{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

...remember that last time I put on the board -- blackboard three Roman figures, and four Arabic. I have now to supplement this a little bit so that you know where we are going today, and from now on. These 3,000 years of our own era: the first millennium, which I figured down to 9- -- be 998; and the second millennium, which we may assume came to an end with the Second World War; and the third, which we are trying to reach, puts us in this position here. We are here at this moment liquidating the second millennium, and we are trying to reach the third. It isn't yet decided whether all people -- or countries, or civili- -- so-called civilizations on this map of the world will reach it. The United States might be omitted.

And -- this is serious business, gentlemen. It is a question of life and death. You don't reach the future just by consulting the clock. You have to do something about it. And it isn't quite clear what we are doing about it.

And so this will be our topic. And in order to show you that man goes forward by looking backward, I tried to suggest to you that in the last thousand years, people have had the so-called Renaissance. They have gone back from Christ's birth to Homer, and the pre-Homeric heroes. And what is called the Renaissance is an attempt to live in the second millennium of our era, from 1000 to 2000--that is, of -- or today--it is now 1967--by getting strength, and fortitude, and animation, and enthusiasm, by looking upon Plato, the Homeric heroes, to Aristotle, to Virgil, what have you, to the classics.

At this moment, we don't get much relief in -- if a man in 1900 or in 1800, when Robespierre, or Goethe, or Darwin looked upon the Greeks, they -- he felt relieved. He felt he knew where he was -- at -- should go -- be going.

So at this moment, there is a confusion--which -- to which, by your very existence testify, and your long hair--that you have to shift emphasis. Your paradigms, your examples will not be taken in the next 500 years--if this earth should survive--from Greek and Rome -- Greece and Rome. But it will have to be -- come -- to come from an older world. What this world is, I'm trying to place before you. We have now tried to go back to the oldest layer of human speech and human politics, which we can reach. We -- are in the midst of an investigation of the tribe in his migration. The tribe in his migration. And it is a change of horizon. We -- going forward, by going backward -- by looking backward, or while looking backward.

And it is -- it is difficult for you and me to understand what we are doing

if you do not understand that this has a very practical purpose. It is a purpose to get orientation for the future from looking at this which has been established so long ago, that our forefathers -- your grandmother and your grandfather thought they should know nothing of these primitive people, of this civil- -- uncivilized people. They wanted to look into civilizations. Now all you can say of the tribal order, it's a great order--I'm enthusiastic about it--but fortunately it is not civilized. Because the word "civis" has to do with cities. And they did not build cities, these primitive tribes, because the whole world--all the animals in the air, on earth, and in the water, fish, and eagle, and lion--were the world in which they lived. To have lived in a city--in New York or in Santa Cruz--they would have to -- they still -- they die. Four thousand red Indians died in San Juan Bautista in a few months, when these Catholic priests herded them in good faith into this place. Have you been there? The cemetery of San Juan Bautista is quite a place, because it -- can show you that primitive man cannot live in cities. He cannot live in cities.

And you have to wean yourself from this damned word "civilization" and from this equally damned word "culture." We can live very well without culture and without civilization. And I think you would leave -- live better if you omitted this -- these terms, which nobody seems to understand. They were invented in the French Revolution by the competition between the Germans and the French. The French said, "We have civilization because we have the city of Paris and neglect the countryside." And the Germans said, "We have culture, because we are agriculturalists, horticulturalists, what have you. you see. We plant. And the German planter, and the German farmer, that's the ideal man with his forests, the German forests, you see, { }."

You here are really poisoned by this use. You should--how do you say this? punch--pinch yourself each time that the word "culture" leaves your mouth. Don't take it into your mouth. It's a nonsensical term. Because people have lived as great people, as heroic people, without civilization and without culture. And that doesn't make a man a man, or a woman a woman.

And it's a curse today, because people under the mask of "civilization" and "culture" have an -- have a -- had the infamy to divide our great human march of events into 23 cultures and 69 civilizations, as though they had nothing to do with each other, as though the pyramids in Peru and the pyramids of the Mayas were not the same effort as the pyramids in Egypt. But they are. And to speak of them as different civilizations is only blinding you to the great common purpose of these people: to conquer the sky by their pyramids.

And as soon as you say "Egypt per- -- civilization," "Peru civilization," you dispense with sympathy; you dispense with your own awe and reverence for

this great stage in which we did conquer the sky. This is one -- one big gesture. And so it is with the tribes. It is true that there may have been hundred thousand tribes, and we still count some ten thousands of them. But these tribes had the same spirit as I hope we have here in this college: they were out for the necessary truth, and the indispensable spirit which allows you and me to survive death. The fight of history, the fight of life, the fight of you in here, in this college, makes no sense if you are not responsible for something remaining beyond your own physical existence. Whatever you do, whether you marry and have children, or whether you endow a university, or whether you write a book--it may be the worst book possible--a book means -- appeals to posterity, and appeals to people who will live longer than you yourself. Any poem does this. Any sound that comes out of a human mouth is an attempt to conjure up eternity, lastingness, something that will be better equipped to stand the tides of time than you yourself.

The mortality of man is the whole reason why we are here together, because man is this strange animal that is more frail than these big animals of old--the sauriae--but who has tackled the purpose from the very first day of his birth: to create something that will outlast himself.

That's why man is never interested in self, if he wants to be interesting. You are so uninteresting because you are interested in self. Self-development, and self- -- what have you, I mean. The 19th century in this country wrote "self," as you know, with three big "S." And it sounds to me like a hiss, like hissing. The one thing that is uninteresting is self.

Now I have to show you that the tribe, migrating across the whole -- whole continents -- as I told you, there are In- -- the Bororos in -- at the Amaz“- nas River who came obviously from Mongolia, across the Bering Strait. And there were of course people who landed from Melanesia in Central America. And there are people, Eskimo -- an Eskimo tribe has been discovered--it must have come from Alaska or Greenland--has been discovered in Cambodia. It is fantastic that the tribe, without having cities, without having civilization at all, has been always able to span the universe, to span the globe, to migrate. But that's -- you understand now why I am -- put so much stress on your correcting your vocabulary of your history teacher. You must never speak of the "migration of tribes"; there you misunderstand the whole movement. But it is the necessity for this little group of 500 to 5,000 people--called a tribe, you see--to keep its integrity by keeping it in touch with the whole globe. And to -- assuring the members of the tribe that they can survive this.

I'll tell you a story that happened to me in 1935, because you will see that we are surrounded by tribes. I had a friend, Mr. {Musselman,} and -- {Mussel-

man} was a Mennonite leader, a Mennonite parson, you may say. The Mennonites, as you know, are a sect that is paci- -- pacifist, and is not given to great church structures. There is no pope, and no cardinal. But {Musselman} was the acknowledged leader of the tribe, of the group. And he told me this story, that when his father came to die, a few years before 1935, Father {Musselman} said to his son, "My son, we came to this country because we had decided that we shouldn't bear arms. We should remain peacefully in our own group. It is now obvious that the United States are embarking on conscription."

As we have it now. He was quite right.

"Therefore, you must promise me to leave with all the Mennonites this country and go elsewhere, where there is no conscription. Because that is the basis of our existence."

There you have in this last remnant the grandeur of a tribe. The Mennonites, in the form of denomination in this country, you can study what a tribe is. A tribe is not stinking red Indians who don't wash. But the Mennonites are a very fine example of a real tribe, inspired by one message, you see, and willing to undergo any hardship and change place. That's very important, you see. Be indifferent to territory; then you can be a tribe.

I have no -- no more stringent, no more I think emphatic example than this story of {Musselman}, father and son, in 1935. That's a very short time back. Of course, these poor people are now clumped down, and the Amishmen in -- in Pennsylvania, the same thing. They were ruled by the governor in 1939. So in this country there is going on a great destruction at this moment of the rest of tribal order. But you must not use the word "tribal" for primitive man, but for heroic man, for great man, who knew what mattered and what didn't matter. It didn't matter to live in Philadelphia or New York; but it mattered very much not to break the code under which this -- this tribe had come into being.

So please correct your terms of "civilization," and -- and -- and "culture," "cultivated" and "barbarians," and "primitive" man. These people may not use perfume, gentlemen. And they -- because they don't stink. But -- but that doesn't make -- mean that they are not very great people. And the people who use the perfume usually are not.

There's one word in your language which has decayed, but which at one time summed up the -- great, heroic life of tribal man. And that's the word--you will not guess it--"tidy." The word "tidy." You think the -- "tidy" is a child that shows symptoms of being treated by her mother for a long time in the morning. But this is not the meaning of the word "tidy" originally. The word "tidy" is the

great secret of all tribal life: to do everything at the right moment. "Tidy" comes from "tidings," and from "tide," and from "timing." And "tidy" does not mean "clean," as you use it today, and "pretty." But it uses -- it is meant to -- to say, "You are acting at the right moment. This is now up to date; this is timely."

It's very strange. Most tribal words in the last hundred years have decayed in our language -- in all languages. As far as I can see in German; and in Italian; and in French, totally, because they are so civilized, you see, they don't -- they only have perfume and not even suffer soap. And -- therefore we have to recover. The first word that you have to recover is "tidy." It means that man -- people lead a life, everything at the right moment. If you -- we could do this, how happy we would be. The bliss of man is to do everything at the right moment. Even to get married at the right moment, you see: neither too early nor too late. This is the whole problem.

We are -- we have -- several of you are too much in a hurry with your exams. Quiet down. It isn't good to get the earliest. I always was the first bird, and then I -- had to be later the latest. You see, you just have to make up for all the hurry in which you are. And to be tidy in life is the reason why today we have to go back to the tribes, because the tribes were tidy. Everything happened at the right time. And we are lost, because everything you can do is at anytime, you see. You can ring up people at 2 o'clock at night, and they even answer the phone.

The second word which you have lost in its meaning is the word "meal." The tribal meal, again has to do with "{malus}," the court, session of the court, at the right moment. Three great courts were held in any tribal order--in the Germanic tribes, for example. And only at the tribal meal could -- "{malus}" is -- is the court meeting. How would you call it? Just the -- "session" is perhaps the best word for "meal." "Meal" means session. Now you use it for three square meals. The French even have -- have quatre repas -- four meals a day; that's too much.

But -- a well-organized household, a well-organized nation, a well-organized individual will have his meals at a -- at the allotted time. The meal in a tribe is quite different from eating, and quite different from food. Food is for animals. And as far as you are an animal, you may buy food.

When I came to this country, and learned that students can say that they buy food, I nearly collapsed. It's awful, you see. Because to buy food makes you into an animal. All buying and selling is after all on the animal level. And -- it isolates you. The greatness of a meal is that we join. Before your provost and myself started the first Peace Corps in the United States, we went to the CCC, the

Civilian Conservation -- Corps in one camp, and watched these people, and visited them. And we found that the officer in charge--unhappy man--said, "I cannot bring these boys not to grab -- grab their food from the"--how do you say, the { }, or what is it? bowel -- the bowl--"they all want to have the best bite."

I said, "Then close the camp." Anywhere where 10 people live together and do begrudge each other the best bite, there's nothing doing. The morale is gone. You can't start even from scratch. Anybody who has treated somebody else as -- in competition with the food, you see, has lost his honor.

You rarely get into this position, and therefore you have never reason to think about this. But I think it is -- you take it for granted that when there some bread on the table, and you sit down at -- at a -- in a -- coun- -- at a counter, you see, that you pass the bread to the other man first before you take it. That's a terror -- terribly wide step from the animal to the human being, you see, that you should act as a high priest and -- and distribute the food to the others.

These offices at the meal made man a political being. A { } {politikon}, as Aristotle has said, "A man who is fit to live with others in an organized society." And this little word "meal" you have depraved. It has no longer this meaning. Only occasionally can we sit down -- can you say that you sat down to a common meal. The word "eat" is -- is -- is promiscuous, or is up- -- I mean, undecided. It can be down to the individual level of animal food, of mere eating, and it can -- you can exalt it to the order that prevails in a meal.

Now the tribe is so strict with the meals, and tidiness, that the meal must come at the right moment, and that you must take the meal as more important than your private appetite, your own stomach, you see. It's a common stomach on which you { }. This community of foodstuff, called a "meal," usually in the tribal life has even a special connotation. Only at meals are tribal men allowed to eat meat. If you eat alone -- you can be a vegetarian, you can eat eggs, for example, and you can eat fruits of course of the field. But to this day, an Arab cannot eat meat, even if the camel belongs to his own family and they have slaughtered it, they must bring it to the tribal meal. Because the exalted spirit in which man is enthusiastic and can sing, can only happen in a tribal gathering. A camel cannot be eaten by a private family, because meat -- to eat meat is very presumptuous. It exalts man over the level of the animal, decidedly so. For you, that's -- incredible since you live on meat.

But this makes you understand, perhaps, the modern sec- -- sectarian ritual. We have vegetarians among us. We have people who say, "no meat." They represent a helpless imitation of this problem of the tribe. In a tribe, the people can eat meat occasionally when they are all together. But they cannot eat meat

when the fami- -- family is alone: one man, his wife, and his children.

So vegetarians are poor imitators. They have something by the heel, something real. They know that we should not eat meat indiscriminately. But they cannot imitate of course the original situation in which different people, you see, sit down for eating meat. And a smaller group sits down for eating vegetables. You understand?

So the vegetarians, and many sects today--Christian Science and other sects--are today distorted tribal orders. They are helpless. They -- they have something that -- which is valuable, which is important. But they cannot express it in the way a tribe in the bush can express it, because they are of course dependent on other people. They live together with others.

Therefore, this tribal order is reflected in the sect of vegetarianism, or antialcoholism, or what have you, in a distorted form. They say, "no meat," because they know that you shouldn't always eat meat. Then they brush aside the insinuation that there are occasions, like weddings and funerals, where meat should be eaten in order to insist that the great society, you see, which gathers for such a festival, is entitled with divine rights. And since it is inspired, it can eat even the meat of an animal, of an elephant, or of a big animal, you see, because man in a group, inspired and singing, reaches to divinity. He is divine. That is his divinity.

So you see the tribe is still today a great task master. If you look at the tribal order, that's not outside of you. It is your own problem. The way you eat lunch is--I won't say what it is, but I regret to see it, I mean. Pigs behave just as bad. Because everybody is here to himself. Every taste is cultivated. You never think that it would be nice if you would eat the same food together, you see. Everybody makes his own choice. One: coffee with sugar; and the other: coffee without sugar. And some take saccharin.

But these are very serious things, the way you eat, the way you live. The day -- I grant you, the day in which such a common meal with meat is held, is rare. But it signifies the whole order in which we exist. So please, when you use the term "meal," have some respect for your ancestors. You are right back to the tribal order. And the word "meal" is on the way out, like "tidy." It is misunderstood today. But it always means a group of people joining in the same spirit. And the highest expression of course of a meal is the toast. In the toast, you -- submit your fate to the spirit of the tribe. When you say in England, "The king!" lifting your glass, or in Sweden, "Sk†l," then you still feel that the group must be inspired by one dominating ancestral spirit. You don't do this. You don't say anything. And therefore, you only buy food. You are deprived of the honor of

sharing a meal. That is not -- you -- you don't know what a meal is, except perhaps -- { }.

It's very serious, because I do feel that the entr‚e, the new initiation for you into the tribal secrets, and into the power of the tribal order would be through these small elements, by taking meals seriously. It would not be by -- learning by heart the {Vopu}, the great songs of the Guatemala Quiche { }, or something like that. That's too far-fetched. But the small problem of a meal deserves your serious consideration.

Because at the moment of greatest egotism, at the moment of greatest avarice and cupidity, you overcome this and say the toast first. "The king!" they say in England, you see. I don't know what they say here. Probably "Mr. Nixon," first.

And -- . But without this relation of your taking food to some la- -- you forgive me, I'm just { }. I think it is -- it is more important that you should rebuild our only "civilized" and no longer human world by learning about meals. Let me end this example by saying that the word "meal" comes from the La- -- Germanic term "{malus}." And the {malus} is the Thing, the -- the court session. That's quite interesting that you should take such solemn word, where people go to get justice, to get right, you see, supreme -- the idea of the -- of a the session of the Supreme Court of the tribe. { }.

How serious the cohesion is which can be created by such order I may perhaps exemplify by the Bedouins around Egypt. For the last 4,000 years, the country of Egypt has destroyed all tribal order. The pharaoh, for -- of whom we will have to speak quite extensively, is a man who has driven out the tribal order totally, and instead built these pyramids, and marries his sister, so that -- he's even incestuous; breaks the taboos of the tribe.

But around the frontiers of this Nile Valley, with is 24 million inhabitants, there live to this day 70,000 Bedouins. They despise the Egyptians. They say, "They're dirty. They live in cities. They settle. "We are -- seem free; we migrate; we never leave our -- our vestiges, our dirty marks of having -- have-beens around our sleeping places; we go on." The last king of Egypt was attacked by these Bedouins, because they had heard that he was there with his sweetheart. Perhaps it was a sour heart; it was just a whore. And -- and so that led to the downfall of the king; his wife divorced him for this. And the king had to leave the country, because the Bedouins had attacked him without any scruples. For 4,000 years, these Bedouins in the desert held -- had held out in their migrating principles, you see, of life against the city. Only -- you must understand that this is serious business, that a tribal man is devoted to his order, just as you are to

yours, if you are. And you cannot fool around and say they are barbarians. They are not. They are people who have managed for 5,000 years to hand over to their children, and grandchildren, and great-grandchildren one and the same peaceful order. Otherwise they wouldn't be there.

And -- so please drop this connotation of "primitive" man. I think you are much more primitive, because you don't know who your grandfather or your great-grandfather was. They know. And that's a great achievement, and that is the achievement of the tribe. The tribes cultivate the ancestral order. And any tribesman sits therefore in the middle of an order of which he knows one, two, three backward; and one, two, three forward. He knows his great-grandchildren and provides for them; and he knows his grandparents. It is not true to look only at ancestors on the tribal pedigree. The whole problem of the tribe is to be surrounded, forward and backward, with life which is identifiable with your own life, in which you recognize order, in which you recognize, you see, the light of consciousness shining over more than your own generation -- always makes people big. If you can feel the identity with George Washington, you are an American. And if you don't, you are not.

So the tribal order--we have these -- these problems, you see, of this -- this faithfulness to the tribal order all over the globe. This tribal order explains to you speech. The tribes are, as far as we know, the only containers of this creative action of speech. And modern lexicographers, and modern liter- -- professors of literature don't know what speech is. They think speech consists of the 20,000 words in the dictionary. But speech is when your grandchild comes running when you call him, and when you come running when the grandchild calls. That is speech.

Speech is mutual naming. And nothing else. And all the linguistics that are printed in the United States--par- -- forgive me, but it's really true--at this moment are utter nonsense. They aren't worth the paper on which they are printed, because they -- they think they can explain speech as happening outside my own movement. "Come," "Here I am." This is real speech, to stand up and be counted. And where this doesn't happen, there is only derivative speech. Speech by professors of philosophy, sociology, geography, history, yes. But they don't speak. They write books. That's not the same thing, you see.

If you call me "Pig," I can slap you in the face, you see. But if you write a book which is printed a hundred years after me, I just turn over in my grave.

This is very strange. People speak of speech without mentioning the tribe, and they speak of the tribe without mentioning his creation of speech. Speech is created when a man who was young discovers one day that now he's old, and

instead of being the son of somebody, he is the father of somebody. For this simple motion, from my future into my past, we must speak. I can say today, because I am old, that when I was young, you see, the world was very different. Then I sat there, you see, and somebody else was standing here.

Now the essence of language is in this movement that the sentence in the present can be turned into a sentence of the past, and a sentence of the future can be turned into a sentence of the present. This is miraculous. You see, the natural sciences can't do this. They -- they omit this. They -- they can say something happened. The sun rose at that time a thousand years ago. But I and you can say, "Yesterday, I looked like a fool. Today I look like a wise man," if this is true.

The -- the great thing being that you move from the future into the past. And for this one purpose, we must speak, because that makes the world in which we live creative, mobile, changeable. The poor animals can't do that. The plants can't do it. The trees, this redwood--he is the same, Redwood--he cannot say, "This -- once this has not been, so I have been here." All they know is their present day; presence, it's all, you see. But you and I know that something different was yesterday, you see. And therefore, you suddenly can say, "This is gone." We can bury the dead. And we can welcome the newborn.

You -- look around in the world of nature, there is nothing of this kind. No animal has any power to put things of the future in -- on the shelf of the past. We shelve life. And that's why we have a history. The essence of history is this power, that you and I can say, "This has been." { } is the greatest verse in Virgil's Aeneid, you see. "We have been Trojans," and then he goes and describes the American situation 2,000 years back, and he says, "We all have been others. We have been {Lippians}, like the Etruscans, you see. We have been Greeks; we have been Spartans; we have been Trojans. Now we are Romans. And we gladly remember, we gladly -- recall that we have been people in a different land, with a different -- different deity to worship for. But don't think that we'll ever go back on this. We remain Romans."

In the first book of the Aeneid, if you have a -- a copy, or buy it otherwise, there is the greatest declaration of American citizenship there is. And of course, the American historians never read it. Because he describes exactly this problem of a man who comes to America--as I have done, you see--and who now proudly can say, "I have been a German, I now -- I am an American."

This is more than an animal can do. And that's why humanity is a class by itself. It is semi-divine. There's no doubt about it, because you and I can survive our death several times. Our have-beens, our former station. And speech is only worth the {candle} if you use it for this purpose.

The second thing speech does in a tribe is to let people join another group. Whatever we see of tribal life is that they hold off from incest. The incest motive at this moment is very much en vogue in literature. Thomas Mann has written on it, and the Swedish -- there is a new Swedish movie on -- on this, and wherever you -- you read this putrid literature, you find incest. Now it shows the weakness of modern man, and shows the reason why we have to enter the third millennium very quickly, to get rid of the fantastic errors of the -- at the end of the second millennium, of the mere "world civilization," as the word goes. Because you are on the verge of deep corruption. Innocent Americans read Proust. Homosexuality is rampant. These are very primitive, and very negative things. They aren't worth anything. Anybody who -- who knows what speech is for cannot fall for this, because incest means it isn't worth talking. You just crawl into a bed, and then come out again. Nothing has been said. All the more has been done.

It is abhorrent. It is decadent. It is not worth of a man, because a man wants to say what he has done, and wants to announce what he is going to do. And otherwise he is not a man. We are, as I told you, the tuning fork of the universe. And anybody who cannot sing out what he is doing shouldn't do it. It's not worth doing, because -- the reason is very simple, gentlemen. Only in the state of singing, of enthusiasm, of shouting are we at our best. Your faculties as an individual are subdued. They are of a minor capacity, of a minor volume than your actions could be. And therefore, you must -- in order to be in love, you must be -- feel that you can sing it out loud. And the whole problem of incest is that the -- children of the same gro- -- of the same ho- -- household don't have -- have no reason to court, to sing to each other in great enthusiasm and rapture. And that you must, in order to know what love is for. And how you -- can love, and learn to love.

All languages, you see, are re-created seven times during your life. As a child, you learn your mother tongue. But as a 14-year-old, you must begin to learn the bridal tongue. And as a 30-year-old, you must learn the legislative tongue. And as a 60-year-old, you must learn the educational tongue, which is the most boring of them all.

There are many -- languages which you have to learn. One of the great heresies of modern, natural man is that he thinks English is English. That's absolutely untrue. What I read here in this country now, on the -- in the publications of this college and so, it's neither English nor American. It's just -- I won't say what it is. Voodoo. I mean, live long enough in an educational community, and you will learn that all decent language disappears. And the language of the -- I don't know, the professional language begins to take -- to take that -- hold of us. That's a different language from anything you would say at home. And -- it -- but on the other hand -- understand me--that has to be. To a certain extent, we

all have to add to hour home, domestic language, you see--to this idiom--a poetic language by which we can create friendships, and fraternities, and sororities, and marriages. And then there must be a political language where you even can understand the governor.

These are different languages. And I'll prove it to you. For the last thousand years, all educated people went to schools in which they learned -- learned a second language. Now do you think mankind is such -- fool to impose on you too a second, a third, a fourth language, you see, if it wasn't inevitable and indispensable, that you dispose of something that has not been said in the cradle; that has not been sung to you by your mother, or your wet-nurse, you see; but that is an additional pedestal on which you can stand and get up to some higher verities, and some higher communication, some more intensified truth?

So, the funny thing is, you see: all the nationalists of today are people who have gone to Gymnasiums and -- learned Latin and Greek. And now they say, you see, the French say "French"; and the English say "Anglo-Saxon"; and the Americans fortunately not yet say it, but they will one day say, "Only Cherokee is worth speaking," you see.

And this is very funny. We have -- the very people who are sent to Gymnasium in order to learn Latin and Greek have been the boosters of blind nationalism and one language: "German only," you see; "Greek only"; whatever it is. They contradict themselves, because the power to be enthusiastic they learn because they learned at school the second language. Or a third.

It is never mentioned. I have yet to find a blind nationalist, like this man Maurice BarrŠs in France who is quite a good example, because he was as intelligent as a Frenchmen, and as stupid as a Parisian. And -- and the stupidity of the Parisian is -- in this fact, that he pretended that France could be -- restored to its tribal honors, and -- and history, and past without taking into account that the means of doing this was to be dipped deeply into another language. That you have to read Tacitus to become a German patriot, you see. And you have to learn -- read -- Thucydides to become a great American historian. This is a very strange thing, but it's true. There have no -- been no great historians who have not mastered one other tongue. That's the condition for saying more than the common man, you see, in the street can say.

The simplest things today have to be rediscovered. It's really very remarkable how the -- how the people in the -- who went to high school, and to Gymnasium, and even to universities, lie to their folks at home, omitting the basis of their authority. The -- the common man here in this country or elsewhere listens now to the Birch Society people, and eat their candy. But -- but they never

ask, "What gives the membership of the society the authority to speak to the common man?" That they have gone to a higher school, and that they have learned other languages.

Well, all this was of course introduced long ago, when Jesus was crucified. Pontius Pilate saw what was happening, and he put the name of the Lord in three languages, you see: in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. And ever since, man is trilingual at least. If you have not more than one language, you have no language, because the old language, you see, can wear off as just having been, as the old language, you see. So there has always to be an element of surprise, of newness. You have to have three languages: the language of yesterday, the language of today, and the language of tomorrow.

And this is very serious, because we are threatened today by the most miserable deafness and blindness to our own language. If you see the sins that are now committed in honor of the American Volapk, or the American lingo, you shudder.

My -- now let me be very serious and very sober. This has nothing to do with this course. I feel that the whole western world is threatened by a loss of language. It isn't yet said that we can survive television and rad- -- radio. You -- lose every day some power of articulation from your own.

You remember -- no, you don't remember. last year I spoke here and forbade everybody to record, because I wanted to make, you see, an -- an attempt to reform your ears, so that you would say, "There is no other way of retaining this. Can't be found in a book, can't be found on tape, can't be found anywhere, you see. Only my ears have to listen to it." That's very serious. Make the attempt. Try to make your wife -- your girl believe what you say, you see, without an -- registered letter.

We -- the modern man has to go -- study the tribes for this simple reason: that in the tribe, the language has gone on for 5,000 years, and that it is highly improbable that this same power will stay with us even for 50 years. When I read what stores and so, how they abuse the English language--most words are really {crumbling}. Half of them. It's very fast, the disappearance of language. Nobody writes like Hawthorne or Melville. And there's no reason to believe that anybody will in 50 years take the trouble of saying anything himself. He will have the machinery, you see, and he will have -- of course a computer. And love-making will be 191, you see, and un-love-making will be 192. Or love-unmaking, I would say.

{ }. I'm not sure that you really will be able to say all the important

things you have to say, yourself. And you should try to -- to achieve that. That's more important than writing papers. The only thing I always hear is, "You know what I mean?" which always means that nobody has any idea what they mean.

To show you how strange we are limited in our linguistic experience by the tribal order, I may perhaps point out to you that we speak of grandchildren and grandparents. That is, we count from ourself away. And both times, we call the little baby, the grandchild, with the world "grand," because it's so small, you see; and the grandfather, too. Now the French don't do this. The French say, "petit-fils." That is, they use "small" for anything younger than we, you see; and "grand" for anything above us. "grand-mŠre," and "grand-papa" -- "grand-pŠre." But they say "petit-fils" and "petite-fille," which I think is both very interesting and to be noticed by you.

We are today destroying the last remnants of the tribal language, lingo. And therefore "grandchild" is already I think a very poor word. Just as "tidy" has lost its original meaning, you see, of happening in time. So a grandchild, calling him "petit-fils," you call him quite wrongly, because he may be now, at this moment, small. Because that is not the family situation. The family situation is that he is posterity, and you must wish that he becomes grand, grand, grand. You see. He is not petit-fils, not at all. As long as you belabor this, that he is smaller than you, you don't give him a chance. And you exaggerate the importance of your living at this moment.

And here we come to the decisive point of tribal survival. This being able to go on the totem pole, where the ancestors -- the eyes of the ancestors are carved in and look at you, to go and say, "He has been. He is now before me. Before, he was in front of me, and now he is --" I don't know, "above me," I suppose is the right word, is the content of most liturgies of the tribal order.

We spoke last time of the three beings that you and I are. The -- being in love, being in the middle, in passion, the being at -- on your deathbed, or at the -- at the moment of your execution, as on the Cross; or your being young and born, and being in the cradle, being the sound baby, being somebody. Have a -- have a body, I said, have a mi- -- have a soul, and have -- ja, what is it? just { }, have a name.

If you would allow me to state: I won't -- that's a long, very complicated story, and I have absolutely no possibility of going in- -- into this totally. Soul and body. These three things any tribal order has to represent, and to convince you that you are contained in these three states of aggregate. Just as there is water, and ice, and steam, so you are impassioned when you are able to conceive and to beget. And you are -- sober, when you are able to jump, or to eat, or to

march. And you are in a sacrificial mood when you lay down your life for your beloved, in which form ever, by courting with favor, or by being on a battlefield, or by being -- experimenting in such a way that you are hurt by the experiment. There are innumerable ways in which you can act sacrificially; and there are innumerable ways in which you can act healthily, vigorously; and there are innumerable ways in which you can create unions. Marriage is the most remarkable union, because a woman, from the day of her marriage on, must claim that she belongs more to her husband than to her parents. This is not natural. There have been many households in agricultural communities where the son-in-law moved up into the -- into the far- -- on the farm, you see, and he was more or less the -- the son-in-law for the rest of his life, because there was such a wonderful farm to inherit, and so the daughter of the farm never dropped her name, really. She was always the daughter, you see, who inherited this place. And everybody knew that the -- the husband of hers had only gotten on this farm by marriage. This today is the exception.

In agricultural societies, a great problem has been to annihilate the -- family of old, to which the wo- -- wife -- woman belongs, and to make quite sure that nobody could insult her by calling her "Miss Smith." She had to be "Mrs. Flaherty."

This is -- never mentioned in our history books, and never mentioned in our -- in our description of humanity. The greatest event is that in the middle of life, we can break the pedigree. It's all right to have ancestor worship, as you read in most books, you see. But all this ancestor worship has always been balanced by the power to leave the same tribe, and to negate it, and to say, "That's over with." Man lives, as I said. Incest has always been negated by the tribe. The language of enthusiasm, the language of courtship makes it possible to change, to break away from the existing ties. The same lady who yesterday you had to -- to address as "Miss" today is "Mrs." Have you ever wondered how incredible, how solitary this is in our whole society? Our whole society is historically minded, and if it can remember something, it never can get out of this, you see. It repeats, and repeats, and repeats. No so with family names. You cannot be tolerated if you deny a married woman, you see, her new name. So that within 24 hours, you are forced to re-learn and to say, "That is not Miss Smith. Never say so," you see. Till she is divorced, she is Mrs. Gregg, you see.

The miracle of forming new units; the power to -- know that you are somebody; and then the willingness to leave something behind, to sacrifice something, these three things have dominated the -- all tribal orders I know of. And the great center of all tribal celebration, of all speech in the tribe, of all songs is a celebration in which these three acts are united. You hear today of initiation. But you rarely hear that at these initiation rites, where the young men were

introduced to -- and got their tribal name, that they -- there was also sacrifice, human sacrifice, wild dances, the medicine man putting on his big mask as a spirit of the tribe, you see, and captives or other people were slaughtered in order to show that the tribe had these three states of aggregate. The state in which only the name survived; the state in which passion founds new entities; and the healthy mentality in which a man proves his mettle by hunting the elephant, or by showing his power usually by lifting weights, or whatever he is asked to do as an individual.

There is a man -- one man in -- in the world, {Albert Jensen}--he died last year, unfortunately--who has dedicated his life to proving the unity of these three stages. He said a tribe is not satisfied before he has not found a liturgy, a calendar, a church order, so to speak, in which the initiation, the sacrifice, and the passion, the intoxication with -- with passion, are all three present. Any tribe feels that he has immortality, that he is, so to speak, on top of the wave; that he has managed to live, if he annually, or whatever -- how often they can -- celebrates a celebration in which these three things appear: human sacrifice, lovemaking, and probes -- probation by mighty deeds.

The funny -- the discovery of this man, that's his name. Since he died last year, I'm -- and I'm very sorry, and I want to give him the honor that you learn his name: {Adolf E. Jensen}. He was written a little -- { } book, The Killed Deity, The Killed Deity. And the important thing is, you see, that we have innumerable descriptions of tribal things, this one and this one. But he is the only one who has seen that these three phases have always been in the tribal consciousness, present, as one, as on three different levels, man himself--and his wife, too.

This is a great progress, a great step forward compared to what modern ethnologist otherwise accepts. The ethnologists are very curious people, very busy people, very courageous people--they have lived under impossible cir- -- conditions in the bush in Africa and in Asia. So don't think that I am not aware of their great sacrifices for ethnology. But they mostly have overlooked the unity of these rites. That is quite difficult. You have to have some -- some belief in the human character.

Now most modern men in the last 50 years were people of the Enlightenment, and only believed that 2 and 2 is 4, and if you had four natives, then you had four natives. Unfortunately that isn't true, you see. You can have one native who represents the whole tribe, and you can have one native who is just no -- worth nothing. The gradation, the nobility, the leadership in a tribe is as hard- -- -ly -- established much better than in our congre- -- society. They all know who is up and who is down. And they know whom to trust and whom not to trust.

And they know that without bringing death into life, there is no continuity. The reason why we are people and not animals is: any animal runs away from death. If a horse dies, all the other horses disappear, and we stand by. We have incorporated all the processes of your and my existence into our conscious -- unto our conscious existence. What distinguishes the animal -- from man is not only that a man can say, "This has been," you see, "I myself have been this, now I am not," which is very great. But it entails this second step, that I can say, "Let me close the eyes of my father." No animal does this. No animal understands even this. And I hope this time is over that people are always compared to animals. I -- this was terrible in America. When I came to this country, the comparisons with the animal seemed so convincing and so -- were so widespread that of course the -- people became animals. And if you continue this, I mean, America will be out.

The greatness of man is that he can face death; his own and other people, and do something about it.

The celebration of three great festivals--or one in three, or three in one--dominates, so far as we now know, all tribal order. It is a very orderly society when you think that every year there had to be represented the highest moment, death; the -- the mediocre moment, wedding; and the everyday moment of the hunter or of the warrior, you see, when he did something which was needed. And it is the -- the limit of the tribal order is of course human sacrifice. When you read the Bible, you know that Abraham was expected to sacrifice his son, Isaac. And the whole change -- the entrance into a new chapter of history begins with his not doing it. Obviously something else had to take its place. The Bi- -- whole Old Testament is written around the substitution for that what -- which Abraham did not to do to Isaac. That's why -- you people cannot understand the Bible any longer, because you do not know that life always needs sacrifice. You deny this. You think that sugar and -- and -- and strawberries are enough. Without sacrifice, no political order. But it hasn't to be the human being that has to be sacrificed. That's the great question.

Now -- the celebration of this tribal, sacrificial festival has enabled the tribes to last 6- and 7,000 years, which is a very remarkable thing. And it makes them totally indifferent to the next tribe and the other tribe. A tribe has so much work to do, to live on the globe, through time, that they cannot possibly also conquer the world. Tribes are indifferent to size. The tribe can be a very good tribe and have -- 500 or 800 members, and be perfectly happy, perfectly satisfied.

I here have the description, a very touching -- which I recommend you highly. It has never been exploited -- and -- and one of you should write a poem -- a play on this. That is the story of the Yaruros, with a "Y" in the beginning, in -- on the Orinoco, in -- in Venezuela. It is described in the Bureau of Ethnology,

Volume 123. And it has never been -- gained any attention and any reverence, because here you have the tragic story of a tribe in the last generation, knowing that they won't last.

Now you can imagine that this is very pathetic, and very great, because a tribe tries to reach eternity; perpetuity is its great dream. Now, to find a tribe that is suddenly hit by the awareness that this will be the last, perhaps, the last -- or the one-before-last celebration of their annual meeting is of such a -- makes you shudder. And I have never been able to think of this without feeling that here, we have -- we are witnessing something enormous. The end of a political order, you see, consciously reached. The reason is very simple. They are a rather small and brave people. And the neighboring grownups--Spaniards, and whoever the people are in Venezuela; it's a -- strange mixture--are so powerful with their weapons and their numbers that they can violate these women in this little Yaruro group, without punishment. So that these Yaruro men have to look -- stand and look at how these women are, you see, carried away, or left alone, or dropped miserably. And so the dishonor of this tribe is of course very tragic.

And I want you -- I cannot say that you all should read it, because they haven't even bound it now, in the library, you see. Bureau of Ethnology in this country, you see, is not half as interesting as -- as Sartre. I assure you, it's much more interesting than Sartre. Sartre misunderstands language, and the tribe doesn't. Sartre has written that he was -- ma- -- came into the world to use the world -- the word. Now, no man has come into the world to use the word. We are distinguished, we are privileged to learn how to speak. That's not the same thing. And what we say cannot be my property or your property. Never think that when you speak honestly, and you speak truthfully that you speak. It is the order which, through you, reaches the next man. And that's why you can -- it makes sense to speak, because he and you learn who you are, by being told. By being addressed as "Mr. Smith," and "Mr. Non-Smith," you see, you suddenly behave. And if you say "Miss," you even know better how to behave.

People are today, in this terrible machine age -- think that language is machine-made. This is utter nonsense. Think of it, and you will -- must really discover that I will not trust a man who says, "I have invented my language." Would you speak up? Would you listen to such a fool? Beat him up!

Modern -- literature has reached an all-time low, because these people, instead of going down on their knees and saying they are allowed to speak, say they speak, they use words. "I have come," Sartre has said, "into the world to make it speak." {Peep!} The medicine man of our age. Without sacrifice, without love, without passion, without membership, without saying, you see, "You are all my brothers." Just talking nonsense and selling a hundred thousand copies.

The degradation of modern speech has reached an un- -- never-heard-of limit. And you read that; you buy these books, just because they are obscene and called Esquire. I think you know more than Esquire. The obscenities are -- can be known by anybody who doesn't spend the money on -- Esquire or whatever it is. It's your cowardice, because you do not face your own emotion, that you must buy these books, which {build them}, so to speak, allow you to -- not to do it yourself. It's very cheap.

Any sin committed by yourself is less sin than anything read about these -- these vagaries. The man who reads Esquire, or goes -- through -- looks through a window in a brothel goes to Hell. But who man -- a man who goes to a woman because he's -- he is very much plagued, doesn't go to Hell. He will be forgiven. But the sightseers, the voyeur, the readers of all this obscene stuff, they cannot be helped; they cannot be saved. Because they abuse the highest divinity that man has: speech. And this, any tribesman knows.

Any tribesman knows that when he speaks, this is an act of his life, and that stays with him. He cannot deny that he has said it. But you all deny that you have read all this -- this criminal stuff.

So the tribal order, therefore, you can -- and as I said, is now very much on the upswing. Without the tribe, we cannot recover our five senses, our piety, our reverence, our concrete solemnity that you -- we mean what we say, and we only say what we mean. There is no distinction. As long as we have advertising, everybody thinks that one thing is said, and another is meant. Now how can we live in such an order, where everybody has to say, "Well, I don't know if he means it," you see. He said -- he said you are beautiful, and of course you would like to believe it. Don't.

There is today no issue of truth in this whole -- and that's why the word "fiction," I hope is on the way out. Yesterday I had a conversation with one of your teachers, and I was fortunately told that the end of fiction was in sight. I hope it is. We don't need fiction. I mean, time is too precious. I mean, I want -- I want to hear what is true, and what -- on what I can act.

Anything that's just entertainment, gentlemen, means that -- "enter" means between the real time, between meals, between tidinesses, between tidings, between dates. That's -- entertainment.

Now there are these vacuums; there are these times where we are bored, and where we have to play, and nothing will be said against it, but never think that in an entertainment the truth can be said. You must know that to entertain somebody means to take him out of reality into something that is play. Then

there is no harm done. But if you put entertainment about "tainment" -- over "tainment," then you go wrong.

Now the tribes, of course, knew this. And as I said, they have learned to make play serious. The medicine man is the greatest example of such a transformation into something lasting and serious of -- of an attitude which is -- was mere play in the beginning. Here, this eagle-man, or this fish-man, or this lionman, you see--others had other configurations--this in itself is play. But man is in -- able to enter history by declaring one day, by common consent, that that what has been play hitherto now is meant to be serious.

You can always appoint presidents. And can choose a chairman. And at the very moment when the United -- 13 states -- 13 colonies decided to have a president, out of this play-president--at games, or what-have-you chairman--there came the presidency of the United States. This is unknown today. Sociologists may talk to you about play. They think every serious thing can be changed into play. But the creative act that is demanded from our society for the next 900 years is that we must learn from studying play and our behavior in play, that probably certain offices have to be created in society, which no -- no longer exist.

The story of the ombudsman is quite an interesting one. You have read in the paper that in Sweden, they have invented a new office, the ombudsman. And they want to introduce it here. I don't know -- I have no criticism of it, I have no judgment on the matter. But it is very exciting to find that a new office, of which no political scientist has ever heard before, you see, is in the offing at this moment. Surging from the dark background of our existence, that our offices all have a lacuna, that something is missing in the serious life. You can play with it in the beginning, and see -- whether it fits, and whether it is acceptable, and whether it is worth the sacrifices to be made for it.

Any minute are we today in this temptation only to play. The way from seriousness to play is open to all of you. And you caricature kings, and you caricature presidents, you caricature everybody. That's all right. But the more important thing is that the world around you, the redwood in -- in -- here in the valley of Felton, and the stars, and so, they are not just there for looking at, but also for drawing some conclusions. And you have to select.

The tribes have selected animals and plants as their guiding lights. But they have always known that they are at variance. They cannot be used forever. Man has always, in these tribes, donned masks of all kind of description.

Allow me two more minutes, please.

The -- and this brings me to the end of -- you understand, I have very restricted time for the whole process, here. The -- any group, any stage in this march of civilization has done certain things to perfection, so that they cannot be beaten, that no other time will create anything similar. The -- Greek sculpture, or Greek Homer cannot be surpassed by anything that you or I can do. And probably in our own time, we have such scientific actions too that cannot be surpassed. The Greeks--that's known--have these noble, noble paradigms of -- of art. The tribes have something similar. You all know it, but our books never make use to find the admiration of -- us -- us modern men to say that these people have as much genius, as much brightness, as much intelligence as you and I. One of the terrible errors of modern man is that he looks back to these primitive men and thinks they were less, they were -- idiots. And so all your geniuses are then begotten from idiots. How you do it, I don't know. But I assure you, my experience has been that the most primitive man had more genius than the usual student on this campus, because he was more put on his own mettle, and -- and you have so much support that you do not distinguish yourself sufficiently.

The proof of this is the mask. All the -- the perfection of a tribal order is not in their buildings, is not in their houses, is not in their huts. But you cannot beat a primitive tribe's masks. These masks compete with the highest.

When they came to Europe, 70 years ago from Bali, when the -- when Gaugin discovered them--and his equals, Degas and his -- the painters--they were in a rage. They hadn't know that it was possible to form, to compose, to create this perfect image of the living nature, of the living world. And you all have -- must have seen some of these masks. But who has not? Well, you have not? You should. You can't escape it. Even in Esquire they are, sometimes.

Now believe me, if you cannot revere the masks of these primi- -- so-called primitive people, you see, you have not entered history, yet. Because the greatness of history consists that in every phase, in every thousand years, in every millennium, the highest has been achieved. We cannot go higher than the masks that these people have made. We won't make masks. We have other things to do. But don't believe that they have -- we have more genius. This is one of the fallacies. When I came to this country, the majority of Americans still seemed to believe that they came from the apes, they themselves. Perhaps they came. I didn't.

I came from people who had the same ranking as myself. And they proved it. Primitive man proves it by carving these masterpieces of these masks. They cannot be beaten by any modern sculptor, or any modern painter.

Thank you.