{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this main, { }, he lived openly to the various { } sta- -- stages of life, admitting that { } philosopher alone, that -- and he -- wasn't simply a writer. You mustn't think of him as a writer. But again he felt that after Christ he was { } tried to live out the full life of 80 years in its variety, in its ad- -- contrast- -- contrasting and contradictory stages to the full.

And under this impact, you must understand, did he grow up -- as I think that America is at this moment in a situation in which he begins to grasp that against the mechanism of the production here, you yourself have to become organic substance. You and I, we are garden soil -- we are topsoil. If we can think of yourself as willpowered or as mind, will all have to go the analyst and end in a lunatic asylum { } philosophy of despair. You can only thrive if you know what thriving means. And "thrive" means to be planted, to be rooted, to be organic, and to be patient with oneself, and to give oneself time so that one thing follows after the other. One step. And I feel it in a -- in a -- in a world -- { } in a world of minerals, a world of -- of jets and -- and th- -- this empty stratosphere. The only -- the only harm -- the only organic substance that's left are we ourselves. Your brain is -- is not mind and will, but it's organic substance that has to be cultivated and irrigated like any orange grove. And it must bring -- its fruits to -- in its season.

So for example, I think the great { } that comes over our time at this moment is that here in this country--I mean Europe, by the way, too--people have cultivated the child prodigy, for 150 years. Do it faster, that's better. Now I hope we all {feel} that this is horrid, a child is ruined { } coming too fast, that God is with the slow more than with the fast. And -- as long as you allow people to go to college or -- at 16 or 15, I think they are completely wrong. { } of this -- at this most unhappy { } Mr. Norbert Wiener, the famous inventor of the IBM, was allowed to go to Harvard at fif- -- 14. And graduated at 17; and of course, he never grew up. So his brain is tremendous, but the rest of the man is -- is despicable.

And this child prodigy business may -- may signify to you: what we already were exposed to as a counter-attack, the -- as an attempt to live slowly. And in this connection--initiation, some form of hardihood, some form of decision, Sir, that's your { } -- what I am trying -- to which I am now trying { }, you see, between the age of child or adolescence and manhood, offered itself as absolutely necessary. And I don't think what we should do with the -- with juvenile delinquents in this country, except initiation. If you do not demand a -- a period of hardihood, you see, and -- and I mean, {of}--how do you say?--proving

themselves {to} these children, they -- they'll always -- we all -- we would be juvenile delinquents just ourselves. And -- I wonder that there are so few. Juvenile delinquency is the -- is the necessary result of our society, because -- children are allowed or asked to live from day to day. Now a child wants to grow. And a child wants to have a far future, and a long perspective. And you ruin any child if you give him too many presents, for example, for Christmas, then. It's ruined. A child must yearn. He must long. Otherwise, it cannot reach the next stage.

Now everything is done in our schools and in our education to make the children happy as of today. And if you do this -- if you enclose a child into such a wonderful candy box as of today, he goes to pieces. He believes nothing. And that's what all our system of education at this moment does.

Now the -- the problem however is, if you can -- a tribe, like a red Indian tribe, or if you have our modern society of 6 million people living in Los Angeles, you will think of this initiation of something of a communal nature. You will say, "Well, the boys must go to camp together," or "They must go roam the Rockies," you see, "Or they must prove themselves in { }." However, when I grew up, the -- the individualistic era {grew -- grows}, which {draws} from the French Revolution and the Declaration of Independence to the world wars. That is, everybody is his own, you see -- is the captain of his soul. So the -- Goethe's -- and -- solution was that the hardihood, this transformation from -- from careless youth to a conscious manhood would have to take place inside one single individual, without any concern with the -- with the social needs, perhaps, of the community, like warfare, or like -- exploration, or going West-- you see, pioneering. In a -- in a closed-in country like Germany, with very narrow, you see, boundaries, we had to think up something which posed the question inside the human mind, totally, you see.

And so his solution was that he wrote the Werther, the famous Werthers Leiden, the book which accompanied Napoleon still when he was a young man on -- in his campaigns, was that Werther commits suicide, and thereby establishes the barrier between carefree youth and manhood by saying, "Here comes the point of decision: at 20, or 23, or 24, you have to make up your li- -- is the life worth to be lived? Then if -- it is wrong if you face reality and {feel not} up { } eliminate {yourself}. And you can hardly understand this fact that in our country, every young man was seriously exposed to the temptation of suicide, for 150 years since the Werther was written in 1770. And it was the same in Europe--but perhaps more in Germany, because this was Goethe's country. And whereas in this country, businessmen at 45 and 50 very frivolously blow out their brain with a pistol -- revolver--and this is quite common here--we were asked to make this decision 25 years earlier. And most of us, of course, decided then, you see, we would throw away our revolver or we wouldn't play with the dagger. We

wouldn't say, "Oh, if the worst happens," you see, "I can always go." But we would learn at 20 or 25, whenever this happened -- this maturing process, then we had reached this line of temptation, or this borderline -- boundary line, and we had decided that this was the will of our maker, and we would not longer be tempted. We would not commit suicide anymore, even in the face of bankruptcy, or indeed of -- of venereal disease, which was a great curse at that time, or all the other curses that come -- a man -- come on a man and woman in their years of change. You all know that women suffer, but I assure you that man of 45 and 50 is in exactly the same predicament as a woman who loses her physical beauty at that time. A man loses his -- his -- his imagination. He has -- he has seen all the pictures, and it's very hard to live a second life from 45 to 80 in repeating, you see, and always knowing that once before, you have done this already. This is the trouble, the difficulty of old age, you see, that nothing is quite -- and here in this country, think they can go on with novelties, tiger-hunting in -- in Africa. But the answer is that the Negroes will shoot them, I hope very soon.

I met such a -- Chicago tycoon out in Egypt, who -- who was driving down to she- -- shoot lions and elephants in Central Africa. This was eight -- nine years ago. And I would have liked to shoot him. But why has he to do it? Was 60, had too much money, and he had seen all the pictures; so you had just to go to the next flavor, you know, the next in- -- ingredient, and the next spice. And anybody who, after 45, is anxious, or curious, is not a man, is not a {sage}, is not a {wise man}.

And so -- here, this country couldn't live--the travel bureaus--unless this wasn't an American vice. And at 45, still be keen to go places, which I think is absolutely ridiculous. It's the time of becoming a hermit. It's the time for laying down roots. And it's certainly not the time for going 15 times to Rome and see -- make the pope. But I know too many of these people. They are people who have never grown up, you see, who still try to keep younger than 20, because at 20, you do discover: why shouldn't you?

You must know that -- on your generation lies the terrible burden, gentlemen, for -- I assure you this is from long experience, and many troubles that I tell you this: you are the first generation that has to advocate the forms of mature life, which is very hard on you, but which { } done by -- be done by a { }, although you aren't old, you have to think for this problem how to get old. -- Because the old know. They are either in old-age pensions, or in homes, you see, rotting, or they are fools who -- d‚collet‚ at 76. I have seen a woman of 76 here, belonging to the { }, and making love to Harvard students. And I mean love. And all of this passes here, without -- without any outcry.

So this is quite serious, you see. Since the -- this -- since we were individu-

alistic, since everybody--all philosophy of the 19th century was, that salvation had no -- to be found by the private people, you see, by your -- in your own soul, and inside yourself--since there was in Germany not much occasion, so to speak, to -- do this by -- by exploration, and -- and pioneering in the West, or whatev- -- what we say in a narrow country, the temptation was to judge yourself and decide whether you -- were found wanting or not. And in my own class, we were 12 people graduating; after the first six years, three had committed suicide.

And so this is practical, gentlemen; there's just this -- as historical --. That's not a theory I'm talking of. And my teachers would tell me in Gymnasium--that's your junior college--that we risk boys, lest we not get men.

And so the -- the losses in the universities in this -- in numbers of people who went to pieces in -- in many ways, not all suicide--you can wound yourself in other ways--was -- it was, I would say 36 percent. And we had no pity. And we didn't care for the -- lowest common denominator, and the feeble-minded didn't get any privileged treatment, you see. It was quite the opposite idea. It was "Prove -- yourself," you see; and if you fall through the net--well, I mean--there is no other way of selection.

You may call it cruel, and you may it call it {heroic}, and you may call it stupid, I mean. But I'm descriptive. This is what happened. Now Kleist, you see, belongs to this first generation, who tried to establish such a way into reality. And Werther, who had been written 25 years before he wrote this -- Werther is the story of a young man who falls in love. And since his -- his love is married -- engaged to somebody else to marry, you see, he then eliminates himself from the contest. And it made all over Europe an incredible impression. I do think that the country here, America with its -- frontier, it had no reason to establish these inner processes. At that time, you became a man by just being exposed to the demands, you see, of life, here. And for this reason, I think it's -- was never thought necessary. But since the frontier has disappeared, and you are all now in this inside situation of schools, and examinations, and camps, and protection, I think you -- for the first time, there is perhaps a reason to mention, you see, this -- this strange arrangement of the European mind, and trying to -- to place this decision, you see: is life worth living? Is this beyond your own plan, you see, and exposing yourself to the dangers and the judgments of -- of providence, is this -- do you have the stamina? You will have to introduce {in} your lifetime { } -- the last 15 years will have to find rites of initiation for the young. Otherwise you will absolutely find that all the good children must become delinquents, because what you ask them to live for and -- with is too poor. And if they have anything -- you see, either they'll be feeble-minded as some when they obey all these orders: {"Keep right,"} and -- and so on, and the good ones will -- will take to murder and -- and -- and perjury, just in order to have something to do.

And don't be betrayed, I mean. You may -- you -- you do not allow -- I have a -- in my own village, I've--perhaps I told you this--I have a Boy Scout group. I told you this, perhaps. And there is a woman, weight 250, who -- who has the effrontery of taking out these 13- and 14-year-old boys. Of course, she's a busybody, and -- daughter of the -- our senator of our state -- I mean of -- of the -- sen- -- American Senate, so she's a prominent person. And nobody thinks he can deny her this -- this ruinous activity. But she'll destroy of course the fiber, and the sta- -- normal stamina of these boys. They must be with men at that age, don't you think? You have women teachers. And the -- they're {revolting} -- the boys -- but the good boys {must drink champagne} very often. They must have gangs.

This is all again contained in this story, you see, that Kleist, he's a -- in order to mark off certain boundaries of decision, of life, it only takes a few. It isn't necessary that -- that {a million} commit suicide, if the man is {hopeful}. Now Kleist is very famous, you see, wrote very great poetry. And so his fate, of course, stands out like a beacon in the sea. But as you need beacons in a stormy sea, so that your -- ship doesn't go against the rocks, so I assure you, the -- the negative lives lived are not one. These people do not stay condemned. They -- they -- are victims, you see, for our sake. And in this sense, Kleist is a mighty figure, because all my life I have known { }, and yet fully understanding why, you see. The double influence of such a person is great, because I have always lived with such markers on the map of life, you see. And I -- there's Nietzsche, who went insane. There is H”lderlin, who went insane. I have always felt that these people became insane lest I had to go, you can understand.

And -- and therefore, I speak with reverence of this very unhappy and miserable man, you see, because--it's more complicated, by the way, I mean--he wanted so much to grow up...

(and prove himself --)

...yes, that -- that he { } tried. He was never married, was very unhappy in his sex life, obviously, and -- many mysteries about this. But not very savory ones. And so he wanted to take somebody else with him, who, when he had become a man, who could make one { }. Because "manhood" means, of course, founding, you see, a company, founding a household. He never got married. He never was able to convey his passion to any one other person, but he was burning inside all the time. He was -- I mean, read his poetry, it's just a -- over -- overwhelmed with -- with sens- -- sensuousness and passion { }.

So he {firmly} persuaded an equally miserable woman to take his -- their -- her life with -- together with him, although they were not in love at all. There

was no -- but it was an attempt to prove that he had founded a household, at least in {despair}. And his -- {his -- some} common bond in reality { }. A very strange story. And I won't go into all the details; I have written it up, I mean. And I've compared it to Hitler's suicide with this strange person, Eva Braun. He never consecrated his marriage, but he was quite incapable { }. But he had to have as his legal wife {a person}, you see, and whom he had to take down with him in order to show that he was not just the fanatic of his youth--which he really had remained, you see, a youthful person, a childish person--but then he was superior. It's very -- it's the same thing. So at a distance of 130 years, you know, Kleist and Hitler frame this epoch in which suicide was an important feature of Central Europe { }. It was a -- also in France.

This country is -- is very, very strange. But the impurified death motive, which you now {read of in the -- } from the analyst, that there is a desire, you see, for destruction and for death in every man. We all can commit suicide. No animal can, you see. It's the limit of our freedom, self-destruction--very strange thing--which pervades many people who have self-pity, for example. Anyone has -- element of this destructive, you see, desire to destroy himself, inside himself. We -- this -- this strange ambivalence, which only means that man is really free, because he can turn against himself at various points, and goes in this country completely unsil- -- un- --how do you say it?--un- -- without a sieve, without a { } -- filter, you see; "unfiltered," I would call it.

I have known so many suicides in the best Bostonian family -- that I -- it's appalling. But there it comes not as a moral problem, but it just { }, it just happens. It's never taken up as the -- the -- that one element which proves to a man that he -- is at the turning point of his own vision, that he can go one way or the other. And { } don't be frightened by my -- by my description of suicide. It is the highest moment in anyone's life, when he learns, you see, that his life { } cannot { }. And most people in this country never reach this maturity, but they come { } into life and say, "No."

And Shakespeare speaks of those bournes -- you know, in Hamlet. He has the word "bournes" for the boundaries of life: b-o-u-r-n-e-s. That's just an older form, I suppose, of "boundary." Anybody knows the {statement}?

("Whence no traveler returns.")

Well, it -- it is when Hamlet thinks of suicide himself, I mean. In Shakespeare, you have this moment of -- of consideration.

Only to show you how important this is for this country at this moment. Ja? You'll forgive me this -- digression, I know. But it has a little bit to do with the

Bible, because it is the acceptance of the creature in us, you see, who is not his own master. Of course, that's the whole story of Samuel, if you think of the good woman -- the mother of Samuel, it's exactly her -- her position. The whole Bible is written around this fact that we cannot commit suicide. All Gentiles commit suicide and don't think it's sinful. It is only in the -- Judaism that it was created -- you see, considered a lack of faith in God to commit suicide. And today I think this country is going pagan, in as far as I find more and more people ready to help people commit suicide.

I have a dear friend. She's one of the nicest woman -- women in the community. And we had a terrible argument. She for a while didn't speak to me, because I said, "You can't do that." A man can -- a student or so in college, or a professor--we had two cases of suicide there. And I said, "Prevent it."

And she said, "Oh no. If such a boy is in despair, I have to help him to do it."

That's paganism. I'm not asking so much the question about the candidate for suicide himself, as about the society, you see. As long as you admit that you have to prevent a suicide, you are in the -- you are in the { }. As soon as you say, as -- as in the case of a -- any Roman general, or a Germanic general or -- "Help me to die," like the sword-bearer has to present the sword, you see, to the hero so that he can kill himself before he's made a prisoner, you are -- that's paganism. There is -- that's the div- -- one dividing line and since 1800, the advocates of sui- -- legitimate suicide have been growing all the time. And it is very hard for you, I think, to realize that this was out of the question.

Suicide, I have tried to study the sources about this. It's very hard to find any material. Suicides have been, but they have been hushed up. Whereas since 19- -- 1800, it's been spectacular, you see, I mean. And the press is going out for it more and more. And -- so a dear friend of mi- -- ours, a Britisher from Jamaica, was a professor at Dartmouth College, for 20 years. He had grown up in an orphanage, in a neighborhood, and had gotten an American education. But he had -- kept the sensitivity of an English boy, and so never was very happy. He had reached the age of 50 without marrying. And now he fell in love, or somebody else fell in love with him, {as it is}. And she persuaded him to become engaged to marry. And he didn't feel up to the occasion and was driven to despair, felt trapped, didn't know how to get out of it.

And he lived the last year of his life at our house. So we know a little about -- and he felt that in his -- and I think we -- we -- we helped him for one year to -- not to be driven to the extremes. But then he went to Canada; as an Englishman, he had relatives there. And -- the next day our student paper had

the effrontery to have a headline, "Mr. Henderson Dead -- Death Was by Hanging; It Was Suicide" -- as a headline in a student paper.

And this shows you that suicide is not understand -- -stood as a spiritual problem of all of us, just as an outer event, as a -- like crime -- in a Hearst paper -- paper. Now if a community, like a Dartmouth College or your college, is visited by such an event, the first reaction must be: "Here, but by the grace of God, goes John Bradford." You know what John Brad- -- Bradford said, "{ } went somebody else." And the first feeling about such a suicide must always be: "Preserve me from not being led into this temptation." And then you couldn't have such a headline. You understand, because you would identify yourself with your teacher, or with your student { } {would} find a -- quite a different expression of -- of discomfort or mourning. And that's the essence of mourning, {gentlemen}, you see, that you feel that -- it's our own fate that's { }. That's why instead you have this denial of mourning here with this famous Forest -- Cemetery. Or what is it called? Wie?

(Forest Lawn.)

Because there death is simply denied; so you don't have the Lord. "By virtue of the power invested in me by the trustees of this cemetery, I hereby declare you to be immortal." This is the -- the -- the -- the paradise -- the fool's paradise in which you try to live today. By abolishing death, you see, you spare yourself all these lessons of other people's death -- of suicide.

And to round this picture out, I mean, this is the story -- at Dartmouth College. One is: "Death Was by Hanging." The second is: this good woman, Mrs. {Taylor}, who said that she of course would help any student who wanted to commit suicide, that was her sacred duty. And the third thing is: my own class--I gave a course in universal history--a boy got up at the beginning of the class and said I shouldn't talk about the Church or anything { }, because after all, Jesus had committed suicide. And I learned that this is the Nazi way in which it's very rampant in New Jersey, and therefore the Nazis are victorious in this country, and they are in many states, as you know. And it's much Nazism in this country, at this moment. And so this is a very -- summary of this new paganism: Jesus committed suicide.

Now that wasn't the whole story. I was furious, And said so. And -- then the -- the same class went on. And at the end of the class, there was another occasion for him to make a remark. And so the same boy from New Jersey got up and said, "Well, after all, Adolf Hitler has sacrificed himself for his nation."

Now grant you, this is -- the two sentences, you see, of course correlate,

fits in. It's like saying that Mr. Hoover already did the whole -- New Deal. I mean, that's just -- that's a Republican {poison} in a small way; -- it's a similar way of turning the tables, you see, putting A where B belongs, and B where A belongs. Obviously Mr. Hitler in despair had to commit suicide. There was no room for him on this continent. And Jesus began His life, you see, through the Crucifixion, and has ever been alive after that. And that's why we -- you see, everybody knows this; everybody feels this. And in order to destroy the living Christ, you see, and in order to institute Hitler as a -- as having a future in his dogma, you have to say that Hitler sacrificed himself, because then he goes on living, you see, as John Brown, you see: "And his soul is living on."

Therefore, these expressions of suicide and -- and -- sacrifice are {important} -- even, you see, because -- I told you that Kleist, this man Kleist, or this Werther--the hero of Goethe's novel, you know this book, by name? that's a famous book, Werther, who's the hero--commits suicide. And they may treated as sacrificial if we say, "What not? This never." You see, if there are these markers, which say, "Here is the cliff, don't come nearer," you see, "to this abyss." In this sense, I feel that Christ is, you see, an honorable victim, because in Him then comes to a -- to an open -- into the open, you see, a temptation of everybody. And I must -- must warn you not to become Pharisees.

The -- there are three situations: suicide meaningless, and saying, "Here is -- I have come to the end of my rope." And you can say that the Nazis played away German statehood in 12 years, and therefore they always had to speak of the 4,000 years or of a thousand years ahead of them, you see. Just they gambled away exactly 12 years, which is quite a condensation of time, you see. The devil always sells short, you see. The -- what we call the devil, you see, nothing but the shortening of the time that anything real takes. You marry for your life. And you rape for the moment. That's the devil. That is, the act is -- is concentrated on one moment, and is fruitless, and -- and destructive. And you can do with any- -- what you -- we call "diabolical" is always a shortcut, is always an attempt, you see, to live less long than we are meant to live. The installment-buy- -- -plan buying, you see. It's diabolical, because it shortens. But I -- you want to get something which you may get in four years, but you want to have it immediately, so you sell out your freedom. And you are the slave of this immediacy, you see, for the next four years.

Now this is a positive sacrifice. And then we have -- and I have to introduce this, because it doesn't exist, it seems, in -- I don't know the vocabulary, although everybody knows that there is a negative sacrifice. That he is a warning: "Don't do this."

Now in a sense, Christ has made the same appeal. "Don't do" -- in -- the

theology of the Old -- New Testament very articulate in the fact that it says, "It must never be repeated," you see. The -- it's the last sacrifice that is necessary. It's a warning to all -- of us who would like to burn at stake, and to crucify, you see. This is no longer necessary, because the worst has happened. It has been done once to the innocent. So all the less innocent, you see, are included in the path, so to speak. They must not be -- it must not happen again. So the -- our Christian theology has something to do with this negation of repetition.

And once more, the -- this is the -- the sterile suicide, which is not done in order to teach, in order to convey a thing, or because you have lived for others and with others. And I would say that the student who -- of his own teacher writes, "Death Was by Hanging," sterilizes the event, deprives himself of any way of learning something of -- it's just an outside accident on the road, you see. And it has nothing to do with our own {soul}. And that's why it is so absolutely gruesome in -- in an educational establishment, such cruelty and, you see, such callousness occurs, because then life has no relation -- the -- the -- lives are lived, you see, independently from each other.

So I -- I think it is perhaps worth your while to think in these three terms, and say one thing. What we call "paganism," and must call "paganism," is the right of man to dispose of its own existence between birth and death as though it was his own property. And this includes then the right to commit suicide whenever it pleases him. And I think we all are in this temptation. And it's -- I don't know of anyone in this room who would say that there is no -- situation in which he would say, you see, "I'm quite sure that I won't do this."

So we are all in this temptation of going -- becoming Gentiles, of going pagan. And -- and I -- have -- learned from the concentration camps of the Nazis that you must understand when suicide is allowed. The concentration camps abolish the name of the person, gave them numbers. And they ceased to be anything but material -- human material. And -- comes from modern psychology, who has the effrontery to call people "good material." It's not -- it's forbidden, but this is done in this -- our educational establishment: "first-class material." Now all these people have produced this hell. The concentration camps are only the expression of 100 years of analysts' psychology. And -- and you live in this world already. And watch out. Because if a man is only -- be treated as a number, and has no name among his fellow men, he has no hope for being redeemed by their love.

Now sometimes despair is so terrible on us, that only the loving eyes of somebody else can redeem us, can bring us back into normalcy. Everybody knows this, that you just depend on somebody else's saying "Hello" to you. In a small way, we all do -- experience this every day. And when -- I have seen cases

-- or have known cases in -- in concentration camps of Europe, where I would have said that the moment in which they were alive, some famous people like Edith Stein--you may have heard of this philosopher or so--when they were abducted, so to speak, you see, out of their communities--she was a nun -- a Catholic nun of Jewish descent--the abbess and the other nuns in Holland allowed the Nazis to take her away in her midst. The abbess didn't go with her. But now she is worshiped as a saint in this Catholic community. It's ridiculous. If there was anything about -- in a monastery and a nunnery, they -- others, the convent, you see, had to go with her. And she couldn't have been separated. That's the vow of a nun, that you are a sister in the Lord.

And so after this terror that the own abbess and the other nuns deserted her, and just sent her to the -- of their own fear to the -- into the hands of a -- of a gang that only counted heads and legs, and broke out their -- their golden teeth, as you know, and -- and cut their hair, and stole their clothes in order to make money out of them, I think -- such a person--she didn't, by the way--can commit suicide. This is not suicide in the sense in which our human existence, so to speak, is guaranteed by our creator, and asks from us to uphold. Because it's all within the word, the living word, you see, this speech, that we are only human beings, and not animals. And if no word anymore reaches us, because we have been -- become number 11,022, you see, instead of having our name, a -- when this identity can no longer be hoped for and re-established, then I would say that suicide is -- it's not a super- -- you see, the -- the -- the commandment of no suicide is not a -- something superstitious, is not a taboo which cannot be discussed. But within the creative process of mankind, where we are spoken to, we are within a stream of power, a field of force that is stronger than we. That keeps us alive. And once we are thrown away like a -- like a skeleton, or an empty -- empty skull, it's a different matter. Then we are -- the world has cast us out.

So I only meant to say, we have to find modern concepts, and words, and understanding for this tremendous problem. For 150 years, suicide has advanced as a moral permission, as something that is not permitted. That have made advance -- and advanced all the time. In the sentence of an American citizen, all by the way of purely of American descent, in my college -- in Dartmouth, three years ago, you see, "Jesus has committed suicide after all," and "Hitler has sacrificed himself for his people," you have, so to speak, the climax. You can't do more, you see. You pervert the vocabulary and the tradition of the human race. And when such a point is reached, only conscious effort can restore normalcy. You see, that's why I have to discuss these things { }. Because you are all exposed to this perversion of the vocabulary, of the { }. So you -- one day, you will have yourself to make up your mind: what is suicide? and what is sacrifice? And will have to be very careful. Otherwise you will get in great trouble in your married life, in the education of your children, in your professional life, and in

your political life. Because if you haven't this {near you}, you will make terrible victims, if you think that a man -- you see, the savior of mankind here has committed suicide, and the anti-Christ has -- has sacrificed himself for his people. So pardon me. What's your name?


Now Mr. {Epstein}, you don't mind. But this is the consequence of your -- of your question.

(Well, I may ask more later.)


(I say, I may ask more later. This won't stop me.)

Well, I think I owed you this, because it is after all the -- the condition under which the bib- -- Bible story is written is that man cannot commit suicide. And the condition under which all pagan history, migration of peoples, Greek history and so, is -- written is that man make commit suicide. As you know, the whole Roman nobility from Caesar's days to -- to the days of -- of Titus and { }, to the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem did commit suicide, and eliminated itself from the scene. There was not one Roman nobleman alive in 1700 A.D. They all had committed suicide. And after this, no Roman citizen has ever become emperor of Rome. They were all from the provinces. That's quite a story.

Suicide has {stayed} in Japan the same. You know the samurai has to commit {hara bushito}, they call suicide. -- It is still -- Ja- -- Japan is still one of the few {pagan} countries left where you can study what suicide is. It's the taking outside, by your own volition -- you see, yourself out of this fabric of -- of life, and of history.

Christianity of course has -- has made this very clear in the case of Judas Iscariot, who -- who commits suicide in despair because of his -- deep dec- -- deceit by his own -- by his own political energy. I mean, obviously {this would seem so} that he wanted to fall into {Jesus' hand,} to appear as the Messiah, you see, by violence. But his suicide of course is the turning point in the history of -- of a -- the whole world, because after -- Judas Iscariot's exposure, so to speak, paganism held that the noble spirit does commit suicide. That it is the way in ending life when your own {proposition} is crushed. Self-{will}, which advocates suicide, because if my determination cannot be upheld, then good-bye, { }. I -- I had not achieved what I wanted to achieve, therefore there is nothing for me to live { }. Hello?

And the Bible is the -- first word of the Bible, in the book of Samuel, his first chapter, is written around this one sentence, you see: not "my will," but "thy will be done." And this -- this is the difference, that the Bible is written as the history, how the --.

You see, suicide follows inevitably when your purpose has to prevail. If your purpose cannot prevail, commit suicide. The -- the Goths -- the -- the famous Goths defeated by Justinian's general, Belisar, at the Vesuvius was, you see, that when -- the Goths, this -- these victorious German, heroic people, saw that this battle was lost, they all went to their deaths, voluntarily, and eliminated themselves. And so the -- the end of the -- of the Gothic kingdom is suicide.

Suicide, you see, {defied its} purpose. But the -- the Bible is written around the fact that man has plans, Sir. That's why, Mr. {Epstein}, I have to be a -- little other terms from you about plan and -- and Christ, you see. Purpose and plans are our contribution to the future. But the real future is destiny. And destiny uses our purpose and plans, but twists them around and does something in addition, you see. You can never fulfill your own purpose without becoming the most dissatisfied and hungry beast in the desert. A man who gets -- who has his purpose fulfilled to get $1 million is in great temptation then to go on and finally he has $100 million, and he is the most miserable creature on earth, and -- and ends like Mr. Hearst, with this fantastic idiocy there. Have you seen this -- his -- his hunting ground there with a -- these wagons and wagons of not even unloaded treasures from Europe, because he didn't know what -- where to spend his money and where to put his energy.

So -- destiny is above my forehead. It's up there. I'm led, and I have to learn that my purpose is part of the -- of my life, of course, but very small compared to my ful- -- the fulfillment of the higher purposes which are not of mine. Any bishop who has to say -- the Catholic Church, "I don't want to become the bishop," you see, learns that it's not his will that has to be done, but a higher will. And the fathers of the Revolution in this country, gentlemen, were such great people, because they knew that it wasn't simply their volition. The rebels wanted independence, and didn't care for the future. John Adams and Jefferson knew how difficult such a future would be, that they would, you see, have to become like the British government themselves. And they hated the idea, and they didn't see any way out. And this is more than purpose.

And that's why this country still has today this haz- -- the same constitution which it { } received, because they were very shy of identifying, you see, their {wicked} purposes with the form of government which they had to inherit from the British {and had to} { } on this side of the Atlantic. This is quite a different proposition, which has nothing to do with your volition, you see, and --

and your wishes and your desires, or your plans for your own future.

So these are the levels on which the -- the place for suicide is decided. If you only live for your own purpose, and are the captain of your soul, the last -- in the last analysis, your complete freedom is evinced by your right to commit suicide.

If, however, all life is one, one spirit moves the earth and the heavens in one history of mankind, then even your -- the -- your own life is only as meaningful as a sacrifice within the whole. It can then, instead of living 70 years, lay down your life for your friends on the battlefield, or you can lie -- die as a shining example of what {not like} Christ, you see, but it isn't that your life ends with your suicide, but that it makes -- plays a role within a -- in a -- in a pattern of life, a tapestry of life which has a much larger sense than your own mentality, your -- what you think, your own consciousness, what you know about your own {interest}.

You read these four chapters, did you? I said Chapter 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. What's in them { }?

({ } or you're saying I believe, it goes on to talk about Samuel being a prophet, actually { } and then how God, how He leads the {Jews and prophets}, and {hears that}, and the Jews say "Look at this neighboring land. They have a king. Why can't we have a king?" And Samuel -- Samuel's fears that this -- and tells them that this is wrong, {"You do have} God." And so he goes to God {with his problem} and he tells Him that the Jews want a king. And so God says, "If this is what they wish it -- wish, then we will let them have a king." And He tells Samuel who should be the king, but doesn't -- name the person, "Until an event {happening} { }, when this event occurred, you will know who should be the king."

(And so this shepherd or -- I mean, this boy who watches flocks for his father, is looking for some lost--I don't know what it was, oxen or something--and he comes to the town and they say that Samuel will tell him where they are.)

Was it oxen?

(I can't remember what they were.)

Well, { } -- many poems and dramas of -- of a later literature, this -- this story has been -- had been used. What are the animals? Wie?


(Asses, yeah. And it --.)

One way of keeping the word "ass" alive, you see.


(And so anyway, they -- he comes to the town {where} Samuel {lives}. And so Samuel tells him that he will find his asses for him; and meanwhile, it seems that he asks him to stay for dinner, or something, and --.)

Not "something." Never say "something."

(Yeah, I guess it is. He stays -- he invites him into his home...)

It's vicious.

(...and he stays for dinner. And I believe that quite soon he is -- he is informed that it's the will of God that he be anointed king of the people of Israel. And then it goes on to {defend} how Saul is at first a -- a -- supposedly a good man. But when he -- after he attains his rulership, he begins to be a little bit more self-willed and somehow perverted, and contrary to the humility of -- of a pious man. And therefore is asking for God's wrath against him almost, and -- { }.)

Now, I have brought you here quite a valuable article on the book on Samuel -- of Samuel, in the Encyclopaedia, 14th edition, because it's still the good edition. The last edition was a scandal. And -- and -- I'm really sorry to say, the deterioration of this great work is sad. Best encyclopedia we have today is Italian. { } a masterpiece of 14 volumes. I advise you to look into it, even though you do not know Italian, because in its -- in its illustrations and in its pictures, it's the most complete book that's ever been published in any --. It's the last sunset, so to speak, of European civilization. It was finished in '39, I think. And it's the collaboration of an international staff of the highest order, completely international -- many Americans, by the way, { }. And this is very sad.

But here, this old edition--which is, I think, 1928 or 1929--is still very good. And it's -- reflects--better than Mr. Shotwell's book, which I think is on a lower level than this article--it reflects the best scholarship of the time on the criticism of the Bible. The first brilliant book on -- on the Bible -- on these -- book of Samuel was written by {Wenthausen} in 1871. I think you should know his -- this period, because is the father of most of the biblical criticism which runs wild in this country as of -- in this moment. And by and large the biblical criticism in

this country is far behind the times. It is still very much of 1871 brand.

And they have much genius in this, establishing -- the sources out of which the Book of Samuel is composed, and from this angle, there is nothing to be said against it at all. We have learned a lot about the way in which this author took from -- of course when he wrote this, from sources, I mean. He must have, as you would have to {go} by your notes--or somebody else's notes--if you want to describe what happens in this -- in this seminar. The funny thing is only that this pride of being able to look into people's footnotes, and where they came from, has blinded them to the text, that is, to the -- to what the Bible is written for.

Now it of course has to be composed out of certain bricks of -- of reality, you see. But the funny thing is -- I give you this--that's why I brought you the book--one sentence, which may show you how careful you have to -- go about using these -- these -- these books of the last 70 -- 80 years. I think they are really {marvelous}, because he says, "The introductory account of the Book of Samuel, Chapter 1 to Chapter 4, first verse, is a valuable picture of religious life at the sanctuary in Shiloh."

That's all he has to say. That's purely external. I tried to tell you last time that this is -- could have been in Shiloh, or in {Biloh}, or in Los Angeles, you see. The problem is, you see, to distinguish between purpose and providence, between purpose and {destiny}. From the very outset, that's the whole content of the first chapter: to make -- see that the woman and the baby both don't know what this is all for, you see. They have to serve a higher purpose, and not their own. This is -- the Bible is written about. Now whether this is in Shiloh is absolutely external, is -- environmental. But this -- this biblical critic, of course, thinks that he has a second Thucydides here, or a second Herodotus, or a second {Bancroft}, or -- whatever your historian is as of today. And so he says, "It's a valuable picture of religious life at the sanctuary at Shi- -- Shiloh."

Now the three terms I recommend to your attention show you the total misunderstanding of the -- of the Bible that -- persists today in academic circles: "valuable," "religious," "at Shiloh." Now nobody would have to read a book about the val- -- a valuable book about religious life in Shiloh. It's ridiculous. Why -- what -- it had to do with the -- with the religious life in Shiloh? Nothing whatsoever. And -- throw the Bible into the paper -- wastepaper basket, if this is so. Obviously, the Bible hasn't made its -- its course through the world in 1,000 -- 1100 -- or 1100 languages, because it gives a valuable picture of religious life at Shiloh. Just incalculable. But this is all printed and you can get your doctor's degree for that.

You are sunk in superstition at this moment, gentlemen, of paganism. And that's why suicide of course is -- is { }. It all goes together. If man is a purposive animal, you see, and his purposes are frustrated, he commits suicide. Unless he's taken up by a man who asks $10,000 a year and calls himself a psychoanalyst.

You -- you live in a -- in a dark world of complete darkness. The sor- -- the sorcerers of Egypt govern in this -- in this community. That's psychoanalysis. They -- they -- they interpret dreams, just exactly as it was before the Exodus. -- Don't believe it. I'm not really laughing. This is true. Mr. Rollo May admitted that much, when he -- when he spoke. That's exactly what he said. "Don't give up the biblical story about anxiety and -- and guilt," you see. The sorcerer of pharaoh says to pharaoh, "No guilt," you see, "no anxiety And it's all in the stars." And -- and -- and -- and Rollo May, did you go to him? Who -- who listened to Mr. Rollo May? Anybody?

(This -- this was only by invitation { }.)

Oh, I see. { }. That's another {hoax}.

Well, wh- -- why is this all wrong about the Bible? Because the very word "religion" for the Bible doesn't exist. They {type} { } the religions of the many nations. You must know that "religion" is a generalization. And the -- the Bible fights for faith against religion for the elements that are in every moment in everybody's life, regardless of the outer forms of worship in any one national sanctuary.

And therefore, the -- the -- to say "a relig- -- valuable picture" says that the Bible is one out of many. Whereas the Bible makes an attempt to show concretely how man in any religious environment, any form of worship--which, of course, goes by place, and time, and architecture, and -- and mores, and dresses, and -- and costumes and what-not--has to communicate with the creator's will as the creature that at this moment has to be created. The who- -- the Bible is written around the fact that man is in creation, still. That's why it begins with, "In the beginning, God created heaven and earth," you see, "and now He goes on to create man. And we are the sixth day of creation, today," you see, and the -- you see, the Sabbath, the end of creation, is still -- the word "Sabbath" is still ahead. And -- the whole story of the Bible is an attempt to make man -- you and me aware that wherever we come from, and where -- we are in the making, in the -- in the process of the --.

And that's why this first chapter is very eloquent. This woman, you see, cannot fulfill any requirements at Shiloh. You see, that's not enough. But there's

something new happening for the first time, and unique. It will never happen again, the birth of her son Samuel, you see. That's the whole story written about. And to say this is a "valuable picture of religious life in Shiloh" is omitting the whole reason why the book is written. It is written around the fact that despite the religious life in Shiloh, something totally original was about to happen, that has never happened before, you see, will never happen again. Uniqueness.

And as the God of Israel is unique, because He is the creator of this one world in which we live, which can never be repeated because it's still in process, so against all the many worlds in which the Hindus, for example, live--worlds within worlds circling around--the -- the Jews have established -- in the Bible established one simple fact that all the heavens and all the earths, you see, are one. Only one process. This -- that God is unique, and man is unique in as far as he believes in God. If he doesn't, then he becomes a thing, like anybody else. And if you say, "We are an American," then you have to live according to the pattern of the Joneses. If you say that you have a soul, you can live a unique life. And anybody who wants the hold -- hold up with the Joneses is a Gentile, you see. He has gone -- he has lost the unique process of creation in which you and I are created at this very moment, you see, which has never happened before, which therefore cannot be established as a repetitive order.

Now there are many things in our existence, like this -- here, { } which are repetitive, I mean. We all have to wear dress. And we dismiss them as -- as second-rate, I mean...

[tape interruption]

...and this is very simple thing, this --. And the masterpiece I think of Samuel is, because I do feel that it's perhaps the first book that was written down. I tried to tell you this last time, you remember, that it's written in this small, still voice: how does something unexpected, you see, happen for the first time, which has not happened to any tribal, you see, lore? In the tribe everything is repetitive. Everything has been -- happened before, everything is {taboo}, familiar {to him}. You do exactly what your forefathers did.

And -- so Judaism has a terrible time here in this -- between these tremendous empires, these tremendous -- and these tribes of Canaan, where everything is done by precedent. And so she has become ridiculous first. She has to think she's drunk. Because the only way in which a free future is reached is always by antagonizing the Joneses. Can you see this? It is perfectly normal that she should be inspired, and you see, and -- excited. But he has no explanation because something happens for the first time. She had -- he has never seen an inspired woman praying for -- in such -- with such devotion. So he says, "She's drunk."

Now you will always be exposed in any free man's decision. He is the growing point of creation. Any decision you make--you want to study, you want to marry { }--at that moment, you are ahead of everybody else in the universe with this decision. And you cannot complain that the universe is not prepared for this decision. And it is this lag which modern psychology tries to eliminate by telling you that you don't have to get hurt, that if you act right and adjust yourself, then everything is wonderful. It's nonsense. To grow is painful. Because it means that at one moment, your decision, you see, is still un-understandable to the next person, because you haven't been -- had time to convey it to them. And this conveyance had to be first created. Now this is true in small ways, when you suddenly tell your parents that you are no longer of their opinion and have to do otherwise. And it is -- goes on all your life. And it goes in politics, it goes in the sciences, you see, a new discovery. You are the growing point of creation.

And this is the content of the -- you see, of the Book of Samuel. Here is she, the mother; then there is Samuel; then there is the kingdom of Israel. So there are three things, you see, three {times}, that something happens that is quite disestablished. Because Eli and his sons are the legitimate prophets, you see. Here the woman who, by hook and crook, receives the blessing of the legitimate prophets, and thereby is able to bring her son, you see, as a spiritual successor, so that somebody can inherit the office not by the flesh, carnally, you see, but through the spirit. That's the important thing.

Since this -- he is innocent of the corruption of the office of Eli--the story you told us, you see--he is able to represent real prophecy which means future. What is prophecy, gentlemen? Take it all away, it is the power to see to it that there is a promise that must be fulfilled. The word "promise" is a better -- the American translation for "prophecy." And you should use it. And you should know that it is. "Promise" is the translation of the American language of the Old Testament idea of "prophecy." Under this new dispensation, we call this "promise."

Now promise demands fulfillment. Now the tremendous story of Samuel is only how then the -- the -- the next step in the -- in the tradition of this people, who are weary of being so dis- -- dispersed in the -- and living among the other nations. How can it be fulfilled? And it can be fulfilled as long as Samuel is -- with the king, you see. Therefore the establishment of the prophecy in this Book of Samuel precedes the kingship. And if you read on in Samuel, you will find that this dualism is the -- the topic of the book -- the four books of Kings and of Samuel. Very simple.

I had to write for ano- -- other encyclopedia--I told you the story { }--and so I took great pains to work this out, you see. Samuel enables Saul. So

you have the beginning of Church and state. That's the essence in the Old Testament tension between prophet and king, you see. And that's why our modern division of Church and state goes back to the Old Testament, to this book here. To the -- the -- between Moses and {then} Samuel, the tribe simply overwent kingship. And so never allowed, so to speak, you see, the -- the -- the king to provoke or -- the danger of a relapse into tyranny and into idolatry, so that the king himself was, so to speak, God. Because that is, of course, the effect of despotism that you have to lick the -- the -- the feet of the -- of the tyrant -- and treat him as though he was the living oracle, I mean, as Henry VIII was treated in England, I mean. There was great danger for 10 years in England in the 16th century, that Henry VIII was really treated as -- as God. And even { } Burleigh, the great minister of Elizabeth, when he came to dine, said that he was sure that he would meet her -- as her leader -- his leader in Heaven -- in her and God's Heaven. So he was al- -- he was still blaspheming, you see, in -- in calling Heaven "Elizabeth's heaven," "the queen's heaven." So much was at that time the tyrant, you see, the -- identified with -- with kingship, I mean, with -- with religion.

This relapse is always with us. You have it now of course with Mr. Stalin in -- in Russia. And you have it with MacArthur in -- with Mr. Eisenhower in this country. These are all very dangerous suppositions, because they all invite the pope -- running together again of Church and state into one { }. You see, Mr. Eisenhower -- introduces prayer in his cabinet meetings, and so on, suddenly is standing for religion in this country. It's quite unheard-of. And very dangerous.

And the division of Church and state is on what American liberty is founded. And it is disappearing fast at this moment, I assure you. As -- with suicide. Wherever you get suicide, wherever people live for -- for their own purpose, the whole must be kept together by violence. Because as soon as a man -- is no longer offering his life within a pattern of common destiny, as -- to bear fruit, as a seed for fruit, but thinks, "My purpose," you see, "my life," the whole must be taken care of by stern measures. And the more people are individualists, you see, the more tyrannical the community must be.

Now you get the second stage. Samuel recedes into the background and dies. And then you get this tension between Saul, David, and Jonathan. And in Saul -- and -- and the disaster occurs when Saul finally, I mean, tries to kill David, and to commit suicide, because he's so melancholic, because he's {a lone man}. Teaching's just too much against the spirit of the Almighty, because the spirit listeth where it bl- --how do you say it?--where it blows. Wie? It blows where it listeth.

And so the king cannot be the holder of the whole inspiration of a people.

And this is the whole problem of, you see, the division of Church and state, that one -- has only an office, and the other has the spirit. We need both. And then you come to the solution, you see, the tremendous climax, the division between David -- David and Nathan, the prophet who is the kingmaker, through whose effort -- who is -- becomes king, because Nathan intervenes, after David? Who is the next king after David?

({ }.)

It's a great story, you see, that David appoints a successor and Nathan brushes it aside: "I'm the prophet." And -- imposes on David, the -- the son of the adulteress, of Bathsheba, you see. And that's why Bathsheba comes into the genealogy of Christ, you see. Genealogy as you know is full of illegalities and -- and crimes, because the -- the -- the spirit of God blows as -- where it listeth. And this is the whole content of the first -- these four books of Samu- -- two books of Samuel, and two books of Kings, how the dualism between prophet and king saves the Mosaic revelation in the desert, you see, when people had to live for hundreds of years in a settled order. And when the temptation of course is that they imitate their neighbors and get strong with a constitutional government. And so make their kings--because they aren't so very different from our presidents today--make their kings, you see, oversized.

So I feel that you would kindly for the next time -- go through the whole book -- two books of -- of Samuel, and bear me out on this story. You have to read on till you come to the David and Nathan, and then you have to go into the {First} Book of Kings for this purpose. But once you see this, you understand the -- the creativity of the books, because then you understand why Eli had to be purified, so to speak, from -- the -- his sons had to be eliminated, and Samuel had to be -- again receive his vocation as free as Moses did in the front of the fiery bush--how do you call it?--the burning bush.

You see, the problem of the Bible is how in every generation comes a direct command--an unheard-of, a unique command--which continues the story from miracle to miracle, or from decision to decision. Obviously, the history of the Bible is only valid if at every turn there is something unexpected that happens, and thereby proves that the purposes of man must be overcome, so to speak, must be woven into a higher pattern, a pattern which is not of their own making, which is beyond their expectation.


(I don't -- I don't -- I'd like to get something cleared up. You just said that something -- when something unexpected occurred, it shows that man evolved

in -- in a higher order than just a { } must fulfill his aspirations for this higher order by -- by including himself, by not depending on precedent, { } continually evolve toward the higher order. And then you said earlier that Eli rejected or didn't understand Hannah's inspiration {and thought} she was drunk, because he -- he was resting on precedent. This was an inspiration he didn't understand.)

-- They never had it, that the wife was inspired, you see. That was not all- -- admitted, so to speak. { }.

(So in that instance, he failed in his understanding a higher order. And then the Jews clamored to be like other nations. They looked around and they wanted a -- a united king and -- and so they looked at precedent for salvation and { }?)

Oh, very much so. They always -- in every generation, people ke- -- want to keep up with the Joneses. And it's our common illness, because it's -- makes for -- seems to make for happiness, { }. Simplifies matters { }.

(Well, wasn't this -- didn't you interpret this as being worthwhile, then? That -- { }?)

{ } promises unfulfilled. The promise of America is something that is not represented by Mr. Eisenhower, but by the yearnings of unborn generations, and it will have to be fulfilled and it go -- goes beyond the present-day budgets, doesn't it? The budget of the United States for which Mr. Eisenhower is responsible has nothing to do with the promise of America. {They are two things}. { }, so to speak, shown up in this budget, would jeopardize the -- the promise of America, we would have to turn against him. { }. That's why he said, "They want to out-" --how -- how did he put it in his press conference? Did you see it? It was a very important press conference of course on this, my dear --. He said, "All the -- you want me to spend all the money now for armaments. And that would play into the hands of the Bolsheviks. We would forgo our own promise, our own future, and would just play up to the Joneses, to the Russians. They would like us to, you see, put all our eggs into this basket of armaments, and ruin our future."

And I must say I -- I had great respect for him, because it took nerve to resist all these Democratic senators, you see, who have the majority in Congress, who say, "We don't have enough armaments in Berlin; we don't have enough bombs; we don't have enough missiles," and so on. And say, "I still will speak quietly, because I have done my duty." They {asked him} { }. Haven't you seen this? It was a strange conference. Two days ago. It's worth reading, gentlemen. I charge you with reading this, because you will find that there was a -- I

don't know if it was the { }. I am myself in ambiguity. I'm -- as I told you, I think, I'm very interested in the Berlin issue, because they want to have a school in international -- a school established for me in Berlin. So my own future is decided on May 27th. And so I'm very much of a partisan -- also I'm a native of Berlin.

And -- but still I admire the president, although he was -- { } -- I mean, is -- {growing} soft, so to speak, and saying, "Don't get excited," and "Don't let's arm," and "Don't let's put atomic weapons," you see, "into circulation," and saying, "If I follow your daily -- the politics today," you see, "I destroy the real future of the United States." It's this power, you see, that the promise is much more, you see, in the future than the immediate { } government can hope to -- to act upon it. And they must keep the avenues open so that other peoples have the right to act.

Take our forests. If you cut down all the redwoods, you deprive all future generations, you see, of this participation in this treasure of nature. Conservation is based on this assumption, you see, that the present-day government is not identical with the creation of the world. You see, because there are creatures that still have to exist, after you have spent all your money on nonsense. Ja?

(Well, what do -- you know, trying to show { } that you finally, I think, {described} in terms that -- that when they finally did -- accept the king, they didn't -- they didn't really talk { } the other countries, because for the other countries, the king was both the spirit -- he was one man, the spirit and the state; and {they maintained} the prophet and king jointly.)

That's why this -- this {prophet} statement is so strange. I mean, they wrote the books of the Bible, not the king. Although they {used} royal { }. {But they} -- the story of the Bible is that none of them is written, you see, by the powers that be. But it's written with criticism, { }. That's unheard-of, you see, that -- that you have this admission that these kings do wrong, you see. David has to humiliate himself, you see. Just incredible. {Moses --} the first great king of Israel; then Solomon again. And -- well, we may come then to the temple of Solomon, but I think that should be the -- our next time. Let's de- -- now th- -- go into the -- we still have some time left. And I may -- think we have a break of five minutes, and then we have -- reading of the -- Samuel text.

[tape interruption]

...{ } just to get your question straight. Do you? Then we have to { } think about { } {shortly}.

(You've been answering the question while you were out of the room.)


(You were answering the question while you were out of the room.)

Did it help?


How interesting. It's a very wonderful invention, yes. Well, I -- I -- you know, to me, it's just { } but it can be used just for such a purpose, don't you think { }?

Ja? Now, what is your question?

(Well, I'm trying to { }. I didn't understand that you were saying that this was a fall, one of the many falls that -- that society has experienced. This rejection of individuality and individuality of -- of aggregate communities. And when you rejected {this, then it would} conform to other modes {of society by combining Church and state} -- well, that is, cutting off prophecy and trying to {get} { } {singular promise} { }. Unfortunately...)

Well -- this is a -- misunderstanding about the word {"promise" here}. { }. You mean then program -- promise in an election is obviously { } {prophecy} { }. I meant that the word "promise" is quite legitimate today for our -- the old word "prophecy." That's what I mean. The promise of America is not of a secular nature, but a comprehensive nature, you see. It's the whole future of man in America, isn't it? -- What have -- I mean, we can disagree on the content, but the meaning is obviously universal. Would you agree?


(Another example of that would be, I think, that -- that Saul was in good standing with God until he went out in battle and took the spoils of the { }.)


(So it wasn't the fact that he was { }. Well, it was the fact that resulted in the { }, { }.)

He didn't understand that this -- this group was meant to -- to have the power to s- -- act in a personal way. Or a unique way. It's always this problem of

uniqueness, which today everybody boasts himself, he's "just a human being." And he writes off his uniqueness very often by this word. It's an ambiguous term, like "promise." It can mean the right thing, because if I am a human being, then I am a creature of God that is to be created at this moment, and has to do something unique, you see. You can also use it -- to say that I'm run -- run of the million, you see, one -- among a million, and how can you expect me to do different?


(I think it's that, you know, people are prone to do when they read the Bible, { } a lot of the -- the statements and belief expressed--take, for example, that all men are born in the image of God. Ah ha, we're all the same; there's no differences, and so forth. And then, of course, when they { }, the -- they have a contradiction, because everybody is personally in God's eyes, and in His { }, and { }.)

You know, the image of God is quite {a unique one}, because God is unique. And He's the creator of Heaven and earth, and He is the redeemer, and He is the revealer. And so if we are in the image of God, the -- the -- the burden of uniqueness is so heavily on us, that most people run away from this. The image of God is not a minor proposition. It's {a terrible thing}. Because, you see, God is in the future, and isn't yet -- you see, we never know Him from what He has done, because He's still unrevealed. And so man is unrevealed to himself. I mean, the -- if you would -- however take this seriously, the image of -- of God, we would be frightened to death. -- It's gigantic. Wie?

({ } it's not interpreted in a fashion { }.)

Of course not. Well, if you -- I have a -- did you take this down? I -- I think -- you should use this as a -- as a shield, because if you { } of the {circle}, the introductory account of Samuel, from the first dedication and calling of the { } Book of Samuel "is a valuable picture of religious life at the sanctuary at Shiloh." Thereby the whole thing is, you see, generalized, and you -- we can write thousands such stories, be no distinction. Because in Africa, there are 10,000 such sanctuaries; and in Asia, there are 20,000; and in America, I don't know how many, you see. And so it's just a valu- -- it's just curiosity that's served. This, of course, is the attitude of these -- critics of the last 80 years, treat the Bible as a chronicle, as annals, or as of any wild tribe. Therefore, the god of Israel is just a god of the { } tribes. Probably were brought up in this conviction, that this was a tribal god. That was very rampant in America.

Just like the sentence, "Jesus committed suicide," you see, the -- the --

corresponds exactly with the writing down of the Bible as the book of these henotheistic, it was called, tribal society, who had Jahweh as their individual god, whereas the whole setting of the Bible in the midst of a u- -- I told you, the -- { } strewn all over the earth, dispersed into mighty kingdoms, men everywhere talk in different tongues. And they have a different god, you see. Difference -- this little group had said, "For Heaven's sake, we go crazy if we would admit that God is -- is limited by -- by the countries and by the {kings.}"

({ } that would not mean { } that the difference between Israel's acceptance of Jahweh is that they accepted him as more than a national god. A national god is a { }. Supernational?)

Well, you just kindly look up the -- the table of nations in the first book of -- first book { }. Would you read the 10th chapter of Genesis, which {gives} the whole proposition of the Bible. In the midst of time -- { } in 1959 could you write it just as well today as if you write -- write an Encyclopaedia Britannica. And -- you have { }? Why not? You have to. It's assigned reading. Where is it?

(I didn't bring it. I brought Thucydides.)


(I brought Thucydides with me. I didn't bring the --.)

But I told you to read the chapters -- two volumes of Samuel. You -- you have committed suicide here in this regard. How about you, Sir? And you? { }. Of course, you have a trauma. Would you -- would you kindly read the 10th chapter? It seems very boring. And we will see why it isn't.

("These are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and the sons were born to them after the flood.

("The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog --")


("Magog, and Madai --.")

There's still a -- a Lake Memphramagog in -- in our -- in this country, on the boundary between Canada and Vermont, a very beautiful lake, because of this. It is -- full of Bible -- Bible na- -- biblical names. Ja.)

("-- Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

("And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz?")

Don't be frightened. These names are not wanton. I mean, I'm -- you may think that's all foolish { }. I think it isn't. Please go on.

("Riphath, and Togarmah.

("The sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.")

Now do you know what -- what -- which countries these are? The Kittim, and the Tarshish? That's the east- -- western Mediterranean. Ja? Go on.

("{By} these { } their lands; every one after his tongue, by their families, in their nations.

("The sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan. ("The sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtecha: and the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and De- --.)

That's Sheba. That's the Arabia {peak}; that's the region -- toward the Indian ocean, always from the standpoint of -- of -- {for} Palestine, you see. It goes around the periphery. Ja.)

("-- Sheba and Dedan.

("And Cush became the father of Nimrod, { } a mighty man.")

That's the country of Mesopotamia, Nimrod; that's Babylon, Assyr, {and Sumer}, that we know as kingdoms -- we know of {all} very little. So he is above, you see, from the -- around the -- Palestine, from the north to the west, to the south, to the --.

({ } It's all in the periphery?)

No, he is in the periphery.

({ } {Iraq}.)

Ja -- well. The { } would be { } I think. { }. It includes the islands of the western Mediterranean, Spain; therefore it isn't quite right to say -- it's not a country. It's even more. The who- -- known world, you see. Ja? "Nimrod was a mighty hunter," that's it, ja?

("-- Before the Lord: therefore it is said, by { } Nimrod the mighty hunter { } Lord.

("And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, all { } around Shinar.")

Now the land of Sinar -- or Shinar, as we still it, is -- important, because Abraham came from this. So from the very first, the Israelites have established themselves as being in a -- the region halfway between Egypt and Mesopotamia. And so they never felt themselves, you see, as some- -- somewhere in a -- in a desert locality: nowhere, so to speak, you see, {independent}. But their whole meaning is that they are halfway, from Egypt, from the isles of the Mediterranean, and from Mesopotamia.

This is their universalism of the first -- the very first moment. That's why this geography is not boring, but is a tremendous achievement; it's the first time in the history of the world that a country and a people--how do you say?--look at themselves in their -- you see, as de- -- determined by the outer {world}, and therefore become free of it. All the people who say -- "We are earth-born," "We are natives," you see, try to establish their viewpoint, their world view without regard to the influence of the {outside} { }. The Israelites, however, are very latecomers to the game. Abraham comes from Mesopotamia, is educated there, in Ur, and in {Harar}. Ur being at the -- at the -- at the mouth of the rivers, the -- Tigris and Euphrates, and {Harar} being high up in the north, you see. Then he comes to Palestine the first time; then goes to Egypt and learns the ropes there; and then comes back. And so establishes by a circuitous route his being between them on this narrow -- on this -- in this narrow mountains, you see. It affirms the sea roads, the land roads, the main highway between the then-known world.

And this has never happened before in the world, the -- that a -- except perhaps the { } parts of America, that they were consciously feeling that they were dependent on the geography of other countries for their own salvation. And this try -- an attempt to express this, making the rounds -- {around}, and then saying -- now we come to that. Will you kindly go on?

("From that land went Assyria and helped { } Babylon, { } Rehoboth { }, Calah,

("And Resen { }: { } great.")

Now be a little more merciful. These boys had to go to through { } -- all had to go to sleep anyway. So try to read to them as though they were children, who want to listen. They don't want to listen, but -- read as though they did want to listen. Will you?

Reading is a -- you see, is an act of affection. It's not just an -- a chore. These -- these boys are without any hopes. They are illiterate.

("Mizraim became the father of Ludim, Anamin, Lehabim --")

Convince them!

("-- Naphtuhim,

("Pathrusim, and Casluhim (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim.")

And that's very important, because, you see, here we have the IndoEuropeans. When this book is written, it is still without human -- within human memory that the -- these -- these ride- -- horse- -- horsemen invaded Asia Minor first. The Armenians stay there to this day, the Armenian. The Hindus went ov- -- across the Himalayas into India, you see. The Persians, as you know, this branch, the -- in- -- invaded Persia. The Greeks came to the peninsula, and the Hittites came to -- came to Asia Minor. Now of this there is this memory. You just -- have to penetrate through these things, because the Philistinians are one of these Indo-European branches. We know that they overawed the people who -- there, because they suddenly landed there with their -- with their iron. -- Had no iron. The Hebrews had no iron at that time; they had to borrow all iron products from the -- or buy them from the Philistines, who held the seacoast. And they invaded Egypt, by the way, at -- at the same time. They took Crete, of course -- { }, you see, and {made it} Myc- -- Knossos, on -- on Crete. And so the -- the Indo-Europeans are comprised, and this one sentence, "Out of whom came the Philistine"--should -- it should not be "philistim," but "the Philistine" you see. And the Caphtorim. And Caphtorims is -- are the people of Crete. That's -- the word "Caphtor" is the word for the island of Crete, which of course was very important at that time, because of its mighty palaces, which we have dug out.

So this is full of -- of pep and -- and meaning here. Please.

("Canaan became father of Sidon his firstborn --.")

These are the Si- -- Phoenicians, you see. Sidon was of course the richest port in the Mediterranean. Yes?

("-- And -- and the Jesubites --")


("Jebusites -- Amorite --.")

They are Damascus, the people in Damascus. They are alr-- they are named.

("And the Girgasite --?")

I don't know.

("And the Hivite and the Arkite --.")


("Arkite, and the Sinite,

("The Arvadite, and Zemarite, and the Hamathite; afterwards --.")

The Hamathite is still -- Hamath -- Arabia, Hamath is still part of Arabia -- the south -- { }. Hamath.

("-- Afterwards the families of the Canaanites spread abroad.

("And the territory of the Canaanites was from Sidon, { } Gerar, as far as Gaza --.")

Gah-zah? Have you never heard of Gaza, where these unfortunate Arabs are in the -- in -- in tents there, the refugees from Palestine. All the rest -- reason for the unrest in the Near East comes from Gaza -- the Gaza Strip? Don't you know that? Don't? Really, that's applied knowledge -- reading is applied knowledge. { }.

("-- in direction of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, as far as Lasha.

("These are the sons of Ham, by their families, their languages, their lands, and their names.

("Shem also, the father of all the children of -- Eber.")

Now, now. Eber -- it's important to you -- what's the word "Eber," what does it stand for? Anybody know? It is very important. This is the first source for the word "Hebrew." Eber is the -- the tribal hero. You see, Adam lives a thousand years in the Bible. That means this is the tribal existence -- a form of tribal existence; and then comes Noah, you see. The -- it's always a thousand years. Now Eber is -- the name of the first generation is always given in the Bible for exem-

plifying a whole nation. And so Shem -- you see, the Hebrews are simply part of the human family. There is no claim for any extra position of Israel. This is unique, you see. they are not the promised people. They are not the great Americans. You see, they are not {David and Uno} or what's the other boy? {Jacob Proper}.

Well, all this nonsense, you see, of a -- of a native genius, you see. Here is an honorable attempt {and chapter}; you can't take it seriously enough. It has remained unique for another 3,000 years. It isn't even today that we have such an impartial attempt to distribute the one humanity over the earth, you see, without taking sides, without saying, "These are Caucasians," and "These other are yellow," and "These are the black," and make these distinctions. Here is an honest attempt to place everybody in his place to the extent that from Sem -- from Shem--you see, the Semites--there first comes the Hebrews. Well, they are not the Jews by a long shot. They haven't received the revelation. They are just one other group. Will you kindly read 25?

{ }, no. Where is our friend { }?

("To the elder brother Japheth, children were born.

("The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.")

You see, this is the typical way in which the Bible is written, is by anticipation, as any journalist writes today. In the first paragraph, you have to say everything, you see. And then you -- elucidate. Most people don't read the Bible like that. And they think it's -- they don't understand that they have already the most modern technique of newspapers. Read the first -- the first chapter of Genesis. I'll show you an example where this modern interpretation, always { } out.

"In the beginning, God created heaven and the earth," and then says -- Verse 27: "So God created man in his -- own image, and the -- in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." And so people think, "Now, that's one {story} { }."

And then comes the second chapter, in which the details are given; so they that's another {song}. But every newspaperman will tell you that he has just exactly to write the story in the same manner. First you give the whole story, and then go into detail. Now you go to the fifth chapter -- of this book, and I'll show you how important it is that we ex- -- we include the fifth chapter into the first.

In the fifth chapter, it reads:

"This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;

"Male and female created he them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam."

Now here is the introduction of speech, and that a man only knows himself if he is called by his name. { } of humanity as against the animal kingdom. Yet it isn't found in the first -- second chapter. So if theo- -- the modern theologians, rabbis, popes, et cetera, tell you about this, they say they--or the critics even more so--they can limit themselves to the first survey. And there is man created without speech. And -- but only when a child is -- is -- is named--we talked about this before--is -- he's a complete human being, because then he can recognize, identify, assimilate, antagonize, and make love, marry, and so on.

And so this verse in -- Verse 2 in the fifth chapter is a part of the family story. But it was postponed. Now we have exactly this in the 10th chapter. There the -- it's very important for the Jews of course to read about their own descent, so obviously he took a deep breath in Verse 21, and he says, "Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born."

And so he already has said, "This -- these -- is our progenitor," you see. But then, you get Verse 22. He postpones the -- the tension -- the attention. And then Eber only becomes the great-grandson of -- of Shem, you see. But he announces first already: Here we come to our own descent. That much he gives into the curiosity and the excitement of -- of the people to whom he tells the story. But it takes three verses before he specializes, particularizes. Can you see this? Eber only returns in 24.

So -- now we are on 25. You will read -- take a Bible, here and read. I don't see why you shouldn't { } read. { }.

("And unto Eber--.")

That's "Hebrew," you see.

("And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.")

Oh "Peleg" must obviously mean "{division}." I don't know this. But I -- does anybody know Hebrew? { } {You should.} But -- I don't know { }

explanation. The Bible is full of etymological explanations. Ten times to say { }. Obviously "Peleg" must mean something { }. Ja?

("And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah,

("And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah,

("And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba,

("And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan.

("And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar, a mount of the east.")

You must think that, for the people of that time, Texas was Arabia, or Arabia was Texas. I mean, it was the largest -- it is still of a great immensity. I mean, it was, so to speak, the accessible Africa. I mean it had -- such a -- if you look at it -- on the map, it's just tremendous. And still inaccessible in its center, { } people live there from oasis {to oasis}. So I'm -- I am going to -- only to explain to you the bigness of Arabia for us is not very familiar. You don't think of Arabia as much -- you see, it's a desert: it's not important. It's just tremendous. It is bigger than Mesopotamia; it's bigger than Egypt, you see; it's bigger than Abyssinia; it's bigger than the islands of the Mediterranean and Greece, and Italy. And -- I have just to bring you up to this, because of the subdivisions he gives for the people who live in Arabia, that they are so numerous. For a man who lives there on the spot, Arabia is overwhelmingly large. Perhaps who has { } -- will you kindly look up for the next time the square miles of Arabia? And -- in comparison, the square miles of California and of {Texas}? Ja.

("These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.

("These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were nations divided in -- in the earth after the flood.")

Now the next verse.

("And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech.")

This is the -- you see, all wrong. You know, our chapter headings in the Bible are of very recent origin. They have nothing to do with the original. You must never be divided by the divisions of the Bible, as we have them. They are --

have nothing to do with the meaning. This verse of course belongs to the -- is the end of the previous chapter, and should never be in Chapter 11. It should be the end of Chapter 10.

Then you see that the -- what the Bible sets out to prove is: how can the unity of mankind be restored? How can it be restored? Put there for us, that's the creation -- how Heav- -- how God wanted Heaven and earth to be created. And this is the program, or the viewpoint. And therefore, Israel has never believed--and how can it, with this chapter--in -- in -- in -- {the god of} { }? That's today unknown. It's one of the devil's inventions. When you become an anti-Semite, of course, you have to show that they have another god. It's very simple. Now the Bible -- the anti-Semit- -- -ic {man} { }, the hatred of the Jews is always a religious {issue}. Whether the people who hate Judaism are the Jews themselves--and very often are great anti-Semites, as you know--or the Christians, or the Gentiles. Jews are persecuted because they pray -- know, or profess to know, or believe, that God created mankind as one.

You read Mr. { }, or you read Mr. Ellsworth { } of this country, The Parting of the Great Race, you see -- they say that every man who is not an Anglo-Saxon in this country must be sterilized, because there { } the human race. Or you get the racial laws in this country where a person cannot -- marry an Oriental. This is all, you see, written against the Bible. And -- so to -- to support this, of course, you have to turn against the Jews and they have to say they are just -- just another creed. "We have a religion, they have another religion." The whole intent of -- of the Bible, is -- from the very beginning, is to enable us to see that the creati- -- -tion of the world takes place beyond and through these divisions, into these divisions. But the creation is still in process.

As man was created, so we are still in -- we create all the time. And it is one of the most ridiculous inventions of the -- of the devil to say that there was ever a { } a special god. { } just against this heresy. If their own -- their own father, Eber, is put in the midst of a family tree, you see, it has no prerogative whatsoever, except what happens is that one day Moses is called to the burning bush and says -- God says to him, "I am not the God of yesterday; I am the God of tomorrow." And with this, He creates promise, prophecy, future, you see, openness; so creation goes on. This is the whole, famous name of Jahweh. And the -- Bible is very careful to say that { } Adam and Eve, and Shem, and Eber didn't know this name of God. They thought He was the name of {this land} or the name of {this}, you see. And so the -- the new name of God, which is perhaps able to draw the -- the people together again, must be of the future. And so the true title of God, "He who shall be who he shall be," that's the name Jahweh.

Now this god could never be the -- the -- god of one tribe, or one people. It

would have abolished, so to speak, the purpose for which the book was written. {Whoever} can find the Psalm in which it very simply expresses { }. I think it's the {96th} Psalm, but I'm not { }. There is the {seventh sentence} which explains to you the whole problem of the genealogy of all nations, and the whole situation of Samuel, you see, of the promise, prophets, { }. Because it's a very simple verse. He says, "And God is the God of the people that is to be," that is to be created. And so Israel then is always in coming, and never in existence; very strange and simple expression. I -- I'm sorry I -- it's either -- perhaps you read this through, 94 to 96. One of the { }.

{ } in every Psalm, if you attempt the -- understand how to read it, I mean. But nobody { } -- everybody's ears are today absolutely deafened by this biblical criticism, which has tried hard to prove that the Bible is a chronicle of the Jews. It's the one thing it isn't. It's absolutely uninterested in {Chino}. And uninterested in {Eliai} and uninterested in the -- in statistics of -- of {Panmen} or so. It is interested in the unique events that only happened once in order to -- to bring together, despite the divisions of men. The honor of our { }.

The whole 96th Psalm is written about it. But I think I can find it { } this one sentence which is very strange { }: "He is the God of the people whom he is about to create -- which he is about to create." That's by and large the literal translation.

So the -- now comes { }. Are you satisfied?

(Oh, yes.)


({ }. You'll probably develop that more throughout the semester in L.A. { }, that { } and yet { } that Eli would reject uniqueness. And yet --.)

Well, Eli is a routine, gentlemen. He is corrupt, and he is -- old, perhaps he isn't too corrupt but for his family. And when -- { } in -- in -- on the way of inheriting the office, you see, the whole problem -- always that you just go on by routine and --. Repetition, you must know, for -- in all life. Repetition is not wrong. We always repeat. But repetition always diminishes fire or energy {in life}. Repetition has to be, because things would -- they deserve to be repeated. But what is lost the second, third, and fourth time, you see, is the tremendous act of faith that is in the first act. So the act that is repeated is not quite the same act bec- -- when it is repeated. From the viewpoint of the investment of faith in the person who has to do it.

So in every moment when we do something, take { }, the first man who flew, the Orville Wright brother. He had tremendous faith. It doesn't take much faith to you and me to -- to fly now. But still there are people who haven't even inherited the {state}.

I understand he's the richest man in his town, had his son dying here, and he was in Arabia, and he couldn't take an airplane, because he -- he fears to fly, you see. So he couldn't go to the funeral of his oldest son of 14. You know who -- whom I mean? Ja, exactly.

({ }.)

No, he's sitting. { } boy's idea.

({ }.)

Well, { } everywhere.

(Getty, that's the one.}

So we can -- he -- he is not repeating { }. He is excluded, so to speak. { }. We all follow blindly, so to speak. After one man has paved the road, we all -- there's this trailblazer, we all follow suit. With everything you do here. You sit here, of course, because other people have gone here and {been ruined} for college, { } you think that's the way to do it. It could be the wrongest { } history. "{In God we trust}." When you trust, then we know the way, and then you { }. It is of course pure superstition, Sir.

Because we all have to follow until we come to the parting of the roads, where we feel that these men lead us to a dead-end street. And then you have to break out of it. And that's very disagreeable { }. And the fiction story of this country is that everybody can do everything for the first time. You cannot; 99.9 percent of what you do { } repetition, is paved road. Your body is already in -- in { }. All the muscles, everything we have inherited in our body { } is just of course an inheritance. Isn't that true? Other generations have paved -- trained -- {been glorious-} --how do you say?--blazed these trails. And we follow in our -- in our { }. You think of all our development of a -- that we have a central nervous system and so on. That's { } whole { } and we just follow it. It may not be the best. I just read a story that -- that if we had wings -- developed wings, we could have a much, much better understanding. All the { } wonderful article by { }, that we were all wrong, because we don't -- { } if we { } wings, we could have become much better human specimens.

And so repetition is the fate of man and the fate of { }, by the way. { }. And the pla- -- the problem is where to innovate, {obviously}; when to innovate { }. And -- Eli is routine, is not prepared for any change in the history of Israel. {Here he is a cheater}, and he thinks that these rotten sons who corrupt the service of the Lord, who can be bribed and bought, you see, without any reference themselves, who are outside, so to speak, their own -- their own routines, as having no longer believed in -- in the {living} God, but do this for money, and for a reward, and a -- and a paying proposition. These people who have no faith { } if anything that should be saved from the former form -- first revelation, from the uniqueness of God and this one history { }, unique history. It cuts through all divisions and in this 10th chapter.

So he is made the instrument. He first mistakes the woman and is -- is quite unimportant; he's just one of the {drunkards}. And then he wakes up to the fact that { } she has a special { }, and grateful for this experience. It's very tender { }. With his first step of experiencing novelty, he's then willing to do something for her son { } -- which out of the way and which in fact is against his -- his carnal interest because {now he privileges}, you see, Samuel -- as against his sons. And he rediscovers the holiness of the office. And that's how of- -- {very often a} renewal, rebirth, regeneration takes place. There is no innovation in the total sense. Eli is still able to -- to employ Samuel.

({ }. But I wondered, is this why he had the -- Eli told Samuel that it was God calling, and this was a sign he was acknowledging that { }?)

Well, you see, the powers that be--what you call "evolution" today, it's a very poor word--means that life can be renewed as long as the powers that be recognize that they need a refreshment, and as long as the refreshing elements are willing to take upon themselves the yoke of tradition. I mean, you can -- Mr. Eisenhower could have come back at the head of his troops, and started revolution and said, "The Democratic Party is totally corrupt." He didn't. And the -- you know, the temptation {was Washington's, too}, that he should just establish such a -- an army government in -- in 1783. He declined, because his kingship would have meant this, you see, that the army would have governed the 13 colonies, and then we had to wait. De Gaulle had the same temptation, I mean. A very parallel story. De Gaulle came home in 17- -- 1945, had conquered France victoriously, had liberated it; and he could have stayed on and had his government right away. But like Washington, he retreated, you see, let them show what they could do without him, and after 10 years, he has been returned, because they -- the proof was there that you had to have the constitution of a different -- you see, which was suitable to the experience of the Second World War, and the First, too. Washington and -- and De Gaulle have behaved quite similarly.

Which means that the first attempt would be an abrupt innovation only of the -- the new group, so to speak, the people who enter the scene after the 13 colonies are incorporated, the army, and the supreme commander, as something new in the history of America. That hadn't existed before. So the new {office} can say, "We { }." { } very modestly went home, allowed the old powers that be, the 13 colonies, to try their hand, you see, as though nothing had happened, as though the war hadn't occurred, as though the Continental Congress didn't have to have martial powers, you see, and welfare powers, et cetera, et cetera.

And so finally, the 13 colonies, you know--by the way, a little bit at the -- at the -- urging of -- of Washington, did get together and allowed the central government to come into existence, and Washington to be first president. Now that's exactly what happened with De Gaulle. Same story. And I'm -- I'm just amazed about the ignorance of the American public that hasn't sensed the identity -- speaks always of the Fifth Republic, and all this nonsense. There's no Fifth Republic. It's just the first time that experience has been allowed to dictate the French constitution, whereas before, everything was theory. Idiotic. But this is {experienced history}, that Mr. De Gaulle was necessary to save to country.

Now this is the recognition. This word is very important. In Greek, you know, the word "recognize" is the same word as "read" { }, because the Greeks thought that reading was the recognition of what had already been known before. You read, and thereby, you see, are introduced into the stream of things, into the -- this -- that what has already been known before. They had a -- they thought of reading as entering the living stream of -- of -- living truth, of -- of -- of perpetuated, articulated, enacted truth. That's -- was the meaning of "read." -- And it should be your meaning, too, and my meaning of "reading." You have to read that long the old dusty texts until they begin to speak. Isn't that right?

If you would understand that reading is recognition, you would suddenly become aware that history is a process of a Virginia Reel. You know how a Virginia Reel goes. Here you stand, march in, and then comes the next couple, and marches though and you allow them to pass you by. It is always that the people can only enter the future if they have recognized the previous {one}, and move through that. If -- De Gaulle and Washington hadn't allowed the 13 colonies and the French constitution to be tried once more, you see, they couldn't have marched into the future. It would just have been a breaking off, a revolution, you see, with a complete forgetfulness of the experience of the past. It would have been a new beginning, but no inheritance, no tradition, you see, no continuity of history.

The problem of the continuity of history from the very first day since Cain and Abel, you see, left their...

[tape interruption; end]