{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this know where we are going. The creation of speech, we said, should be the first; the creation of writing is the second; the creation of fatherhood, the third; the creation of the arts and sciences.

Now all this, gentlemen, is the -- the story of how the man--to -- whom you and I consider men, whom you know as a human being--how they -- he was created. In our era, we can find -- feel brotherhood, a brotherhood which we cannot find with a pagan red Indian. And therefore, there is a break in history because--I said to you--since 1957 years, there is an attempt to make sure that those who speak, write; those who write also are founders and ancestors of the future; and those who live in any time are able to go back to the beginning by arts and science. If a man today -- I to- -- mentioned Richard Wagner, writes this magic fire-music, or if Mr. Einstein tells us how to think of the universe in new terms of relativity, they once more put us back to the beginning to the original feeling of the first man. We -- they sharpen our imagination, our senses.

Now all this, gentlemen, today is available to any human being. We shall see that this was not true in antiquity. A Greek was a Greek; a Jew was a Jew; a {Scythe}, as it says in the New Testament, was a {Scythe}; and a Roman was a Roman. They could not exchange. They had to be they -- what they were, totally. And what you call a Stone Age Indian, at -- for example, in the Amaz“nas Basin, would be a man who can only be a tribesman, and -- you touch him -- the white man comes and brings him whiskey, and he dies. He perishes, because he cannot mix, he cannot mingle with a compound, you see, of a richer world. It's -- breaks up his own standards of behavior. This is just -- you know the tragedy today in Africa, where all the {cardles} and structures of the Negro tribes are destroyed, or have already been destroyed for centuries by the slave traders.

And so it is quite serious. We are still surrounded, gentlemen, by people who do not share this great adventure of exchange, of making available to all men all these new qualities. We -- you and I, however, very na‹vely take it for -- you -- most of you -- take it for granted that the world is there for the asking, that you can get -- go to Europe, make the pope; and you go to -- can go to Ibn -- Saudi Arabia, and buy the oil -- or steal it; or -- and you can go -- you can go into the future, into the past; you can enjoy all these various things. You have the Players, and you have chapel service. And you have it all, one next to the other.

This intermingling, this combination, gentlemen, however, isn't so simple. You can spoil your stomach by mixing without first principles, without very great severity. And the story of our era, gentlemen--as you well know, this era is

called the Christian era for this reason--that Christ laid down the law under what conditions there could be one unifying humanity. After all, He is the first man who does not belong to His own people. But He is more than a Jew. And that's why He -- there are great difficulties arising from this fact. "Who is He, then?" the people say, the nationalists, you see. Today, where there is so little Christianity left, they try very hard to transform Him into a Jew. You know there are many Jews -- writers today who have written books on -- even on St. Paul, as though he -- they were nothing but Jews. And everybody feels there's something wrong.

They belong to an era in which you are not just a Jew, or not just a Greek, or not just a red Indian. Not one of you can be nailed down for his -- for his family descent. You can say -- you can be -- cover a wider area of meaning. You are not just your father's sons. And therefore, we no longer can express or describe a human being in terms of one of these four units. You are not just a tribesman. That would be a family man. Because in the tribe, the family relations are the essential thing. You are not just a native of a country, because everybody who lives in America -- that's the good example of the Christian era, came from another country. And now you are Americans. Therefore, it is possible to change one's country. And you can be, therefore, not just pigeon-holed by saying you are a native of one country, gentlemen. That's very important. It's nearly lost at this moment.

Yesterday, I saw a book, The American Nation. And I think that's prescribed reading in some course.

(History { }.)

Well, I think America will perish as long as -- as soon as you think that America is just a nation. America is much more than a nation. If you are just -- be just a nation like any other country, it's perfectly inexplicable how people from all nations of the world could become Americans. We are a little bigger than a nation. And that's very pertinent to the -- this course is devoted to making you feel proud of your heritage. You are more than just a member of a nation, or you would be unfit after the two world wars to play your role in the world. America, you say, with the -- is now leading the -- the democracies of the western world. Or it's trying to integrate the world. Well, how could you, if all of you were just nationalists, you see? Then the other nations would have to repudiate you, and say, "We don't believe you, because all you can do is just think of America."

So this is a very terrible, terrifying title of this book, The American Nation. We'll come to this at greater length. And I can show you that the founders of this country never thought that America was just a nation. And America is not a nation. It's a melting pot; it's a -- the New World. It's a -- the standard-bearer of

freedom. It's the standard of democracy. But certainly it's not just a nation. I mean, we may feign this, and we may ask the Albanians and to -- the people in Honduras to vote for us in a resolution in the United Nations, gen- -- gentlemen; but we are concealing the fact that we are a member of the United Nations; and besides, we are the United States of America. And that's something bigger than being a member of the United Nations. Much bigger. Just -- you don't believe it. It seems to me that your generation tries to feel very small.

Then of course, gentlemen, anybody today cannot just be an Israelite, or he cannot be just a Greek. He cannot just be a scientist. He also has to be a member of the country. And he cannot just be a member of a religious sect. Any one -- take the Mormons and -- without combining it with some feeling of mission. Now the Israelites, as you know, do not mission -- do not accept mission as a part of their religion. But all -- in the Christian era, every one of us wants to infect somebody else with a sense of mission. We are all living today. That is, we want to communicate to people who are not yet participating. The difference between Christianity and Israel is mainly in this fact, you see: that Christianity is a spreading faith. And Israel is a -- a waiting faith, letting the others come to see.

So gentlemen, if we now shall name these next chapters, we'll have to claim one thing for any one of these 3,000 years, the one which ended around the year 999, because then at that time, the last island of the western world, Iceland, did what? What did happen in 1999? Anybody knows? We have any Scandinavian here? Don't you know what happened? Yes, Mr. {Torgerson). Please? Yes.

({I believe it went} Christian.)


({ } Christian.)

In 999, the -- the -- your -- Thing in -- in Iceland didn't accept Christianity, didn't it?

(In 1000.)

Well, I'm delighted, Sir. It took a whole year. It's a very small difference, isn't it? I think I can prove to you it was 999. They -- they began the -- the calendar at a different day of the year. Do you know when -- when the year started, in the year 1000, the new year, in -- on March 25th.

({ } in June.)

You got me!

Gentlemen, the pervading question of the -- the last 2,000 years or -- to 1957, if you want to, is unity. That is, gentlemen, there were, of course, in the beginning innumerable speaking units. We may say that in the beginning we -- there been -- there must have been a hundred thousand different languages. There are still in the world perhaps 15,000 different languages. That's quite a big number. Nine thousand of them in Africa alone. Over 9,000. And that must bring you to the -- to the insight that speech, at the first moment, was pluralistic, I mean. There were innumerable languages, and it was already a great achievement that a few hundred people would speak one tongue, you see. That's something you never consider, how difficult it is to make 200 people speak the same language. You see, you just think that's child's play. But we'll see that every effort had to be made, you see, to have many languages.

Now of course, the unity of the Church, gentlemen, is an attempt to give everybody the same Father in Heaven. So the Church created a unity of fatherhood, while before, there had been innumerable languages, innumerable countries, innumerable empires, and innumerable religions, and also innumerable different arts and sciences. We'll say then that, gentlemen, the first thousand years were concerned with the founding of the Church, and the unity of religion. And what was fought in the first thousands years of our era, gentlemen, were the many gods.

So the Church responded here to Par- -- Chapter 3. And the first -- Chapter 5, gentlemen, then tries to eliminate the many gods; and we can call the chapter, gentlemen, "God Against the Gods." And the -- significant is that there is for the first time, permeating the whole world the knowledge that there is unity; there is one, as against the many. The second step: since Iceland became Christian in the -- June of the year 1000, is that the world has become one. In antiquity, or in India even today, a good Brahma can believe that there are many worlds. That there is only one world, gentlemen, and that you count in all the worlds into your world picture, that you can read Mr. Sh- -- {Harvey} Shapley's wonderful description of the universe, with its -- many hundred millions of lightyears is something utterly new, gentlemen. We only think in these terms for the last 2- -- 300 years. Even the North Pole, as you know, and the South Pole have only been discovered in the last hundred years.

And therefore, gentlemen, it is one world, out of all countries, out of all empires, which had to be created; and the last event, of course, in this story are the two world wars. The two world wars demand one world peace, which would mean that there is one world, finally, arrived at.

So one world against many empires. That's why an American cannot be an imperialist. Not that he doesn't want to have much power, but he knows that he has only one world, that he would either have to rule the whole world, you see, or be satisfied with the rule in it. But an empire is an -- ancient institution, gentlemen, that has gone on for the last 2,000 years still, which believes that it could--like China--be a world by itself, you see. And the Chinese Wall is a very good expression of this idea that the world didn't have to be one, you see. It could be separate. You could have many worlds.

So the world wars, gentlemen, have ended this lesson, because today we perish if we do not treat each other as living in -- on one planet. And you may still think of war, or of a third world war, but I think nobody in his five senses in Washington thinks that a third world war can ever be waged, you see. The two world wars are instruction enough for the fact that we just can't go to war. That's why we have to arm so heavily, gentlemen. That's not a contradiction. It's the only way in which you can prevent the Third World War. But it -- the bomb must never be thrown. There will be no war, or there will be no -- no history, or no human race.

And the third thing, gentlemen: it's a little more difficult. We have, as you know in this country, a very funny book. That's called The Social Register. And it contains the people who think they belong to good society. Now all these thousands of years, gentlemen, society was in the plural. That is, there were many societies--secret and otherwise. And today we are beginning to grasp the fact--that is, only the beginning, the dawn--that as we write "Church" with a capital "C," and as we may write "the World" with a -- capital "W," so we in the future will not succeed for making peace among men if we cannot write "Society" with a capital "S," and a -- put it in the singular: the Great Society; or as Mr. Lippmann, still catering to The Social Register, has called it, "The Good Society." If you -- has anybody seen Mr. Lip- -- Walter Lippmann's book on this -- with his title? Is it still known? It was a great success 30 years ago. The Good Society. Nobody has seen it? Not even heard of it? You have?

Well, it's a very important book in -- of our period in transition, gentlemen. It wouldn't have appealed to the Americans who are, after all, all 18thcentury people, if he had it -- called it The Great Society, as a Marxian would. The Marxian speaks of "this society," you see, in the singular. We try to fend this off; it's a disagreeable idea. And so the Good Society has still some openness in this respect, you see. It doesn't unify us all. But we'll see that in the end -- at the end of the course, I hope to show you that the task is tremendous, it's just beginning. The next thousand years, gentlemen--in which I believe, in which most Americans do not believe that there is still a future for a thousand years for us--we'll have this tremendous task of unifying human beings of all ways and

walks of life. And that then would be a third unit. That would be the Great Society. And it would mean that, as there is one God--and nobody today I think in his five senses would doubt this--there is also one world and no empires in it. And there is -- must be -- created by you and me and by all our descendants, the Great Society. This Great Society must contain all men, of all walks of life, of all races. It doesn't at this moment. You just have to go to Alabama to know that.

And it is an error to believe that this can be done by the United States alone. Any progress we have made in desegregation, gentlemen, has only happened by outside pressures from Russia, and from Africa, and from the other nations. The South wouldn't move if we had not these international pressures on us, you see. The Great Society is coming forward in Rhodesia, you see; and it's coming forward in -- in Pakistan; and so it even comes into the South. But it is not an American story. Not at all. The -- as you know, as long as it was an American story, before the two world wars, before the world had become one, and the new society is now the great -- on the agenda, the South could always say, "These damn Yankees," you see, these carpetbaggers. Now they can't say it, since Mr. Myrdal, the Swede, has written this great book on the Negro question. It's an international scandal now. And that is not an international scandal, gentlemen. It is a human scandal. That is, the world is so much one, you see, that the people all over the globe have now -- they are interested in each other's actions, regardless of state boundaries. Don't think you are sovereign in dealing with the issue of the races in this country. You are not. That's a common human enterprise at this moment.

However this may be, I'm not going into the details. I only have to say that much to shock you into the awareness that there is order in history, gentlemen. All history -- is not bunk, and history is not anecdote, and history is certainly not headlines in the newspapers. But it's a serious business, gentlemen, to finish the job which our maker has entrusted to us. And the entru- -- the thing he has entrusted to us is unity out of plurality in our era, and Christ came into the world to say that there should be neither Jew nor Greek, neither Egyptian nor Roman; and He has -- and -- and -- and neither slave nor free man. Well, that's the program. By the way, most people accept it, do pay lip service to it. And He has also, as you know, stated to everybody that God created Heaven and earth, and He did not create the United States. And He didn't create China.

Ja, it all goes together, you see. That's why I'm so frightened by this -- book title, The American Nation, because you might rest on your laurels and think that finally, we have now, you see, become finite, and just are -- can settle down and -- and go -- go national. You cannot, I'm afraid. Because God is carrying His purpose out in -- in a great hurry. It has only taken Him 1,000 years by and large, in the western world, to finish the gods--the pagan gods--and to put,

even in Iceland, some idea into the heads of these people, that there was one God.

And you know, if I put this: 1, 2, 3 here, it is obvious, gentlemen, that the task of bringing the domination of one Lord, as we say, un- -- "under God," in our formal -- formulas today to escape nationalism: "government under God"--it's always a singular--that this has still some headway to make. There are still countries where this faith has to be preached. And I would like you all to come to my friend {Hendrick Kramer's} lecture on Sunday. He is the great authority on world mission and world policy. And that's -- I have chosen this topic for his lecture myself in connection with this course. And I hope you will represent Dartmouth, all of you, because this man has lived in Indonesia as a Dutchman, and has seen these problems of world policy--that is, of empire building, and empire crumbling, but also of Christianity, and also of society. He was the head of the Ecumenic Institute in Gen- - near Geneva. And -- we had this as an attempt to make all the religions draw together. Because the unity, gentlemen, of the work of mission, the fight of God against the many gods, was in the western world settled in 1000. But for other worlds, it of course is still going on. If I put here the year 1000 and here the year 2000, it is probable that there will be something still to be turned in other countries about the unity of the divinity { } future.

How then can I say that the first thousand years, gentlemen, are devoted to the chasing-out, to the expulsion of the many gods, when--as you may hold against me--missions are still needed today? Well, the reason--I -- I think I'm right in saying that by the year 1000, a certain incision can be made in our picture of the march of events--is that the western men, by the year 1000 had inside their civilization done this task. Whether you were then a Muslim, or whether you were then a Jew, or whether you were an Eastern Christian, or whether you were a Western Church -- Christian, the plurality of the gods no longer was a problem.

And so, beginning in -- in 1000, the Norsemen, as you know, dedicated themselves to the discovery of the world, the pa- -- the natural world. So what we can say, that in the year 1000, a part of the human race was emancipated for the second task of discovering the world. And all the great discoveries fall into the last thousand years of our race. The -- the last being the climbing of K2, and the Antarctic expedition--which we have now working, where the Russians and the Americans are forced to work together, because it is one world, you see. That's, so to speak, the seal under this dearly bought unity which began with the great journeys of the Norsemen all around the globe. It seems that the Norsemen even went already in the 11th century below the Equator and saw the Cross of the South. We have at least in the 11th century, or the 12th--I'm not sure

now--some mentioning of this tremendous, you see, impression it made, that there wasn't the Northern Star in the sky, but the Southern Cross.

That began only at that time. And now the world is discovered. And the difference, gentlemen, between expelling the gods and discovering the world is very considerable, because you can only discover the world if you do not believe that it is divine. All the -- it had to -- it took Muslims, and Christians, you see, and Jews not to be afraid of the different gods in the different parts of the world who before, forbade man to enter there, because there were those parts of the world, the other regions, were under the domination of some other ruler, of some other power in the sky. And in the woods, and in the mountains.

The unity of God, gentlemen, has the effect--perhaps you take this down; it's -- I think for you perhaps a new consideration--the unity of God has the effect that all parts of the world go worldly, become nothing but secular, worldly elements of nature. What you take for granted, gentlemen, but it had to be conquered. The world could only be discovered, gentlemen, when it was not an element of the gods that dominated it, you see. As long as there are gods, and fairies, and witchcraft, you see -- you refrain from entering this -- wilderness. And all our fairy tales still remind you of a time when part of the world was bewitched, and you couldn't go there.

Now the last thousand years have freed us from these fears. Because there is one god, there is also one world. And what is the world, gentlemen? The world is that part of our knowledge, and our reality, and our dealings, and our residence, and our habitation, which we do not have to fear, which we can master, which is given to us as the object of our irrigation, exploitation, construction, use and -- whatever we call it. That's a new thing, gentlemen, a very new thing.

We will compare the Aswan Dam, as it may be built tomorrow, with the old sacred Nile. And you will perhaps then realize how long it took the Egyptians to--Mr. Nasser is an exponent of this today--to treat their own country just as nature does, as part of the world, you see. The sacred Nile has been a part of the divine life of the country for the last 5,000 years. And therefore you perhaps understand why, between 1000 and 2000, something really new has happened. The many gods became one god. And now the many worlds have become one world.

The Good Society, gentlemen, is still far from being. You well know that you are not received in every house in the country, just because you want to. And every moment we break again, by our division of labor, into parts there. You just have to read the descriptions in Fortune about the new setup in a little town where one big corporation rules, and the president can have a Jaguar, and

the vice-president can have a Cadillac, and so down it goes, you see. But woe to the man who has the wrong car.

So { } society, which we had in this country, is disappearing fast. And therefore, some fight will have to go on in the future. Since the world is discovered, gentlemen, all people have the same religion, more or less--of "more or less," I should say "less"--they -- the Good Society, that is, the unity of the human race--that everybody can intermarry everybody else, for example, or be friends with everybody else, of which here, this college is an attempt, of course--is not yet achieved, not by a long shot. And you just ask the -- the Arabs and the Israelis, and you -- it will never be achieved. One has to be, you see, extirpated, according to them.

So gentlemen, we haven't yet created out of all men one man, out of all society, then all groups, one society. This singular is not in existence. We can only prophesy it. And we can only expect it, and we can only see why it should be necessary. One of the reasons is, for example, that we will be lost if we are divided in case of an invasion from Mars, or if we invade Mars. This dream today to go to another planet, is of course conditioned by the total unity of the human race. You can see this. And an inner unity. We must not have any black joy over the misfortunes of the Russians. Otherwise, the connection with the -- Mars or with the moon becomes absolutely fatal to our very existence, you see. Can you see this? That the unity of the race today is predicated on our very progress -- very -- in physics.

The world can -- the earth can only have one ambassador, so to speak, outside itself, you see. If they work that -- at -- to cross -- at cross-purposes, you see, this is unthinkable. You cannot send to Mars a Communist and a -- and a -- well, an American.

What I have tried to say is, gentlemen, that the fact that there are -- is still mission going on in the -- thousand years of world discoveries--and that there will be still discoveries and missions go on in the next -- thousand years--does not mean that the emphasis, the theme of history has not changed. The unity of God, the singleness of God, the singularity of God; the singleness of the world, and the unity of human society, or it singleness--that there is one great man in all of us as elements and cells alive--that is the topic although all these things also are going on at the same time. If you talk today to any Christian missionary, he knows that the social problems, you see, must first be solved before his -- what he says makes sense. So the reverse order is, today: that you have to start a day with a social thing, you see, if you want to be understood with regard to the others.

And so I think we have this very great privilege, gentlemen, to know where we are standing today, where we are going to, and where we are coming from. We are coming from a great adventure in unity of 2,000 years. And we are at the eve of the unifying -- the man as he is split in sex, and race, and division of labor, and climate, and many other similar influences. The countries are already unified. You can buy a globe and you see all of it. The people are not unified, not even in the same country. The triumph, gentlemen, of the world millennium is that the world has become a planet. That is, we can think of the world now not in terms of a map, but of a body in movement, within the universe. And I offer you this word "planet," to show to you that at the end of such a story, even the name for what has been discovered, or what has been treated, or what has been unified, changed, you see. If you want to understand today the globe, you talk sense, you see. If you only speak of the world, you do not know quite what you mean, you see. World { } -- are many things. It can be something outside the earth. But that our earth has to be a planet, and has to be treated as a planet, that is today the achievement of this march into unity. So the creation of the planet, you could say, is this, you see. And the first chapter would be then the creation of the divinity of men. And the last story would be that man becomes complete.

The events, gentlemen, of the first thousand years are of course all events in the history of the Church, or of religion. Any event that's interesting in the first thousand years of our -- of our era, gentlemen, are already in the Church, in some form or other. Even Constantine the emperor, or Justinian, are only interested, you see, with our -- with regard to their relation to the -- to the Christians. Or Nero. Why is Nero remembered, you see? Because he burned the Christians. Otherwise, he would have been one of the many Hindu tyrants nobody would -- you see, have to know, Mr. Nero, you see. You don't know the -- all the despots in Inda- -- India. And you don't have to. They are better forgotten. But he's only interesting because he tried to resist still mission, you see, of Christianity.

So all the emperors even -- in the first thousand years are only interested bec- -- interesting because of the missions. Charlemagne is remembered because he baptized the Saxons. And you know Mr. Hitler was very angry over that.

So the first world -- thousand years are under this impact of mission, or -- and Church. The second is -- consists of mighty world revolutions, and world wars. And I still am shy to give the -- to the developments of society in the future any terms. You have just to wait and see. The names themselves for these events will be coined as we go along. And you see that we had no phrases from this terrible word "desegregation," which obviously is a ridiculous word, you see, because it is too complicated. It's not a hearty word, you see. And it -- it shows that we are embarrassed. We just have not yet discovered what it's all about. As soon as you get such a non-word, you can always be sure that mankind hasn't

yet a good conscience about what it's doing. It has no -- no poetry. It has no power to say the things it wants to say. After all, "desegregation" says we lost the Civil War and we have now to make up for that. I mean, the North.

So gentlemen, every one of the terms of the story were coined in this -- in the story. And that's why you must understand that we can know where we are at this moment, halting, but we cannot know how to call all the things that we shall have to do. Because part of the doing is the saying, you see. And you must help in finding the right terms. And I offer you only "desegregation" as an example for the dead-end street in which we are today. If you speak of desegregation, you haven't yet fathomed the depths of the problem, because nobody will accept this word; it has -- doesn't have in it the power of solving anything. It's just negative. And "segre- " -- "se-" is negative, and "de-" is negative; and in -- in politics, it isn't as it is in ma- -- arithmetic, you see: two minus do not make a plus.

So we had one advantage, gentlemen, that we are located in time at a certain point between two great events, or two great enterprises, or two great steps. And you well know that where we stand, what has to be done is mostly omitted from your history books. If you read this book, The American Nation, you see, that is so confined. It's the story from 1865 to today. And neither before nor afterwards, you see, is there any connection with what has happened before.

And so I am boastful enough to say to you that the merit of this course should be that it gives you orientation. Orientation. I don't mean orientation about other people's confusion, but about your own. That is, to become oriented, gentlemen, is a matter for the man himself who asks for orientation. And it is not to be oriented about other people's orient, you see, or occident. And my course is an attempt--of course, I told you, I wanted to know this myself--by which I have tried to orient myself in my actions, so that I should know what is sterile and what is futile, and what is necessary and what is fruitful. And you, yourself, will have to find out whether it is fruitful.

I had a very nice example of this problem. A young friend, a Dartmouth man--three years ago he graduated here -- or four years ago--he went to see a European and -- in New York, consult with him about his future. And he's a wealthy boy. And so he said, "Well, I want to find something by which I can improve human relations in the world." He wants to go into business. "So therefore I do not want to sell Coca-Cola."

Well, the European was -- said to him, "I'm not so sure. Perhaps the right way to do this, improve human relations, is just to sell Coca-Cola. You never can tell. It's so difficult, you know, to know."

What is the right thing? Every one has to know himself. That is, unfortunately no planner, gentlemen, and no president, and no churchman can tell you what you should do for the furthering of the human society. One has -- may have to sell Coca-Cola; another may not. But I mean to say in general, so to speak, that any action in society is -- is -- false, and another is useful, is impossible. There are no generalities, gentlemen, in the Great Society. In the Great Society everybody has his own place, his own hour. That's very wonderful, you see. {Completely} free. You have to make the decision. Nobody can make it for you. If we make the decision for you, you have ceased to be a member of the Good Society.

And therefore the -- the -- the hour is really very exciting, because in the Great Society, gentlemen, every one of us will have to play his unique function. And nobody can ever take from him this responsibility. You will have to find whether you should sell motor cars, or -- or television sets. And no placement office of Dartmouth, gentlemen, can take this responsibility from you. There's no excuse. Because the corporations bribe you, gentlemen, that's no reason why you should of- -- take of -- the bribe. You are accustomed that mayors shouldn't be bribed; judges shouldn't be bribed. Gentlemen, I tell you, you shouldn't be bribed. That's much more difficult. You can always sit in judgment over all these politicians who can be grafted. "There's graft," you say, "in New York City." Of course, there's graft in New York City. But there's more graft in Dartmouth College. You are all grafted and -- bribed. And you take the bribe, because you are sound asleep, and you don't think that you are -- responsible for anything. If somebody offers you $10,000 a year, you say, "Of course."

Gentlemen, if you do not begin to say the opposite from "of course," gentlemen, you don't live. Most of you will never live, of course. I know that.

The Great Society, gentlemen, this you can say it today with a slogan, will only consist of those people who are statistically unimportant. Because a man who is statistically unimportant cannot be confounded and confused with anybody else. A man who is statistically important, you see, is a number. And a man who is statistically unimportant, is not a number -- number. Now the whole problem of desegregation, of any unity in hu- -- the human family is, you see, that you must force upon the people that you are Marian Anderson. And you must -- they must forget that you are a colored woman. And then you are a member of the Great Society which is to come, obviously. And she does of course for hundred of others for her race this service, because there is one who does this, who cannot be bribed.

Well, that's an aside. This is the program of the course. And now comes the very stunning and startling thing, gentlemen, that the Church has become

the new Israel. That's -- is the Church. That is, she has given to all men the fatherhood of the one God for which the Israelites have suffered all these thousands of years. The New World, gentlemen, the planet earth is the empire of all empires. That's the new planet. There is no China, and there is no Germany, and there is no British Empire today; and there is one world. And therefore, gentlemen, the second thousand years of our era--that is, Chapter 6--has absorbed that which was still waiting to be absorbed or unified from time immemorial. And today, gentlemen, when we enter the Great Society, we must unify all human tongues. Tongues are speeches, all human languages. All people must learn to speak to each other -- their daily lives. And so gentlemen, what is happening today is that we need to form a tribe out of all tribes. And that will be Chapter 7 of our history.

And you can see then that our era is going backward, absorbing the -- antiquity in comparison to the ancient marching order: the tribes first, the empires second, the Jews third, the Greeks fourth. We now have seen that the Church has absorbed the Israelites -- that is, the last 1500 years before Christ. The one-world movement, the discovery of the whole world has absorbed the empires that go back to 4000 B.C., you see. And now we are dealing with primitive people. Margaret Mead. And -- well, what's she doing? She's taking us back before Babylon, and China, and India, you see, into ages of the beginnings of the human race. That's called "anthropology." And -- or "prehistory," or "archaeology," or however you call it. It is simply true that we are now only embarking on the waking-up of the achievements of the people before the Jews, before the Greeks, before the Egyptians, primitive people. And the great desire in all of us to know a little bit about their ritual, and their folklore.

Now the mysterious thing for your notebook, gentlemen, is--just to make you see how orderly the proceedings are--that the Church had to unlock the gates of Jerusalem, and to take the -- make the new Israel out of the old, Zion. All the Church songs are full of the loans from the Old Testament as you well know, you see. And it's very serious, gentlemen, that then the second step was to go back and to see the world as man's empire, and no one part of the world. And that there is no emperor today in the whole world, wherever you go; that's a very remarkable fact, gentlemen. The world has engulfed all the emperors and all the empires. You must know this because, gentlemen, that's the reason why the American -- language is immune against the use of materialism, you see. The deepest reason is that this is a new world in which you have awaited for the time that all the world would become one. And it could only become one if there were no separate empires. This has happened, but it means that we have delved deeper -- more deeply in the past, and we have now eliminated the empires of old, which started, as I said, by and large, 4- or 3000 B.C.

And today we -- the Great Society, as far as it will be victorious, will go back to the tribesmen and redeem their languages, and their forms of life; or make them understand unter- -- -- understood and make use of them for our own benefit.

So that's a very mysterious story, gentlemen. We will say then that the Christian era re-absorbs, or revitalizes, or re-evokes the past in the reverse order in which it hap- -- was created. The creation of speech in the tribes is now on the agenda as a task of the Great Society. The creation of walls, and palaces, and governments, and worlds by themselves has been replaced by the one world of Mis- -- Admiral Byrd. And the new Israel has replaced the old Israel. And that has happened in reverse order. And I -- it fills me with great reverence, gentlemen, to discover that everything that was created in the past had to come under scrutiny, and had to be unified. And all these multiplicities of antiquity, you see, now can be singularized, but that there was an order, nothing could be done out of the time order.

The last, gentlemen, then of antiquity was the first to become unified in our own era. Can you see this? Is there any question about it? It's a -- very important that you should see that history is not as you think, just a running, running, running, running wide -- farrer, and -- and without any rhyme or reason, just like water running down the hill. It is not, gentlemen. When the world was created once, when the times were fulfilled, the -- a new order entered the scene, and a new task--the task of unity--and that is what we call "Christianity." You don't know this, and you think Jesus was just a nice high school senior, who would have lost His religion in Dartmouth College. He had a very supreme -- He is God's majesty on earth, gentlemen. He is the -- giver of your and my law of life. And it's very serious business, gentlemen, that you could as soon as possible eliminate your prejudice against Jesus as a nice member of the YMCA. He's the Lord of creation, gentlemen. He has made us understood that we have to create God's world, and not -- cannot leave it to accident. That's very serious business.

But the order which He is revealed now to you -- and -- everybody -- any human being today can see this, that there is a stringent and severe order. And you all will be miserable, gentlemen, if you don't respect this order. You cannot find your a place in life without now knowing this order of things. I mean, the -- I think, a very glorious order. Because it means that every gift of man can be enfolded, and in -- put in its place, and nothing that has ever been created by genius or talent in any part of the world has to be forgotten or cannot be put to life again, you see. There's nothing -- no Stone Age language or lingo that we cannot use, and arm ourselves with it, so to speak, as a weapon for our own future. We'll see this, of course, clea- -- more clearly when you under stand what is achieved by speech, which you hardly, at this moment, I think, take seriously


Let's have a break now.

[tape interruption]

Gentlemen, I had many interesting questions. But nobody has shown me up for cheating. Yet I did cheat you. And I have to say something about the Greeks. While the Jews were preparing the unity of our worship, of our maker -- and the revelation of our creator, I told you that the Greeks set out to revitalize the elements: fire, and air, and poetry, and the Greek tragedy in Homer, in philosophy, in the arts, in sculpture, what-not. Now where are the Greeks in our own era? I have not assigned to them either a fourth thousand years, or any place hitherto. Yet you know we are in an institution that has been reborn in the so-called Renaissance. We are in a liberal arts college. That's Greece in Dartmouth. Little as you may suspect it. And therefore the Greeks are the Muses, the ac- -- companions of the good life, gentlemen. In any time of the -- our era, we need them to sharpen our senses, and sharpen our sensations.

Tonight Mr. {Rattray} is going to read Greek poetry. And why is it worth our while to listen to his translations from the Greek? Because you have to import into this stale, American taxi-driver lingo some poetry. And he does it, because he translates Greek poetry. And I think that Dartmouth would be a better place if a -- fewer of you would indulge in this trite language. If you would sharpen your taste and your senses, and would add to your jazz records some others--which you, by the way, already do. There's a great revival of musical interest in this country means which the Greeks are with us all the time, as companions. And therefore, there is no special era, no special thousand years to be assigned to the Greeks. The Greeks are the scho- -- the good spirit of the schools, you see. And young people have to be educated in any generation, be it of the Church, you see, be it of the world, or be it of society.

And therefore, the Greeks, gentlemen, are ingred- -- an ingredient of history in our era. They are never the pilots. They are never the oarsmen, or the steerer, the statesman, but they are the ingredients, as we call the Greek spirit, of the Muses. It isn't just the word "music," gentlemen, that is derived from the Muses. But all history writing, you see, all poetry, all art is under the care of one of the nine Muses. And they give us the charm of life.

In trying to prepare myself for the class, I ran into a very beautiful verse of the old Greek half-god, Empedocles. He was a sage in Ag- -- Girgenti, in {Agrigas}, in Sicily. And he has left us a great poem about nature, and another on the purity of the human heart. He jumped into the volcano of the Etna, to end his

life. And -- great man. He declined to become prince of his city. He said they should be free men, and should have no prince. Now this man Empedocles has -- has just one short line: "The Muse is frightened by necessity." The Muse is frightened by necessity. That is, the -- or -- and the Graces, too. The Muses and Graces are -- frightened by necessity.

The Greeks, gentlemen, are the companions of our leisure. The very word "leisure" is of -- I mean, a Greek invention. And leisure, gentlemen, is the lubrication of necessary life. The Greeks are not for the necessary. They are for the play. They are therefore the name-givers of the Olympic Games, for example. Sport is not serious. Who has taken Philosophy 9 with me? Well, you know then how important it is to draw this dividing line.

Now the Greeks are responsible for -- the training of our mind, and of our body, you see, in our schools, in our gymnasiums. And therefore, they are the companions of the good life. And I think I should say this much right away about the Greeks--so that you cannot say that I neglected their creation--but they do not belong into the serious and necessary march of events, you see, because they are for the young in us, oursel- -- for our eternal youth. They are not for the virility of decisions.

And to cinch this matter, I want to leave with you a memorable verse which Goethe, the German poet, wrote into the album of his son. He had a son who was an eyesore. He died, by the way, at an early age, the age of 35, from alcoholism. And the father could not pride himself that he had enriched the world by this one son who survived out of many children who died in their -- in childhood.

Well, this son came before his father who was, after all, the greatest poet of the German tongue, and asked him to put something memorable into his album. And the father has written this line, which I say -- first say it in German and then I shall translate it: "S”hnchen, merke Dir bei Zeiten. Wenn sich Herz und Sinn erh”ht, dass die Muse zu begleiten, doch zu leiten nicht versteht."

That means, "Son -- my dear son: keep this in mind from the very beginning, when your heart and your senses wake up. The Muse knows how to accompany. But it does not know to lead."

This is very important, gentlemen. The Muse does not know to lead. She is our companion; she is for leisure. That's why to become an artist is such a curse, is such a sar- -- serious decision. You can only do it if you can't help it, so to speak. There must be artists, and -- we must hope that some undergo the hardship of becoming an artist. But you can never, so to speak, have a placement

office for artists, you understand. It must be in his heart such a drive that he will overcome the hardships which are involved, because an artist has no leader -- leading principle. He -- his whims, his impressions, he's impressionistic, you see. And so he's swayed like -- by any whirlwind, by any storm. You just compare the -- the making of a -- an artist and the making of a doctor. In an { } of doctors, all is streamlined. The direction is perfectly clear, you see. Serious. There is a sick child. He has to know certain things, you see. But take a poet who finds the new technique of writing a television play, and so. Nobody can help him. It's his originality. Hit or miss, you see. Mostly miss.

So this verse I think is of central importance to put the Greeks in their place. There is no -- in this sense, no history, gentlemen, of art. There is a constant revit- -- vit- -- a vitalization of the arts. In every generation, we must pray that we have somebody who sharpens your and my senses so that we do not say, "I don't care," and "Wha-" -- "So what?" you see. The artist comes into the world against the "So what?" attitude, gentlemen. This country will have no artists as long as the man who says, "So what?" is not stoned and chased out of town. As long as he can pose as the true American--"So what?"--then you can have no art. Because the artist is the man who says, "How wonderful," you see. "How strange. Never heard of this before," you see.

The artist makes us see things for the first time. You learn in physics that the sun is not going up and setting down. The earth turns around the sun. So you say, "So what?" Now comes an artist and says, "I've never seen the sun rise before," and he describes to you the first sunrise of the world, you see. And if you read his poem about the sunrise, you say, "Ah. I never knew that this was a colossal affair." You know, it is a colossal affair that the sun rises. And it's a very dirty affair that we say she -- she doesn't rise. It's infamy. I assure you, I have seen the sun rise, and that's more important to me than the physical law that the earth turns around the -- the sun. That's a very minor fact compared to the great impression which a sunrise can make on you or me.

This the artist begins again. That is, he takes us back to the whole march of events from the first man who wondered over the -- rising of the sun to the last physicist who finally discovered that after all it wasn't such a very important or dangerous affair, you see. That's a long story of some thousand years. But if nobody had ever said -- had this sense of wonder about the first sunrise--which he realized, you see--obviously there would have been no physicist ever to make it trite, and to make it cheap. Can you see this? The artist takes us back to this whole march of events that ends in Mr. Einstein. But Mr. Einstein is an end product, and the artist is the first product. And we need all the creatures. We need somebody who has the sensibility of the first man, or we will fall into the clutches of the people who are the last man, you see, and who have no sensibility

left. Because they say, "So what? I know it all."

You, gentlemen, are in great danger of siding with the "So what?" people. How many of you come from New York? Well, watch out.

Now let me connect this scheme, these seven chapters, with what we have to say, first to discover what the theme of history was. May I ask for a piece of chalk? Do we have any?

We had four steps by which man is thrown out of nature. We are all deprived of our best nature. We said there is the yearning of the prehistoric man; he's full of promise. That's you, my dear gentlemen. You are full of promise. Then comes the big event by which somebody does something for the first time. And then comes the--how did we call it?--the inheritance of acquired faculties. The once-forever. This is the once. And this is the going-on forever. Now the full man, as we think of a human being, has come into the world only in -- with the beginning of our era. And so the whole antiquity can be treated as prehistory, as the promise--as the Bible does, you see. The coming of the real man is promise, and finally He enters the scene, and everybody can now become everything.

You can say, gentlemen, that the whole antiquity said that there should be, in the tribe, chieftains, or let me -- allow me the word "king." That's the same, a man of -- of his -- sibling; the king is the man who has a dynasty, who --. It's the same word as "chieftain" really in its meaning. They created kingship; that is the essence by which -- for which you have to have speech. Then they created priests and temples; that is, the business of writing. We still call our divine house of service -- house of divine service the "temple" of the Lord. And then we got prophets in Israel, and we got poets in Greece. These are the two -- four -- more gen- -- most generalized types of humanity which were created. Kings, priests, prophets, and poets are the creation of these four chapters in antiquity.

Now we can say, gentlemen, that the great event of our era is that you and I can say, "Everybody a king," "Everybody a prophet," "Everybody a poet," and "Everybody a priest of the Lord." You believe in the universal priesthood, you all believe that you have a right to the creative arts, which makes you into a poet of some sort. Take the word "artist" instead, if you prefer. It makes no difference. And we are all, therefore, entitled -- the great event of our era is that all this is changed into "everybody." And the first man who brought us this promise is the event from which this "everybody" can acquire this acquired faculty.

So it makes sense to say, gentlemen, in -- in this aspect, that our own knowledge of history bears out my contention that for any new quality, there are these four phases: the natural condition; the yearning for the solution--the pre-

history; the event in which these -- the solution enters the scene for the first time; and the spread, and the -- and the survival, and the inheritance, and the transmission of this quality to all and -- act- -- and -- or how do you say it?--sundry -- all and sundry.

In this sense gentlemen, then, the -- the first -- my first rule--that man is not a part of nature, because he adds the three chapters of promise, event, and transmission -- or inheritance -- to the new -- to the -- as new -- new things to the na- -- state of nature--comes true in our whole picture. But let me repeat, gentlemen: any new quality in the human race goes through these four phases. So what I say here about the universal picture of our last 7,000 years--that there is to be distinguished bet- -- nature, the animal nature--the hope and expectation, and awaiting and yearning for the desired quality, the promise, the prehistory, then the historical event by which it enters the scene, and then the tremendous sweating and hardship to keep it going--that this is true about any part of history and about the whole of history. You can write the history of painting, you can write the history of speech, you can write the history of any -- of social work, of any such new aspect of humanity, you see, in terms of these four chapters. But the great thing is that the full history of humanity is also written exactly in the same style.

There are these four elementary things. We come out of the animal kingdom where we have no change. All the things that people tell you about mutation, gentlemen, and so -- is simply not so. Under our eyes, not one hu- -- animal species has changed. They are just there. And the plants, too. You can cross-breed them, of course. You can hybrid { } them -- you see, hybridize them, you can improve them, and you can select them. But they are just there. And a mule remains a mule. That is, you can't go very far with the creation of new races in the animal kingdom.

With man it is different. Man has a promise that can be fulfilled, and we are thrown beyond nature. We are thrown beyond nature, gentlemen. Mr. Sartre, the pagan existentialist, has expressed this, you see, that he says, "Man is thrown into the future." You may know this sentence, which is just another definition of man's leaving nature behind, you see. He is thrown into the future; that's all we know, at first. But the future consists out of these three steps, gentlemen: the yearning; the expectation; the entering of a decision, of an event. And I want you to repeat this fact, gentlemen: all human history, parts of history, must be divided in the same manner as the universal history. Take the American history. Obviously 1620 is the state of nature. 1620 to 1725 is the prehistory, you see. 1776 to 1815 I would call "the founding period," you see, the event; the United States come into their own. And from then on, the problem, you see, of making them into Americans. Therefore this country also has a story that consists

of these four chapters: nature, prehistory, event, and transmission -- or inheritance.

It's useful, I think, for you to see that the big order writes the law for the small orders. You have grown up in this terrible--really terrible { }, gentlemen--zoo thinking. It's a zoo thinking, because you believe that the whole is built up by the parts. But of course, gentlemen, the parts are -- cannot be understood without the whole. The American history makes no sense if not the whole of history makes sense. And first, we must make sure that all of history makes any sense before your history makes any sense.

And therefore, we first have to know, as the Bible always has held, what it's all about, about man before you can know what the matter with the American history is. And the American history is just a little, detailed specimen of the lawful order of all historical development, you see. The evolution of the American history goes from nature; to prehistory, or promise--of America, you see--to fulfillment. And the fulfillment consists of two things. Somebody has to live it first; it was the Founding Fathers, you see. And with the death of Jefferson, and -- and John Ad- -- Adams, it's over. And when the first generation is gone, you see, the hard task begins from scratch not to allow the sons and grandsons to forget, you see. And of course, by 1860, they had forgotten, you see. So the Civil War comes along and brings it back to their memory, you see, what the Founding Fathers really had done. They had created one union, you see. And in North Carolina, that had been decidedly forgotten.

So the history of America, gentlemen, is the special case, or one application of the law of all history. And I assure you, the gist of the matter, which I've tried to tell you today, is that as long as you do not understand the whole, it is useless to try to understand the parts. -- Everything you have to learn in the humanities and the social sciences says the opposite to you. People try to understand the parts without even admitting that the whole might make any sense.

If you want to know to what depravity the human mind has fallen, I recommend you to buy Mr. Nehru's universe- -- book -- attempt to write a universal history. If I hadn't then -- by that time reached already some degree of maturity, I would have committed suicide after this -- reading this book. There's no hope for mankind. Everything is just -- as the whole Indian world view, spotty. Here is something: abracadabra. And there is something: barbaracadabra. And here is the American history, and there is Prussian history, and there is Hindu history, and there's Roman history, and there's Egyptian history, and there is Chinese history. And if I would put you on your head and take out the shavings, that's what you would look like inside. Your ma- - mind is built the same way, in this disorderly fashion, that you know here something, and you

know there something. And then you have the Webster Dictionary to put it all together in alphabetical order. But as you know, the alphabetical order just is no order. You see, it's no order. And the best you can do is you can know many -- many words from the dictionary. Gentlemen, that's no knowledge.

I assure you, the history of mankind is a severe business. It is nothing you can -- deal with at random. You have to rewrite your Bible yourself, from your own experience. But you cannot go behind the Bible. You cannot fall short, so to speak, of what they already knew, that there was Adam, the tribesman, first; and Noah, the empire builder, second, and the builder of -- of -- of agriculture; and Moses, the founder of Israel, third; and the Greeks, fourth. That's in the Bible. And that's simply true. But you have despised this. "This is just an obnoxious book," and you know all better, because you buy the Encyclopaedia Britannica, or Africana.

And gentlemen, the -- we don't do a good job with you, if you leave this college in this disorderly -- with this -- such a disordered mind. Gentlemen, the whole of man- -- human history makes sense. The parts are much more difficult to find sense in, because people can go to pot. Whole nations like Spain, you see, or Albania, or -- or Alaba- -- or Arkansas, or what-not, can go to the devil. They can be omitted from the his- -- picture of history. But how can the -- unless the whole march of events is meaningful, you see -- and if you ostracize this meaning, if you obstruct it, you can be left behind. In your -- in your na‹ve tastes, you know this. You say it. Europe has lost its leadership in the last world wars. Everybody in America tells me this, you see. I always -- wondering how they know -- how you know such a thing. Well, it's -- of course, you -- you -- you -- you feel it, you scent it, you have a flair for this. But -- but don't spell "flair" with f-l-a-r-e, as some of you do; I mean "flair" with f-l-a-i-r. One has to have a flair for dead dogs and dead cats.

But you say, "No." You say you can't know any of these things. There is no order in history; there are no foundations under which the spirit -- human spirit prevails and is victorious. Gentlemen, there are laws. The laws of the spirit is -- much more severe than the laws of electricity. The laws of the spirit are really the laws most easily understood, gentlemen. For example, in the Ten Commandments, it is said that if a murder is not punished in Mississippi, then there is no state of Mississippi left. And the murder wasn't punished, and so Mississippi in my eyes--and I shall declare it--has ceased to be a state, an emancipated and -- of the United States. I'm sorry, but that's the case. And as long as the senator from this state can be the president -- chairman of the judiciary committee of the United States Senate, I think the whole -- the whole country is in such an absolutely incredible state of corruption.

Now these important issues are not even mentioned in a nice college. Why? You talk about the atom bomb, and you talk about Pakistan. And you put out about many things that are not your business. You never talk about the things that are your business, because this you can only do if you believe that they are laws which, when disregarded, are visited on your children and grandchildren. Now I believe na‹vely in the Ten Commandments, and I believe that when we go against the laws of the spirit, gentlemen, the crimes we commit of omission, that they are visited on our children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. You just have to go to Texas and see the drought. If they plow -- when they plowed it up, too much land, the grandchildren of these landowners, will still suffer from the fact. They went against the treatment of the soil. And they themselves may escape, but not their grandchildren. They have to leave. And you don't believe this, gentlemen. To you, this is all silly.

Gentlemen, when the Jews were told by Moses that the -- the transgressions of the fathe- -- forefathers were visited on their children and grandchildren in the third and fourth generation, then the fashion became in this country to say, "How cruel." Gentlemen, this is not cruel -- this is the truth. This is just a -- a law which one cannot escape. The consequences of a human transgression make themselves felt in the third and fourth generation. That's all there is to it, you see. They only come to fruition or to the opposite of fruition after a certain lapse of time. We have to observe this, and we have just to respect it. And that's all there is to it. It has nothing to do with cruelty; it has nothing to do with mercy. It is just -- you have the right to ruin God's plan. And you can take the whole United States out of history. But you cannot destroy history. That man must found one God, one world, and one society, gentlemen, that's revealed. And that's true. That the United States can fall behind this march of events, and become an interesting sideshow, you see, where -- then the Mr. {DeSoho} from Saudi Arabia will send tourists to look at these -- at these awkward, you see -- obsolete people here in -- in New England, that can happen. We can become obsolete. But that doesn't mean that we -- when we become obsolete, life on this planet will not be lived in other parts of the world. Maybe the Chinese take over. We don't know this.

But what I'm driving at, gentlemen, is: you cannot understand one biography of Blake, or of Shakespeare, or what-not--or of Lincoln--if you do not have in mind this story of the human race as a whole. It makes no sense {otherwise}. Absolutely none. Because -- for example, if you hold the view that there should be slaves, and there should difference of -- Negroes, as these people in the South -- still pretend to believe, then obviously Lincoln is a destroyer of cult- -- civilization. How can you know that Lincoln is a great man? You see, he did the wrong thing. How do you know this, gentlemen? You all know it.

What I invite you to do is to believe that you know it, you see, to become

aware of the fact that you know very well that history has a meaning, and a unified meaning. And that you measure all partial histories from the whole, and not the other way around.

So gentlemen, what I have tried to prove at this today is then: the essential unity of all human history on this {earth}.

Thank you.