how to play on the stock exchange.

A -- a friend of mine had to serve with Bavarians on the Balkan front in the First World War and they were all- -- I mean, we were allies then, at that time, of the Bulgarians. And now the Bulgarians are ruddy peasants, and the Bavarians are ruddy peasants. And there -- in my friend's eyes, there wasn't much difference between the two contingents and he like them both. And he asked his own troop -- were the Bavarians -- "Now, my dear friends, tell me," he was a sergeant -- staff sergeant, "tell me, why don't you like the Bulgarians?"

And they said, "They have no culture."

And he was very much surprised, because he thought the Bavarians had no culture. But he said, "Now, you think this over. That's nonsense. You tell me what you really mean. These Bulgarians are wonderful people. They are courageous soldiers. They are brave, honest, frugal. Why don't you like them?"

So, after much deliberation, next day they came back and said, "Staff Sergeant. We know it. They have no culture; they don't drink beer."

That is, by and large, gentlemen, the way in which we always get out of our solidarity with other groups. They don't drink beer. So Adam got out, of course, because he had a wife on whom he could put the blame.

The Jewish mind is a very subdued mind, because the Bible opens with a story against the mind. The Bible is written against the mind. The Greek story is written for the mind. And the two pleading -- the Bible tries to plead for the heart against the mind. And the Greek says, "Even the heart must be subdued to the object divine. Even our womenfolks must be substituted -- must be replaced by male sweethearts or by prostitutes, because we -- the mind comes first. We are great scholars. We are great geniuses."

I knew a girl here in this country. I saved her from suicide, as a matter of fact. She was so Greek that she said, "Well, Verlaine had to murder his -- or tried to murder his father-in-law, because he wrote such a wonderful poem afterwards. And since we get this wonderful poem, it was worth the assassination." That's the Greek mind, you see. Defen- -- in defense of high art and performance, you first must have the sensations of Monsieur Baudelaire and his Fleurs du Mals or a Mr. Proust. Since we have a lady present, I can't tell the story of Proust.

You become a pig so that you can write an interesting book on pigs. The Jew says it isn't worth it. Even the best-seller on pigs shouldn't be written.

This is a constant battle. And therefore you see that today it is not outside. You have no longer definite institutions of peoples. You have no longer Jews and Greeks, but you have the college and the Church. In many ways, they have now taken over this role, that they replace, you see, the influence of the Bible on the one hand, where the mind is put in his -- its place, subordinate to the -- your real loyalties. What can you do for curiosity's sake, gentlemen? The Greek answer is: everything. And the Jewish answer is: nothing. Curiosity is out, the Bible says. there is curiosity, there is a curse. Curiosity is not good enough. If you want to save lives and you may -- must go into -- into vivisection -- anatomy, then it must be predicated by a real, wholesome profession of -- of medicine. But if you discover, as they did the 17th century, the power of arsenic, as you know, of arsenic, you know, Lace -- what is this famous play?

(Arsenic and Old Lace.)

Wie? Old Lace and Arsenic. In the 17th century in Paris, they were all murdered by arsenic, because the chemists, just for curiosity's sake, had in- -- had discovered this poison, and they sold it to all the aristocracy, you see, to get rid of their worst enemies. And there's a famous novel by -- Madame de Scud‚ry on this -- on these trials against the arsenists. You see, that's curiosity first running

riot and then doing with it what you please, not under the discipline of a medical science. You don't now, gentlemen, that we live, after 300 years of a harsh struggle, that all the medical experiments should be under control and devoted -- dedicated to a purpose. And all the time again the curiosity-seekers try to get out of control. Take the Salk vaccine. It should {not} have been applied. It's too early. Curiosity, sensation, newspapers {brought} so much pressure on this poor man that it was used too earlier, and so the people get the -- now polio when they are vaccined -- vaccinated. Just had an -- today a telephone call that this has happened to a friend of mind, his -- his son, his only child. Why? The Greek mind. It's just doing something for publicity. Terrible. When this was invented, a friend of mine who has some experience in these things said, "It is obviously too early. You cannot have a vaccine." This was before anything was done with it, by the way, "You cannot have it. It takes more -- some more years. I just know this. It's wrong." But the Greek mind, you see, having not this discipline of -- of making it really serviceable, but having only the sensation of knowing something -- we always go to pieces, always.

The Bible, gentlemen, freed man by in- -- in- -- insisting that he could rest. The mind is restless. The Jew- -- Bible begins, as I told you, with the Sabbath. And I want to say now a word about this -- this strange principle of the Jewish faith, or the Biblical faith, because it is of course today a universal faith. It is no longer limited to the people who call themselves -- who are born as Jews. It is our own general heritage to know that we are outside the constant maelstrom exemplified in our body mostly by the -- in -- restless working of the mind. The mind cannot rest. It is bored. You have always to feed it new things. You read the newspaper as an argu- -- as a proof that the mind needs constantly new, whole forests from Canada. Every Sunday, we consume a big forest in Canada, just for curiosity's sake, because the mind cannot stand still. Now, as you know, the Jews have done everything to eliminate this curiosity at least one day a week. The English Sabbath is still an example. All Americans, and Germans by the way, too, poke fun at the English because they are -- must be so bored on Sundays. They actually do not do any thinking on Sundays. That's quite an achievement, gentlemen. There are no -- there are no sensations. There are no news. There are no records. There are no -- were no games, you see. You can hardly understand such a Sunday. It was an absolute negation of everything you call a good time, because the Sabbath is not having a good time. It is having time. That's the opposite from having a good time.

Having time, so that you can free yourself from all the humdrum and all the cluttered-up -- cluttering-up debris of yesterday. How is this done, gentlemen? There is one secret, which you find in no book, strangely enough, never mentioned. Theologians are {poor livers}. They are all Greeks. Theology is another way of looking at religion from the Greek schoolboy standpoint, for -- ready for

examinations. What you call theology, gentlemen, is an attempt of the Greek mind to dominate our faith. Ja. You'll find out about this, Mr. Davis, when you go to Union. That's just a Greek place.

What's the difference? The Sabbath pays no attention to the life of the family, or to the life of the heavens. One item in the Sabbath is so very strange, it rolls across the years. All former calendars and all later calendars -- especially the calendar now recommended by the American Chamber of Commerce at this moment -- tries to squeeze the Sabbath and the week within the year, so that at every January 2nd, let us say, that would be a Monday, because the 1st of January would always be a Sunday. The provocation of the Hebrews, by which they are -- have created all their hatred against them, is that they say frankly, that their Sabbath defies the astronomical and the family calendar, because one year it will be Friday on January 2nd, and the next year it will be Thursday, and the next year it will be Wednesday. Now, you say, "Well, I'm not interested. Is this important?" Gentlemen, it's terribly important. It was the Magna Carta of Israel, that against the Babylonian, or Egyptian, or Roman, or Greek nonsense of calendars made in the sky by observation from the -- from the observatory, man's freedom was guaranteed, that regardless what was in the sky, and always on a different day, the Sabbath, on a -- I mean, regardless against the -- which constellation prevailed, the Sabbath came against the New Year, against the holidays. I've made you write on the holidays. You know how adamant they are with their -- with their date. Not one of you, in writing on the Sabbath, has noticed that the Sabbath cuts across all these niceties of 4th of July, and 14th of July, or 5th of November or -- because it is every year a -- quite a different day that has to be celebrated. Don't give this up, gentlemen. You don't under- -- the chambers of commerce are very diabolical. They sell you this with regularity. And they tell you how wonderful -- 50 years from now, you already know on what day Easter -- will be. It will be always on the same day every year. As soon as you agree to this, you will be slaves to superstition. The -- chambers of commerce in this country are the most superstitious in- -- institution in the world. They even believe in the business cycle. They believe in everything that's Egyptian.

Now it is very hard for you at this moment to believe me, gentlemen, that such a small thing as the going-on of the Sabbath, across the -- the walls, or the frontiers, or the end and the beginning of a year could contain any element of political or moral freedom. But I assure you, it was only in this -- in -- suggestive and small manner that they could worm their way into these big empires. Think of the small group of Jews, living now for the last 2,000 years in all these empires, you see, with all their superstitions. And they lived already long before Christ came, you see, in -- in Egypt, in Rome; we find them there in thousands. It is only by this little bit of the Sabbath-freedom, that they could fight astrology, all the superstitions of the horoscope, all these tremendous celebrations when the

emperor of China published his edict every year, that the works, you see, of the flood and so on, would condemn everybody to do this, as his grandfather had done, from time immemorial, without any change.

So small are the -- is the dynamite, gentlemen, that blows up a big castle, that simply this is the difference between a Babylonian week, and a Jewish week. You see in many books -- they are all of course written prejudiced by the so-called Greeks. They are agnostics, they are -- they are of course all on the Greek side, that after all the Jews only took a habit from -- Babylon or another, and imitated their week. Gentlemen, there is only this very small difference which is the difference of the whole -- two worlds, that in Babylon, they celebrate every 10th day, but every New Year, the whole calendar begins again. The same was, by the way, the case in Mexico. You see, the New Year begets the order of the whole year. And therefore it's all dependent on priesthood, it's all dependent on a clergy, and on an emperor, a priest-emperor. And the individuals are simply part and parcel of this cosmic juggernaut which comprises them. But in the Jewish Sabbath, you are made independent from all observation, and you know, they went so far that even the New Moon had to be observed, because they didn't want to have any observatories, any -- any religious astrology.

The whole uncertainty about the Jewish year comes from this very empirical attitude, that they said, "We have no priests, we have no Egyptians, we have no Roman priesthood. We look at the sky, and if it is a new y- -- a new moon, we'll have it shouted out." As you know, every New Year's Day in -- in -- in Biblical tradition had to be observed actually in the sky, quite afresh, regardless of any writing, of any -- of any scientific astrology, of any horoscope, and then the messengers rode as fast as they could to all parts of the Mediterranean world proclaiming, "Yes, this year again, God in His great mercy, has really allowed the moon," you see, "to be regenerated. Therefore we can celebrate the New Year's Day." And so the Jews kept their -- their -- what we could -- would call their nose to the grindstone, or their grassroots down -- and they never got off -- allowed never their real existence as creatures on this earth to be lifted up into these lofty speculations of scientific men, of astronomers, or of any such physicists, or psychoanalysts, or what -- whatever you have today taking the place of these tremendous systems of ancient thought, which tell the living what they have to do, because it is written in the stars somewhere, or it was written by -- done by our ancestors. The Israel says, "We live in the future. We still wait for the coming of the Lord. He hasn't come yet. We believe in the Messiah." And therefore the Sabbath is the pawn in this whole game, that they believe in the future.

Sorry, I have to end. My story just begins.