{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

I had hoped to have -- hope to conclude today our chapter on the tribes, on this very first universe created by humans for their existence on this globe. However, I feel very deeply that there is no end to it, and that you are so far removed from any understanding of this original phase of mankind--as any human being on earth can be. I think the American people at this moment are so im- -- immersed in their division of labor that they cannot understand that the first order of man did not know of any division of labor, but -- of a distribution of roles, of quite a different character. They were, as I told you, out, and occupied, and preoccupied with becoming parents, and children of some eternal order, of some eternal growth, of some etern- - -- ing membership in --. And this membership, obviously, since it conquered death over thousands of years, was not very much interested in bouncing presidents or firing chancellors. This proletarian attitude of the American people precludes your understanding of the tribal order nearly completely.

If a president of a university can, as the headlines said -- can be bounced and fired in five minutes, then there is no order. Then there is just chaos. And you have lived in the last week an interesting example of the necessity for our rediscovering of the achievements of these ancient, primitive, barbaric, and prem- -- primeval men. They were far superior to all of us, because they belonged forever into a certain order. And nobody could deprive them, as long as they were willing to risk their lives for it. Since they had overcome the fear of death, they were -- and they are, immortal. We are not -- anybody who is a coward and fears death cannot enter history. All these people who are for a higher standard of living have ceased to live, because life is predicated on our victory over death. Where there is no victory over death, there is no mankind. There are animals. All animals fear death. Man is the only being on this earth which was allowed by his creator to share his purpose, and to know what he stands for, and therefore to laugh death in the face and say, "It's unimportant." We survive our own death. And the tribe has done this.

In the Aleutians, which is, as you know, a very windy place, and is just the opposite from -- from sunny California, the parenthood on which the existence of a tribe is predicated--our belonging to something that remains our parent, our father and mother together, our protecting spirit--has been developed to such a high degree that I would like to take the liberty of reading to you the description of one of the dances in these wet islands, where the sun never shines, but where the people are very sunny indeed.

"On the Aleutians set -- hundreds of women in the moon-

light carry out their dances. They were naked, except for their masks. Any male who would espy such dances would immediately be executed. Analogous dances were danced by the naked men. Both groups of dancers were ensouled by the belief that thank these secret rituals a spiritual power filled the main masks -- mask."

You remember I tried to tell you last time that the mask is the superb perfection of the tribe. When the Athenian Acropolis is not more perfect in its architecture than the masks are as masks, that the tribes have in their lack of buildings, their lack of geography, their lack of roots, their lack of technicalities, yet managed to have something that is perfect, that is summum bonum, that cannot be excelled. The masks of Bali, or a mask of these Aleu- -- on these Aleutians has the same perfection as a painting of Raphael. It is not a painting of Raphael. It doesn't represent something which we would treasure as highly as a Madonna and the -- her child. But in -- artistry, in perfection has the same standard of the absolute, non-plus-ultra, the best.

Now these main masks then, attracted, centralized, configurated the group of these hundreds of dancers. Now listen to this:

"They were ensouled by the bel- -- faith that their secret rituals were able to fill the mask of the center danc- -- central dancer with inspiration. But you could not try to see," we would say in a good translation, "God."

As -- as any pious man knows, that he cannot see God. Only theologians think they can. I read an -- a prospectus of a -- of a -- really a -- a theologian. He thought he was a theologian. Obviously he assumed that he was a Christian. And it read: The Picture of God by John Calvin. So that's the degradation of our days, you see, that pure paganism has cut into this theology. They dare to say that they have a picture of God. If they say this, then we are back to -- well, I don't know to which day. Certainly tribal people knew better, that you must not try to see God, that this is blasphemy.

But in -- of course in Los Angeles you can think of anything. I mean, on the -- on the -- on the churchyard there. What is it called? This wonderful cemetery, where you pay a million dollars to become immortal, and to have a picture of God. Who is this?

(Forest Lawn.)

Wie? Ja, ja.

But you have to know that we live today under caricatures of spiritual traditions. What people think of God is: a "concept." Well, if it -- God is a concept,

He is not God. Living beings have no concepts. And if He -- therefore you can see today that one-half of mankind speaks of a "picture of God," and the other speak of -- of a "concept of God"; so both are dead { }.

The Aleutian people are still alive to this day, because both dancing groups, males and females, were ensouled by the faith that their secret rituals could fill the main mask with spiritual power. But to envisualize, to envisage this spiritual power would carry death or misfortune. You had to listen to it. So here we come to the point that distinguishes -- please sit down, yes? Don't talk.

In order to prevent anybody to blaspheme, like our theologians do, they had also to wear masks. And these masks were carved in such a manner that they could only see down to their feet. Otherwise, they could not look forward, and they could not look up; so they could never see the mask of the main dancer, of the center of things, of this magician, or however you like to call it--this medicine man, this high priest of the tribe--who embodied the spirit -- in this dance, as successfully provoked, as profes- -- successfully conjured up by their movements. That, so to speak, that was like the swinging wolf, you see, setting in motion the center thing. If this dan- -- mask -- if this mask fell off from the face of one of the dancers, he immediately had to be killed.

If the mask was at an end, this -- artistically carved, main mask had to be broken up. This service, this divine service was at an end. It's like Communion, you see; when it is all over, you see, "Ita missa est," it's the same idea, the spirit is now at peace, quieted down. And in the same manner, these tribes were -- they are just as religious people as we are, and had the same religious power, of course. And they are not primitive people; they are just primeval people. They had no buildings, they had no printed press; but they had this -- dances as an experience of how the spirit can move people to a decent behavior, and a meaningful behavior.

I think the -- the important thing is that they were not allowed to leave the dancing ring. When they lost their mask, or if they tried to look outside the masks, they had forfeited their life. It was a dangerous performance. Now all religion is only interesting as long as it is dangerous. That's why our Sunday services are not functioning, because they are absolutely polite. Now where you are polite, you are out of danger. And therefore, polite church services are no church services of any importance. They are imitations, or they are -- perhaps they are school clubs.

And that's why the learning about the tribes today is very important and very exciting, because we there--you and I as well--recover the sense of the proportionate, of the adequate, of the meaningful, of the powerful, of the crea-

tive. Every tribal dancer, after he had performed in one of these groups, you see, then was tattooed, as we already have said. And that is, he got an edition of the tribal bible on his body. The tattoo of any tribesman is -- corresponds to what you get at your confirmation when you get a copy of the Bible, or of the faith of the group to which you pretend to belong. And as long as you can have the Bible, you can pretend that you belong. It's a substitute for the tattoo. The tattoo would be a little more relevant, probably, than your ownership of the Bible.

But in order to remind you that the Bible is relevant, there used to be a pedigree written into the Bible -- your Bible, you see. It was given to you by your parents; it was given to you on an important day of your life, of your biography. And certainly perhaps the pedigree of the family was even in there. In most old family bibles, that is the case. And for this reason, the Bible--and if you take it today--may explain to you the importance of the tattoo, of a tribal warrior. A warrior is in possession of the ecclesiastical tradition and libraries through his tattoo on his book -- on his body.

As long as he is not tattooed, he is just anybody; and he becomes somebody as soon as he is tattooed. The somebody, that's the spirit in which -- of which he is one of the thousand limbs at this -- in this generation. I said to you that parenthood is the creation of the tribe. To have parents, and to have offspring, to have descendants is the result of all the behavior in a tribe. You certainly know where you come from, and where you are going, beyond your own death. In this sense, it goes downward as much as upward. The generations are counted, as I told you, in any good tribe, as much forward for the next three generations as they go upward, for the previous three.

They told me when I went to California for the first time that in the good old days in California, if a man asked somebody, "Who was your grandfather?" he ran the risk of -- for being shot -- being shot. People in this country didn't want to be reminded of their ancestors.

That is -- for all modern so- -- loose society, very difficult to understand that there should be any interest to emphasize that you are nothing but a link in the chain of generations. Yet, if we go in such a hurry, as I said, to be fired and bounced every day, it is perhaps understandable that the opposite tendency has its merits, and that mankind on this globe would not exist if he had not sacrificed in the first -- in the first phase of his historical existence everything to this continuity through time. And be quite indifferent -- indifferent to -- through his discontinuity in space.

What does it matter for these Aleutian people, that they are isolated on an island in a constant fog, as the climate is on the Aleutians, since they can boast

that they have conquered time? That they are there forever and forever, and will never cease to celebrate their inspiration of being called -- into being, and can fight illness and death by substitution and by naming the spirit which keeps them alive?

The word "parent" therefore is perhaps the simplest way to -- to define what a tribe does. It gives man parents. And today, with unknown parenthood, more and more spreading--out of a test tube you can be born today, or be generated -- perhaps it interests you, that the word "parents" is very close to two things: begetting and obedience. The old Catholic -- the old Church tradition is that Mary receiv- -- conceived through the ear, because she was -- Jesus is born by -- as the word of God. There is a quo- -- great depth in this, you see. The word "parent" is ambiguous. It can come from begetting and from obed- -- obeying. The parent is the one to whom you have to obey, and it is also the one you have begotten. There is -- among human beings should be no distinction.

It is quite terrible, the way you grow up, by dividing spirit -- nature and spirit. You really think that something is natural, and the other is, I don't know--mental or perhaps spiritual. There is no such division in you and me. If something good is said by your parents, it begins already to incarnate in you, to become flesh. And when your parents get engaged to marry, they already begin to beget you. And the rest is -- is profligacy today. People have today, in imitation of the pigs and the elephants, have driven a wedge between your power to speak something into being and to beget somebody. But there is no difference. I mean, on the day of engagement and on the day of wedding, you are told that you are husband and wife, so you begin to be it. And if a child is born, that's the fruit as much of the word spoken at -- on -- at the altar as of the acts then -- performed in bed. But to your imagination, it is otherwise, because you prefer to begin as animals, and then to end up in a lunatic asylum.

Our words are the beginnings of our acts. This is the sermon of -- not on the Mountain, but the sermon of the tribes. The sermon of the tribe is to insist on the proper order of incarnation, of realization, of production, of doing things. First, the word must be said. He is a proletarian, you see, who is hired without being told what to do before he is hired. Just for eight hours a day. This is the whole proletarian problem, the manufacturer problem. That's Marx's problem, you see. He saw that people were hired without being told without being expected what to do. "Come in the morning at 8 o'clock, I'll tell you." That's, you see, as they have treated the president of this university. And so they have treated him as a proletarian, as a knave, as a servant. And that's a scandal. And I don't care for any -- nothing of the other reasons -- things. But you have been dishonored, because the president of your school has been fired and bounced.

Now you understand that -- that even workers today, and mail -- clerks cannot be bounced and fired. So if the president of the university can be fired and bounced, you are below the lowest -- low clerk in your endeavors. You are just not worth doing anything, because of course he represents your position in the world of the spirit. And in California there seems to be no world of the spirit. It's just a school, grammar school. And then you can treat a man like that.

I don't care for the reasons. I know nothing. I'm a foreigner here, and a stranger. But I know that as long as the -- university can be treated in the public eye in such a manner, you are proletarians. The proletarian revolution of Mr. Karl Marx { } ahead of you. And I'm teaching tribal order in order to give you some means of recovery. That is the reason why the occupation with tribal orders today is of the first rank, of the first urgency, because many of you don't even know what it means not to live day by day only, but for a long range. You -- most of you do live day by day, and perhaps have to live day by day, because our economic order makes it necessary. But that's vegetation, and not life.

At the Orinoco, there is a tribe, the Yaruros. I've mentioned them, I think, already before, but let me repeat it, because it is always something very emphatic and sublime to me. They are dying out. There are only 150 left; I think I mentioned it last time. And don't forget that even a -- a tribe on the way out still has the dignity to perform his last rituals, his rites, as though they never had been omitted, and can't be given up, because they made even these last 150 Yaruros into real people.

Think of yourself: what makes you into real men? When you are unemployed, haven't -- failed in the exam, and are -- how do they call these people? dropouts, yes; dropouts. On what do we live when we are dropouts? I think the only solution for society today is that we all declare ourselves to be dropouts, that then together we may be saved. But the single dropout has really no hope. And what's -- a dropout? And more and more people -- belong to this class. Now even the president of the university belongs to it.

This no primitive man can -- can figure out. He would not know what that would be, to be a dropout. Why? Because speech he only has as long as he belongs. He belongs through speech, by speech. Therefore, to call yourself a dropout is not in the language; it is non-existent. "Dropout" would mean that you can't speak, and that you can't listen, and that you can't be talked about. Now one of the reasons, of course, of our impoverishment, and our insanity is that you really think that language consists in words said by you about other people, or other things. That's not true. That's what linguistics teach, and that's why linguists are wrong.

Speech is when you, by hearing something, get up and act, and by hearing nothing, don't sit -- sit down and -- and give up. Speech makes us move, or it isn't speech. And that's why I -- I think the dictionaries, and the linguistic professors--but especially the professors -- and the lady professors--of literature don't know what speech is. They think it's reading a book, and knowing what Keats has said. But -- speech means that I am forced to act by the word spoken to me. I'm named; I'm called, and I have a calling as long as I can understand what the call said. All the rest of the dictionary, and of linguistics you can forget. There hasn't to be literature in order to be a happy person, or a wise person, or an enlightened person. But you have to understand commands. And you have to be able to give commands to somebody else, you see. Otherwise you are not a human being. So any policeman I think is a greater poet than all the people who write in the magazines, because he can order a person to go, and he can save his life. That's a great act. That's a very poetical act, a creative act.

Now the -- my old teacher, very long ago--60 years ago, is -- I -- I think I should honor him by giving him -- your -- his name. He wrote a book, The -- The Steps of History, the Gradation of History, what is -- you formerly called {gradus ad Parnassum}, the -- the steps to the mountain of the spirit. And he was a professor at the University of Berlin. Never was promoted, because he was interested in the tribes. And at that time, you have to be interested in -- in the Greeks, or in the Romans, or in the -- something classical. Primeval man was not yet, you see, had not yet -- moved up -- been moved up to the rank of an equal importance. Anthropology was not the fad.

All the more, I like to quote what he had to say about these old primitive people. Because it's valid to this day. Heavens! How do I find it? Forgive me. I have to consult my own index. Here it is:

"The Irokese"--that's an In- -- just an example of an India- -- of a primitive man, an Indian, you see--"any -- any tribal man of the primeval days was in himself a free man, a nobleman, and a king; a priest, an orator, a poet, an artist, a farmer, a warrior, a dancer, an actor, a singer, and a carpenter. He was it, all in this one person, because he could change without do- -- being harmed from one activity to the other, and always be still the servant of the spirit. Will there still be an evening for mankind at which we shall recover this power and this integrity of the morning of mankind?"

I suppose that's unexpected for you. But he felt deeply--this is written in 1905--he felt deeply that primeval man was still the whole man, and we are all specialists. We are either city-dwellers, or we are Americans, or we are white Protestants; all very narrow conceptions of humanity.

So it is important that we should keep in mind that the Bible is in the tattoo of every one tribal warrior, and made him able to enter all kind of disguises, all kind of masks, and recovering his integrity by serving the permanent spirit, carved out in this big mask which the medicine man would carry.

The tribal man felt that he was begotten by this greater power of the spirit, which sometimes they -- they figured out to be female; sometimes they {fimmered} out to be bisexual. And you read all these things, all -- that they considered them sometimes feminine, and sometimes mixed, and sometimes male only. That is not important. The problem of why we are descendants of father and mother is for you and me exactly the same profound statement as we'll see with primitive man. Explain, you cannot, why man must come from two sexes, why we are degenerates if we -- we -- we are not descended from tri- -- two outlying branches of mankind, why the whole man in you and me has to be recovered by uniting two strands of the human race. We are just as idiotic as a tribesman, or just as wise as a tribesman. Don't think that by -- reading Darwin or chemistry you know anything more about this deep secret. They knew exactly as much as we know about whom you should marry. And as you know, most of you don't know whom they -- should marry. If they knew, they would be very happy.

So don't think that there is any progress in this knowledge. In the -- in knowledge of important things, we have made -- can make no progress, because your problem is just as profound and insoluble, and just a pot-shot, you see, at -- of luck as -- as it was in their time, I mean. To find the right mate, my dear, you see, today takes four divorces, and very costly. And the whole income of state of Nevada is based on this. And they weren't so expensive, but they didn't make more mistakes. I think they made fewer, because they had not -- the state of Nevada hadn't been invented, yet.

I mean, you will admit that the possibility of getting four ladies, one after the other in Reno, to be called your wife temporarily, and -- is not a great progress, because it doesn't solve the problem of belonging to some -- woman forever. These four are all at a discount.

So, I mean, four wives is -- just means not being married. That's all. You may call this a marriage, you see. And this -- of course this scandal goes on in this country, you see. Why they go to this length -- it's just for the jewelry.

What I have tried to say is that the problem of parenthood is all-embracing, is the problem of the tribe--and when we leave it now, as I unfortunately have to go on to other things, to the next chapter--I must remind you, that we have one word that may in English perhaps help you to understand the signifi-

cance of the tribal order. That's the word "alumnus."

In Virgil, there's a wonderful verse which has often been quoted, where Venus, the goddess of love, is called {alma parents}, nourishing mother. Unexpected for you to hear that Aphrodite, the god of love, is called "mother," because in your lingo, love is only there where you are quite sure that no children will come. "Safety first." But the goddess of love in Greece is simply the goddess of -- who -- from whom children spring. That's very simple, very direct. But it also allows you to become an alumnus, as you are an alumnus, I hope, one day of this university.

In our language for the last 200 years, since Mr. Newton and similar guys, we have driven a wedge between body and soul. And therefore, if you think of an alumnus, that's a man who has missed an examination. And if you think of a son or of a child, that's somebody who has been cradled in a home, physically. But obviously, the word "alumnus" is much more appropriate if it covers any relationship between the older and the younger generation. And an old parent, of course, gave as much the religion to his children, as he gave his body to his children, his offspring, you see.

Therefore, the word "alumnus" I think is important for you. Think of it, that the mother of the god -- of -- of -- of Troy was called "Alma" ; it's still a first name, the nourishing one, the -- which -- which gave you the milk to drink, the mother-milk to drink. And the word "alumnus" then today means not the man physically procreated, but the man having received the immortal nourishment from the speech, and the naming power of his mother.

I think that's interesting, that we cannot do without this little syllable of "a-l," which means "to nourish" in Latin, and in Greek, and in German. But you have killed it, or isolated it, degraded it by only speaking of the alumnus -- -na of the school. But you are also your parents' alumnus, you see, in the same sense. And I hope even more so, because if they -- you have real parents, they have given you -- their name. They have given you their spirit. And therefore, you are their alumnus. And on the other hand, of course, we are, as a -- living in this good country of America, we are nourished physically by the air, the climate, here the -- the prosperity, the physical graces of this country. So we are also in a natural sense the alumni of the soil, and of the people of this country, you understand.

So it is very sad that the stem "a-l," for "alumnus," and the stem "alere," for the word of the -- of the wet-nurse, for example, that this is today so separated in your lingo, that you never think that you cannot be an alumnus in a spiritual sense, unless it is also in a physical sense. Here, these buildings--aren't they of

some importance? I think we are all proud of this campus here, because it is a physical campus, you see. And it's nourishing you. And is not just something of the mind. It is very real that you can see the ocean and here, on this quarry of Mr. Cowell.

So in the word "alumnus," I hope you will recover the integrity of parents, of {alma- -- alme parentes}, as Virgil calls them, of the sublime parenthood by which the offspring in every generation is filled with the spirit of the parents, and feels empowered to represent the spirit in his own generation, and never gives up, never is desperate, always is quite sure that the great mask of the tribal spirit is falling upon him, too, in his tribal dances. And I think in Cowell, they begin to have tribal dances.

I -- must go on. And we come to the second chapter, where not parents are produced--and children, but priests and people. I said to you, the second great chapter in the history of mankind is to create a universe in which people are -- able to serve as priests to the cosmic order, and in which the laity, carrying out the precepts of the priests. Now it is totally unknown to you, the difference between parents and priests, anyway. As you know, the old Christian doctrine, and Jewish doctrine is of course that a father is also the priest of the family. That's very true. We'll see how -- much more true this is than you think it is. And -- but first I have to recover the meaning of the word "priest."

Just as you don't know that parents are spiritual forefathers, allowing you to draw on an immortal power to conquer your own death, so it is with priesthood. That it is today a special {center}. You are a priest of the Catholic Church or the -- some other church. But priesthood of course is not anything purely religious in the modern sense. You are also -- belong to the universal priesthood of all the believers. And that means that any layman cannot function in modern society without being a priest. What that is, however, is totally lost today in the mists of time. And I hope to use the next three meetings to convince you that in actuali- -- truth, we are privileged not just to feel parents and children, but we feel also privileged to be priests.

Before I, however, can successfully do this, I'm afraid, I may have to -- first to draw -- to ram in, so to speak, one term which you use today without seeing its -- its tissue, its connections. That's the word "king," and "kin," and "kindred." You all know this word, and I nearly forgot to -- to -- to mention these. But I think they are useful for you. I mentioned the word "alumnus," and this -- in this proper sense, in this universal sense. The word "king" is a remnant of the old tribal days, too. It means a man who -- whose kin is known and respected. And that's why he is himself king. "King" and "kindred" have to do with each other. A king is a man who, alone in a -- in a disorderly, migrating, or so, group is known

for his descent, and therefore can represent the totem pole: the whole pedigree of the tribe, and can guarantee that they have good parents. To have good parents is the meaning of nobility, of being named, of being well known.

And pardon me the -- for going back once more, but I nearly forgot this importance of the -- of the kingship. Into the later orders of mankind on earth. the word "king" sticks, so to speak, as a remnant of the total order of the original tribal -- tribes all over, were, of course -- we all were of known parents, of good, noble parents. And "Every man a king" is a good American ambition, is a phrase: we should cater to you. If you would know what this means, "Everybody a king," we would have a very wonderful society. And not "Everybody a job." You should have a Royal Corps and not a Job Corps.

Now the simple way in which you can realize this kingship is--for the tribal order: the totem pole. In the -- on the totem pole, obviously all the known links of the tribal order appear and encourage you to say, "This is my ancestry. Here it is. Look it up." And so it is, so to speak, the systematic theology in addition to the tattoo, which is the Bible. The totem pole is pedantic. It is -- systematizes; "he begot, he begot, and he begot." But that it is also inspiring.

I would like to leave with you: in Guatemala, there are now many books written on the old Quich‚ language in Guatemala. But most of them--as I at least have consulted them in this library--omit the interesting -- most interesting document we have from the Quich‚ -- Mexican natives. In 1850, for the last time there was enacted a religious drama, In Rabinal, which is a town, but which is also the name of the play. There was a strange Frenchman, Monsieur Brasseur de Bourbourg, and Monsieur Brasseur stole many manuscripts he found there, fortunately, so that they have been recovered. I mean, he took them to France so that they weren't destroyed. And Monsieur Brasseur also was able to attend the last enactment, it seems, of the great play of the Quich‚ tribe, of -- in Rabinal. And it describes something very simple: how a prisoner of war of one tribe is allowed to play on his last day, as it was in most people--in Ju- -- Judaism, too--in a Saturnian way, to -- act the king for 24 hours. And then he is executed, you see. He has forfeited his life. But for one moment, they allow him to feel that he is king. And they make him king, even the enemy, because otherwise they fear that hurting him, killing him, you see, might provoke the vengeance of the great -- his great spirit. So by treating him as a king, these--in many tribes you find this--they get rid of the blood guilt, which otherwise would -- would bow them down.

So the new -- one has often said--as may have known--modern theologians have said--that Jesus was treated this way, that they have killed in every year, some prisoner, you see, by treating him most royally for 24 hours, and then

only executed. It's a -- perhaps a strange fantasy, but I think quite understandable. People feel every man is a king, so we'd better make sure that the -- Great Spirit cannot accuse us of having missed, you see, the -- his dignity. And I'm want -- want to quote this, because of one sentence in this drama.

In 1950, a friend of mine who is a professor at Kent State published this. It has never been printed, and he published it unfortunately in a very elegant German text -- German translation. As far as I know, it is not available in an English translation, this play of Rabinal. And it's a great pity, because it's a very wonderful play. And some of you perhaps may care to -- to have it published. And it's very significant that in all the books of Guatemala, this one really important monument is never mentioned.

Anthropologists are funny people; they have a wonderful way of reporting all the unimportant facts. Because they don't know what is important. They don't know that the relation to the Spirit is more important than the dress, or the speech, or the diet of these people. They think the diet and the -- and the -- and the -- missing, lacking WCs are important. They aren't. But there are important things, but unfortunately our anthropologists have not learned to respect the important things and to distinguish them from the unimportant things. So they collect unimportant fact and unimportant fact. But there are very important facts, which are part of your and my heritage, which we really must know. And nobody takes it seriously. The anthropologists play around with this, and "How interesting." No, this is important, because you and I are short of the Beatitudes. We cannot go to Heaven without learning from these people something: how to conquer death, how to despise death, how to live beyond death. Can you? You are all afraid. You are all cowards. If somebody says, "Do," you do, in order to get a job. Is that a reason?

Forgive me. I have to find this -- this one sentence. And I have to look up the -- again my -- my dictionary. This man, Rabinal, is driven around, before his execution, after he has been treated. He has been allowed to kiss a girl, the king's daughter, and dance with her so -- as though he was a prince. And he has been allowed to sing the glories of his own tribe in presence of the enemies, you see. But now, of course, the day is come -- the hour is come where it's all at an end. And so he says,

"Already I see my own eyes carved on the totem pole. There they are carved. And from there they look down on the young warriors. And these, on their part, will then look on me. They will recognize me. They will acknowledge me. And they will call out and say, 'Our father, look down on us.'"

I think that's a very sublime, and--as far as my experience goes, un-

matched, sublime--utterance, that the -- the prisoner of war, to be executed by the enemy, you see, foretells his own glory, because his eyes will be carved on the totem pole of his tribe. And he will enthuse and encourage the young people in the next generation for this fact that he, with fortitude and without trembling, carried the -- out the death warrant of his situation, as a prisoner of war. So his honor is safe. Since he has not winced, since he has not surrendered to the enemy by cowardice, he is immortal. And he has conquered death. What is death? He will be named, and he will be mentioned, generations to come.

I think this is quite unique, and I am -- must ask you: insert this fact, this real power of the tribal order into your ideas of primitive man. I wish we were so primitive. That's not primitive. That's the noblest and highest honor anybody can acquire in life.

({ }.)


(Could you read that again?)

Glad to.

"Already my own eyes look down from the totem pole. There they are carved. And from there they look down on the young warriors. And these warriors on their part look up to me. They will recognize me"--it doesn't even say in the translation not "They will recognize me," but "They are recognizing me. They acknowledge me."

--which is the climax: from recognition to acknowledgement, if you understand that. I don't know if I use the proper English terms for this climax. But it is more to be acknowledged than to be recognized, you understand? From the floor of the American Senate, the speaker, the president does recognize somebody, you see, when he wants him to say, "You -- you now can speak. I recognize Mr. -- Mr. Smith." But it is more to say, "I acknowledge him," which means "I think he's right; he is in a position," you see, "of -- of authority." Would you make this distinction between "recognize" and "acknowledgement"?

No -- it is a -- this country, you see, has gone very far in using the term "recog-" -- "recognition," and therefore { } -- it is doubtful whether you make this distinction clearly in your mind, you see. But I think the -- it's very important. "I see somebody; I call on somebody; I recognize somebody; and I acknowledge somebody" should be for you a whole staircase up to Heaven, of immor- -- the Heaven of immortality, of naming a person. You -- you can name a person in

an indifferent manner, you see. And you can -- name him by giving him his proper dignity and authority, you see, which he claims. And that isn't the same thing.

And all human society, believe me--is dependent on the constant power of growing recognition and acknowledgement. Anybody can die in peace who is acknowledged. He may -- have to die when he is only recognized. But it is very bad, as most people of us today are, if he is only known, or he's only called by a name. That's very little. You don't want to die by just being known as "Mr. Smith." To be known is nothing. That's the beginning of wisdom. But to be acknowledged for the role you have played in the -- in the community --. Any president of the United States--President Kennedy--wants to -- must be acknowledged, or there is no peace in the United States. Can you understand that your own life depends on your acknowledging the presidency of Lincoln or Washington? This makes you, by your acknowledging your proper name ahead of you, and above you, you become human beings. It's a constant, growing process. And pardon me for saying so. You are only very modestly now human beings. It's just the beginning. You are embryos.

But you -- haven't reached that point, because you haven't yet acknowledged all the great people who have gone before you, and have -- have made you. part of you. And that's what Christianity stands for. If you don't say, "Chris- " -- "Christ is risen," He isn't risen. All the -- Greek Church knows it so well, and we relearn it now in the West, that the claim on -- at Easter, "Christ has risen today," you see, is a condition of your having any Christianity. There is no other, except through your acknowledgment. That's why the acknowledgement of the tribe on the totem pole, of this new eye, and this new name Rabinal, is the condition of belonging to the realm of the spirit. Very few of you do. Most appointed people of -- of intellectual life have forfeited the spirit. They cannot acknowledge anything. They criticize it. And they call this the critical faculty. I don't understand why they call a deficiency a "faculty."

Because the faculty of man is that he can acknowledge the dignities that surround him, the spirit that commands him, the future that conducts us. If -- what they call the critical faculty stops short at the cleaning process. Of course, you can eliminate somebody who should not be acknowledged. That's the critical faculty. But it's an in-between faculty. I mean, if you have 10 good men, and an eleventh who isn't good, you have to have the faculty to say of the eleventh, "He's a sheep," you see, or a black goat. And so he -- out he goes; that's a critical faculty. But the 10 others must be acknowledged by you, and worshiped. And you must do homage to them. And if you don't, to Hell with the critical faculty! You are in Hell. And most of you are, because you exercise the critical faculty.

The critical faculty makes absolutely no sense without the redeeming grace of coming back and saying, "But I -- acknowledge Mr. George Washington as the founder of the -- of the United States." And on it goes. It's not just George Washington in politics. It's of course in every field of human endeavor that you have a saint to invoke, a founder of our faith. If you don't acknowledge him, you are nobody.

Life is very frail, gentlemen. And perhaps one thing I must leave with you now, at this -- as of this moment is: it is so frail that every one of you can destroy it. The tribal -- order of the tribe has lasted thousands of years, although it was based on nothing else but on this little tattoo, this little inspiration, this little mask carved out to preserve the spirit from one generation to the next, and make people speak in the proper order to each other, and command their ways. And you will admit that this is not my invention. But I talk about these things because I tremble--and everybody today has to tremble, that this faculty to you is lost. That you do not know what it means to acknowledge somebody in authority, in -- with full conviction. Because you really prefer the critical faculty. You can brush aside a thousand authorities and laugh them off in Esquire; then you feel very good, and very powerful. You are impotent.

They -- all these shameless people, you see, really destroy their potency, and they do in every sense. Because our five senses--our sexuality, our sensuousness--is also based on the spirit. Don't believe that potency is a purely physical quality. It isn't. The people in this country who are numberless, who are impotent, and then go to -- take drugs, LSC or so, in order to get potent, they don't just know how our body is made to procreate, to become creative. It is only through speech, only through meaningful, convincing song, speech, command, obedience, authority, devotion, poetry, what have you. But certainly not what you call "intellect," and not what you call "mind," and what you call -- I don't know what your words are. Well, LS- -- LSD, for that matter.

This is all -- to me these are all clear. When I hear that a man is dedicated--or a woman--to these things, I know they are impotent. And they want to hide this fact. And they don't want to heal it as it has to be healed, by enthusiasm and inspiration, which makes everybody powerful and potent. But they want to do it -- remaining indifferent. This you cannot do. You can't have it both ways. You can't be potent and indifferent, because "potent" means to be enthused. And "enthused" means to have a spirit that is bigger than your physical existence.

So I said I wanted to conclude today the tribal doctrine. And I conclude now once more by this scheme, that man is that strange being that can at the same time know that he must be passionate, that he must conquer death, and

that he must have a healthy body and be somebody. We are all somebodies, we are all in love, and we are all called. And all the rituals of the tribal -- tribes, everywhere, are dancing around this problem: how to make every one of you aware that all three faculties, you see, must be recovered and must be kept safe. You must be able to be vigorous, strong, dance, sing, speak for achieving -- I mean, be a carpenter, or being a fisherman, or being a hunter or whatever you are, be a mother. You must be able to fall in love and create new unions. And you must be able to stand by when the -- the danger of the future demands your sacrifice. This man Rabinal had to stand up for his totem pole. And that's why he deserves to be quoted by me. For no other reason.

The three is the old Trinity which the Christian Church then has -- cleansed, and purified, and { } -- hands you over as Trinity. It is nothing artificial. It's nothing you can't discover in your own existence every minute. And I may, however, rename it. I -- perhaps I should, before I go over to the priesthood. Because death we can over- -- -come by faith. Passion we overcome by love. And our dangers, in physical dan- -- dangers we overcome by hope -- by our hopes. We are courageous, we slip, we go into the water and learn we can swim the river. And you see, if we are full of hope, we do it.

Now today in this country, there is no knowledge that faith and hope are opposite virtues. You all mistake faith for hope. They even had a Christian theological universal meeting here in Evanston 20 years ago which was convened on the motto of hope, as though this was a Christian virtue. The word "hope" is not found in the four Gospels. The word "hope" is not found in the four Gospels. Because it was a Greek world, and the Greeks lived by hope. And since Christianity had -- had to convert pa- -- the pagans, they could not use the term they had abused most. Why is hope earthly? Why is "hope" from this side of the barrier of death? You hope, you see, that everything will be to the best. A man of faith is a man who says, "Nothing will be to the best, but it doesn't matter." Despite the fact that, Jesus said, that "I have to be crucified, Christianity is safe, through my death. There is no hope for me." And He knew better than anybody else that there was no hope for Him.

And that's why the word "hope" does not exist in the concordance of the four Gospels. And I think that's important for you to know, because you must jump into the face of every -- of every clergyman who today is sick with Grecianism, or Hellenism, or whatever, or philosophy, or critical faculty, or whatever that is, who all confuse hope and faith.

When I landed in America, I made a friend -- became a great friend of -- or he became a friend -- of a very great doctor. He was a professor of Christian ethics and of medicine--a rare combination--at Harvard University. Now this

man, Richard Cabot--he belongs to this great guild of the Cabots, you see, who only speak to the Lowells, and the Lowells only speak to God--he said to me, "Eugen, what you have to learn is: it is very hard to understand Americans, because this is a country of hope. And they know of nothing else. Everything is hope, you see, and nothing is faith."

And that's true. It's understandable. I mean, you undertake to tame a vast continent, and you must be full of hope. Set out, and it will work, and -- probably, you see. Faith is something else, because faith is to say, "It doesn't matter that I die; it doesn't matter that I fail." The failure is needed. There are so many victims in Vietnam now needed before victory can be had. That's very hopeless. But that doesn't matter for a decent person, because we don't live by hope. We -- are meant to live by faith alone. Only -- poor Luther, he wouldn't be understood in this country. He preached, you know, "by faith alone." But I still have to find an American sermonizer who understands this.

Now this is the last reason I wanted to bring up, why the occupation with primitive man is to be recommended to the youth of this country, and to any -- from -- next generations. We know so much, and we can abbreviate time by electricity and other things to such a fast ruin that faith is represented only by these primitive men who knew that they had to die in order to give eternal life to their secrets, to their offspring, to their children, and who became royal, and kings in the faith that on the totem pole, their eyes would give life to these children. Now aren't they there, really? If -- if 10 generations from now, all -- every generation that looks at these totem poles is revived and has twice the energy as it would have otherwise, is there no effect? Is there no -- no progeny? Is there no ancestry? Is there no pedigree? I think there is. And without, there is no pedigree.

So don't believe that this is superstition. It is not true that death cannot be overcome. But this country is on the way out of history, because it is the widespread idea of the people that death has no meaning, and death cannot be conquered, and death is the end of all things, you see. And if you look at this cemetery in -- in Los Angeles, it's the shame of the century, this place where you can -- where the president gets up and says, "By the authority vested in me by -- of the trustees of this cemetery," you see, "I hereby declare you to be immortal." That's the formula used on -- on The Loved Ones, on Forest Hill, or what is the name of it?

(Forest Lawn.)


(Forest Lawn.)

Ja, Forest -- Lawn. "By your authority vested in me," you see. That's like { } president of the university. That's a primitive expression, you see. And -- well, I won't say what I wish about this cemetery. I also can be cruel in my wishes.

The program which now is before us is: how did the -- the tribes in their primitive organization, of migration, of being obsessed by the one problem: how to last, how to last against all odds, against all enemies, against illness, against scarcity, against famine, against tempests, and earthquakes, and fire -- how did anything ever break up their obsession with this one thing, how to have parents and alumni?

So this is perhaps the formula in which you will discover the unity of mind and body. You see, you have to be an alumnus and a parent. And the parent is producing alumni. And the alumni, you see, have physical parents. But you see the unity of the two things, you are no longer in this great -- bedlam in which you live, called "academics." Because the Great Spirit and the academy have separated the mind and the body. And that drives us all crazy. And all the obscenities of life, of modern life depend on this separation, you see. You know this very well, that as soon as your love-making is separated from speech, it is deteriorating, it is disintegrating into vice.

Now the -- therefore the step out of the tribe is always connected with the danger of life. And the old tribes, when we haven't -- haven't dared to take the step to the stage--that's why we still find their vestiges--they remind us that the -- something irretrievable would be lost if nobody understood the tribes anymore. On the other hand, we have division of labor; we have priesthood; we have writing. It isn't true that everybody tattoos. It isn't true that everybody that everybody is married by incest rules. The Egyptian pharaoh married his sister. And with this dawning of a new day of history, all the laws of the universe changed. Because if you must marry your sister, you can leave your tribesman, your tribal order. You can get away from the totem pole. You don't have to dance around, according to the generations, you see, of relationship.

A priest is a man who defies the orders of the tribe. That is a priest, by definition. And a Catholic priest does this to this day, because he doesn't marry. That's one form of emphasizing that a priest is outside any tribal law. And I think therefore there is something very profound in this tradition, that a priest must show that he is independent of the law of the tribe. It's -- undecided, yet, but you must understand that's a very dignified decision to say that the priest of the Catholic Church must not marry. It is not so simple to say either "yes" or "no" to

this. I myself would say I'm very much divided. I can see that everyone is a part of mortality, and of a mother and a father. But I can also see that to be a priest is an authoritative, and original, and legitimate task in mankind. It's a very -- as you know, they are wrestling with this now. If you don't allow the priest to marry in Brazil, the village is full of illegitimate children; and if you do allow it, you have no clergy. So what do you do in South America? I think I just don't go to South America.

It is insoluble. It's a very acute problem at this moment. As everybody knows, you see, who -- who sees there, you see. It is neither to say, they all must marry is the solution, not to say they mustn't marry -- cannot marry is the solution. But it's very serious, and very urgent.

Heaven knows. I had a famous friend--or he wasn't a friend, but I knew him. And he always said, "South America is the fifth day of creation; it's before the sixth day. Adam and Eve hadn't yet been created." And he has a point, you see. South America is quite a different -- it is not true that it lives in the same year as you and I live. The year 1967 makes no sense for South America. What year it makes -- makes sense there, I don't know. But certainly not 1967.

And that's very serious. And we have to learn this. With India, the same; and with the -- islands, the same -- and the Melanesian islands, the same. It is not true that there are our contemporaries. That's only a fiction. And that's why have no -- nothing to offer much to the South Americans at this moment. Either they are outside history--"fifth day of creation" means just this, you see. That the -- the stream, the so-called mainstream of American thought--which I would still try to discover and haven't been able to--that -- that this mainstream just is no stream in South America. It's not even a pond.

So that's why priesthood is a very serious business. Because priesthood has not been created in South America--the universe of the priesthood; it all -- doesn't function at this moment--it is outside history. Because it has too many thousands of tribes, and they must grow into one universe. They know too much of each other. So just to have the Patagonians, and the Bororos, you see, and the Yaruros, and so on, these single tribes, doesn't allow them to live in peace. They destroy each other. They are too close upon each other. They have railroads and radio now. And so whenever the tribes know of each other, the tribal order is destroyed. And that's what of course is so dangerous about South America--and perhaps it is exciting--there are thousands of tribes, and they live without a common order.

And the common order was -- has been created order for the universe, for the second universe of man, by priests. Priests are able to overcome tribal fron-

tiers. A priest is a man who does not belong to any one tribe. And therefore the first high priest of mankind had to marry his sister, in order to prove it to everybody. All other Egyptians had to marry according to the totem pole. They could not marry their sister; they could not marry their first cousin. And they still can't. But the pharaoh could, and had to.

This is quite exciting, you see. We ca- -- enter here a -- the universe that is based on contrarieties, on contradiction. The priest knows of the first order of mankind, but denies it for himself and says, "I have to outgrow it," what they say with the learned expression, "I have to transcend it," you see, "to get beyond the tribal order, because otherwise 10 tribes -- the 12 Tribes of Israel, the many tribes of Egypt, the hundred tribes of China cannot be unified."

Because of this, the Chinese always have claimed that they are the empire of a hundred tribes. Of course, they were the empire of many more than a hundred tribes. But that was the minimum expression to say, "A mass of tribes can be unified in one place -- under one place."

Thank you.