{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

...pluri-aged, instead of single-aged. In my other courses, I do this, too. And it is so serious, gentlemen, that you have no generation before you, and no generation after you, spiritually. But you beget children physically--even large families--without any break in consciousness, without making them your heirs, your sons, so that they know they -- must -- do something different. Because you have done something, they can go on from there. There is continuity, because you are all just jobholders, that I feel that we must, at least in our consciousness, reconquer this sequence of generations.

I'm going to Europe this summer with the idea of founding a periodical called, "The Epoch," in which I will look for three -- editors of three generations, in which I'll try to contrive that a man of 70, or 50, and of 30 are writing in their own style, as opposite as possible, on the same topic, to make sure that it will never happen again that the world is split into the Wilsonian era and the Rooseveltian era--which is here the tragedy, in this country. You see, you have two generations -- Mr. Roosevelt woke up here, every morning of his life, and said, "What do I have to do, not to repeat the political mistake of Wilson, who was right in purpose, and wrong in his means?" He would never mention him in public, but he had them all in here, before his mind. And that is why we are so sterile, gentlemen, because it wasn't out in the open that -- Wilson's program had to be carried out--as you see now in the United Nations very clearly--and that nobody would allow any human being in this wonderful, fantastic era, from 1921 to 1939, to mention this fact, because people lived happily hereafter in this mythical -- mythical time of today.

And when Sinclair Lewis in 1928 came to 5th Avenue in New York, he stood in the floor where his publisher had his office. And you know, Sinclair Lewis was a famous man in his days, and a great writer. And the publisher asked him what he thought.

And the only answer Sinclair Lewis could give was -- he said, "You are insane. You are insane." That's all he had to say. And the consequences of course are the destruction of Europe, and the victory -- march of Communism all over the world, et cetera, et cetera. "You are insane."

Gentlemen, people who have no sense of timing are insane. This is a very simple statement, gentlemen, but the awakening of the human consciousness is not that you can say to yourself, "It itches," "It pains," you see, but that you can place yourself in the heretofore and in the hereafter. Anybody who cannot say, "This is my ancestor, and this shall" -- "these shall be my heirs," has not yet found

himself in reality. He hasn't. He's floundering. And -- I -- to you, the very simple example, gentlemen: the most delicate sense, the most human sense, the most superior sense a man has is his orientation in time. When you drink too much--which you never do--the first thing that leaves you is not the consciousness where you are, but when you are. The time sense. It's the most noticeable, the most subtle sense humanity has. And -- this -- its high- -- highest sense.

People always speak -- to me in these abstract terms of "eternity," that the man has to have a -- a sense of the eternal values and so. I don't -- I told you already, I don't believe in eternity. I believe that a man who is fully alive knows what is bygone, what has to be buried, what's -- what's over with, you see. For example, you can stand life without your parents, then you are a man. You will be very pained if they are not there, but you must organize your life so that you can act right without your parents' directing you, isn't that true? That's emancipation.

Now gentlemen, anybody who has this sense, has the most subtle sense of the eternal values. But it is -- comes to him in this concrete fashion that he makes a break between a time that has gone on before in which he was a child, and now it's the time in which he is a man. That's all we have about our time relations. Nobody -- I challenge every philosopher. They all lie when they say they know anything of eternity. Nobody knows anything of eternity, in this abstract sense of "no time," "always." Doesn't exist. We have no -- know -- we don't know anything of always. Nothing. But you take part in the life process, gentlemen, of eternal recurrence, of the eon, of the life everlasting, the life that comes back into your heart and makes you eloquent, if you have the power to bury your dead, and to plant a tree, or to beget a child. At that very moment, you enter this tremendous rhythm, of ne- -- "no" and "yes," "no" and "yes." He who can say "No, that's over, thank you, good-bye," who sa- -- can say, "Farewell to arms," can make peace. That's why it's a good title, Hemingway's book.

You can't -- say "farewell," and you can't say, "welcome," really, because nothing is over for you, and nothing is there. You live in a fog. It's all accidental. Have you ever decided--cut off, that means--"to decide" means to cut something off, gentlemen.

I have a friend who -- if it was -- if the world wasn't merciful would by now have 17 jobs as a professor, as a lecturer, as a judge, as a trustee. The whole problem of his is that he cannot say "no" to anything that's over. It's -- so he can't slough off any old skin. You know these joiners who belong to 62 organizations. And they can't decide which is -- has become so unimportant that they should drop it. They -- the people are who can't say "no." They have not the power in themselves to bury their dead.

So etern- ...

[tape interruption]

...gentlemen, to respect and to prospect time, and therefore, to be in the conspect of th- -- our maker, to feel at this moment He -- God has handed over to you the decision about -- over past and future. What the doctor says, when he { } that the man has died, and he closes his eyes, that you do that with all your institutions, with all your colleges, and schools, and families, you close the eyes of the dead, and you open your eyes to the future.

So the moment which we -- which has a past and future around it, that's -- we call "the present." The present, gentlemen, is always therefore the creation of your faith. A godless person cannot have any present. He's haunted. He's running for life. He has a permanent air- -- airplane ticket, a round-trip ticket to Europe, et cetera. Why are the American people on the move? They have no faith. You are full of hopes. There's gold in Klondike. There's gold in California. There's silver in Venezuela. There's oil in -- in -- in -- in Arabia. Walking, running, flying, more mileage, 18,000 miles, 24,000 miles, gentlemen. It's always a proof that you mistake space for time, that you want to add more space. That's the opposite from what a man should do, gentlemen: cut his losses. A faithful man cuts his losses, and says what he has, and begins with little, and stays where he is.

The Greeks and the Italians, gentlemen, are people of faith. I can say this. I'm neither a Greek nor an Italian, gentlemen. I'm German-born, as you know. But I -- these people have faith. These Greeks stay on their stony hill, and the Italians on their mountains in the Apennine, in Abruzzi, and in Sic- -- Sicily, which is still poorer, without any hope. You wouldn't stay there for five minutes. But they have faith. God has created them, and has created the earth. You don't believe that. You don't believe that God has created you. You think you are the result of some apes, or heredity, or something. You read these -- book on genetics. That is, you do not know that you are created at this very moment, but -- because if you were created in this very moment, you would be very proud to enter this space and to make a decision here and now, where you are, and not to buy a car and just run around in wild circles, go from Claremont to Hanover in 12 minutes, and kill in this process; it's -- three students of Dartmouth. That's what you do.

He who com- -- confuses the present, gentlemen, with the moment will always put speed in the place of history. History means the overlapping of a past that must be liquidated, or overcome, or outgrown, and the growing-upon you of the future. But anybody, gentlemen, who thinks that the present is this

moment, wants, of course, to aggrandize this moment by putting into this moment suddenly as much as possible. That's speed.

It reminds me of the story of my friend in Madison, Wisconsin, who was working there in a metal factory, and he used to ask him foreman on Monday what he had done on Sunday. And invariably the man -- where he had been on Sunday, pardon me, where he had been on Sunday. Then the foreman would scratch his head and he said, "Oh, yes. We tanked there and there. We made 15- -- 500 miles that day."

That was the Sunday of the foreman, you see, that he hardly remembered the place where he -- they had taken gas, but they had made 500 miles. That's the Sunday. Of course, as you may well imagine, it is -- it is the abomination of the Sunday; it's the destruction of the Sunday. But that is quite customary. It's a great story. It happened in 1928, in this climax of insanity. I don't know if a foreman today would do the same. Would you say?


He would. Well, then the insanity is still rampant.

As soon as you put speed and moment, gentlemen, in the -- place of growth and -- and present, you know where you are. You know that you are dehumanizing your real character.

I think it is so simple; I offer you this as a -- as a kind of pill of wisdom, because it is so simple. You c- -- have just -- you -- the discernment of the spirits by this power, you see. Anybody who put speed -- take your child prodigy. If it is thought to be better that a child goes to Harvard at 14 than at 18, the man -- his father who does this--I knew such a man; he was a minister, allegedly of the Gospel; he was a minister of the devil--he sent his son to Harvard and was very proud because his son was 14. He ruined, of course, the man's life, this son's life, because he had no respect for growth, but he had only respect for speed. The whole theory, gentlemen, of your last century here, of -- that a child prodigy, that anything that is done quicker is better, you see, is this error.

I'm certainly in this sense also a son of the devil, because anybody who lives in this century is gotten down by this problem of speed here or there. He can't help it. It's -- it's tickli- -- ticklish business to say that -- that we aren't all impatient and that we don't want to have a speed record. It is impressive, sure, gentlemen. But as soon as you allow the speed of the machine -- enter your own soul for any achievement of your own life, gentlemen, you have lost faith. Because the time of men is not to be speeded up, but to be fulfilled. That's the dif-

ference between speed and fulfillment. If you could learn to distinguish always speed and fulfillment, you would know the good life. Obviously fulfillment is to stay alive the whole life, you see, and speed is to -- have it all done in 25 years, like this terrible man in England. {Nicolson} is his name, I think. He wrote this famous book, 25, which is a full-fledged biography of a man, you see. And unfortunately he didn't jump into the Thames River afterwards. But he had -- lived himself, so to speak, he was -- it was all over with. If you write your autobiography at 25, you see --. Goethe knew this. He wrote a -- the biography of a young man at the age of 25, and he blew out his brains. That's perfectly logical. I mean, if you write the -- life and want to have it understood and finished at 25, that's all you can do.

I think, however, in this country, I mean, you can only begin to live after you -- have written your autobiography nowadays. I mean, everybody writes in school, and you write it in -- in college. Aren't you all asked to write your autobiography? So you never get one. You never have time to live it. You always write your autobiography before. You shouldn't do that, gentlemen. No introspection. The English are very good. They -- they decline to accept the autobiography of children and adolescents. It's all wrong, what you write, because all your life will have to be reinterpreted later in the light of what you really are bec- -- going to be. You know nothing of your life today. And be happy about this. It will become clear, it will stand revealed 30 years from now, what it all means, that you have been here. You can't know this now.

So fulfillment, gentlemen, is the power to let the future and the past work themselves out in our own life. How is this done, gentlemen? I tried to tell you that it is done by names. Every human being, gentlemen, is the son of a father, and the father of a son. If he has no children, in -- in the flesh, he still is the father of some future generations, and he can't help being the son of all the past generations.

So gentlemen, the fulfillment of a man is to make his -- the endowment from fa- -- our fathers, and the -- your own endowment of your sons come true. We are sons and fathers. If I had to rewrite the famous Russian novel, I would not call it Fathers and Sons--it's by Turgenev -- it's by Turgenev, the Russian writer, and it is the great annunciation of the Russian -- Revolution. It came out in 1863, and it made, so to speak, the Russian Revolution of 1917 in- -- inevitable. It said that the fathers and the sons had nothing to say to each other. And it was one of these novels in which the new naturalism burst forth, that every generation is just to itself, that it is -- fathers are fathers, "La guerre, ce sont nos pŠres," the war -- "these are just our -- our parents, and we are our own generation." What you -- the way you -- you have tried very definitely {too} over the last 30 years.

Gentlemen, the real problem is, the -- the novel that I would like to see written--or the epic, perhaps, the drama--would not be Fathers and Sons, but Sons and Fathers, because that would hit home in our -- your real experience. You know nothing of fathers and sons. You don't understand your father. You only understand him when you are a father. You begin by being a -- his son, in opposition to your father: fearing him, loving him, needing him, and so on. But certainly, you begin as sons. Human consciousness is net -- not able to write a book, Fathers and Sons. You are only able to write a book, Sons and Fathers, because that's your own real life story.

If you would see this, gentlemen, you would see that history reverses the order of the time flow. As a naturalist, you think it's a great idea to write a book, Fathers and Sons. That's -- Thomas Wolfe has done this, for example. And -- The Stream, The River. Always -- all -- everything running away, flowing, flowing, flowing, flowing, see. First the fathers -- or first the grandfathers, then the fathers. All these generation books, the Galsworthy saga, you know, all these books of the 19th century. They are all just, you see, the generations float down the river. But gentlemen, that's not the way in which we experience time. You are at this moment experiencing time as sons of all the past, as heirs I have tri- -- tried to tell you of all the past. Our first time-experience is on the receiving end.

Therefore, if you are honest, you can't describe your father at this moment. You can only describe yourself at this moment as -- how it feels to be on the receiving end. The heir. But you try to criticize the father, or to analyze their -- his complexes, or I don't know what. You will never succeed, gentlemen, because you haven't been a father, so you don't know how it feels to be 6- -- 60 years of age. You have to become 60 before you know anything about fathers. The funny thing about the Nazis, for example, is that they would know everything about fathers from their point of view of the youth movement. If they had stuck to their own guns and said, "We are young," that's one thing. But if they sat in judgment over their fathers, that's just funny.

Fathers and Sons, gentlemen, is then an anti-historical title, and it has produced an anti-historical revolution, the Russian Revolution, which is an attempt to make people and an- -- man a beehive, or an ant-hive. And that's -- why it has to be so cruel. It cannot admit exceptions, you see. The machine, the nature is -- is law. It knows no exceptions. It knows no grace. It knows no freedom. You have to reverse the process, gentlemen, if you want to say -- stay out of creeping Communism in this country, of which all the great corporations are the leaders. Our corporations are communistic. They are the real communists. They are now public stations of the government, and they run the show, gentlemen. They can't close down; they are the official agencies of our public life. And they want to communize you. And they want to tell you at which station a vice-presi-

dent may have a Cadillac, and at which station he must put up with a Ford. You will have a very -- quick development of class consciousness in this country. Classes, of social classes. They are -- springing up now, with great violence. And if you want to fight them, gentlemen, you must get out of this mythical time. And you must see that you -- there is a break in your own consciousness at one time, when you shake yourself free of being a child and become a man, of being a son and become a father.

Since you try to marry at 21, gentlemen, you have to learn this from -- in the spirit. You have to become conscious of these things. They don't happen to you anymore. You are like animals, gentlemen. You are lived. It is a passive existence which you lead, in every respect. The girls marry you. The corporations give you a job. The psychoanalyst takes away your past. And you have no future.

Well, you all live in dre- -- in -- in dreams, gentlemen. It isn't your life that you live. You live somebody else's life. You can only live your own life, gentlemen, if you become aware in -- to what an extent you are sons and heirs of the past--you -- we all are--and then say, "But that isn't enough." But since you say you are yourself, since you take stock of your intelligence with an IQ, and of your physical alertness with -- going on the scales and weighing you every day, you don't know who you really are. You don't know that you are heirs. In everything you think you are yourself, gentlemen, you are history made.

If you would see that there is no such thing as an individual, you see, but only something that has been stamped out by history, which you call "American," or "student," or "young man," or what-not, then you can discover the point where you can break with this past. For example, you don't have to look at television; you don't have to go through the mass media; you don't have to go to cocktail parties. You can change that. That would be the beginning of your wisdom, if you would abstain from some of the accidents of your education. Give me the boy who forgoes one of these silly collars which the world puts around you, and he -- is waking up to the fact that he can change.

But since you are convinced, gentlemen, that the moment, the speed, and yourself is all you have gotten, and since you do not see that you are the fulfillment of the times of your grandparents, and therefore also must become the beginning of the life of your grandchildren, you have no time.

Because, gentlemen, what is worth doing in a man's own life, must be something so good that it is still true 70 years from now. I wouldn't begin to teach you something if I didn't think it was valid, what I told you, 50 years from now, when you have the power to do it. I'm not teaching you as for -- as of now.

I'm teaching you as of 50 years from now, when some of you will be trustee of Dartmouth College, and it will be your business to change this college at that time. From -- for -- in some way. I don't know how. That's the only interest I have in teaching you, gentlemen. I'm not teaching you because you have to take an exam, or you have to take -- get credit for this course, obviously. But there has to be a transmission of the power to change the world in -- for the year 2000. And I have of course very faint hope that any one of you will still be alive at 2000. You will all live to be -- oh, 90 years of age. But you will have died five years from now. Because you will be lived in your own consciousness, gentlemen.

You think of your self. And there is nothing to think about, about self, gentlemen. The self has nothing to say. People tell you that you should express yourself, gentlemen. This you do on the toilet every day. That's the only thing you have to express. The self has nothing to say. The self is an animal. Everything that has to be said is eternity. It's the creation of man in every generation. There is no self-expression. That's -- destroys language today in this country.

What do we do, gentlemen, when we wake up to consciousness? We are entitled to give the past and the future its titles. The creation of speech, I tried to tell you from the beginning, has to do with vows. "We shall not forget this dead ancestor," that's the first vow. "We'll had -- carry his -- the tattoo of this tribe on our skin forever."

Now let's look into this with the proper term. How should we then term--and determine--the first layer of speech, gentlemen? I think if you want to wake up to the fact that these are not empty words which the tribesmen had spoken in -- the Navajo Indians for the last 7,000 years, I think you should drop the -- the -- the terminology of the philologists who tell you that the language of the Navajos has 500 words. The language of any genuine tribe has so many titles. The word "title" is perhaps the last ti- -- word which best- -- gives you the importance of the acoustics of a language, of the meaning of a word in the Navajo dictionary. Your dictionary contains empty words, so-called synonyms. Throw them away. When you have two words for one thing, you have no word for one thing. But your father is your father. You can't call your father the "supreme being." Just as little as you can -- call, with impunity, God the "supreme being." That's ridiculous. That's for Free Masons. It is a superstition which destroys the title, which you have to go- -- you cannot pray, "O Supreme Being." It has been attempted. It's just ridiculous. Supreme Being is an objective description of somebody, you see, in his absence. -- When you call God the supreme being, you think He doesn't listen in. It's a -- blasphemous word, therefore, because either you believe that God does listen in, or you don't believe in it. There's no middle ground.

All these scholastics who debate the -- the supreme being, they -- they -- they are to me terribly funny. They -- they -- they always start on the assumption that God is everywhere except in their own classroom.

What do you say? Is it true?

(It's absolutely right.)

They have a privilege, obviously, you see. Th- -- they have found this one hole which has got -- left for the devil.

Gentlemen, the spirit of man is in every word by which we are entitled, to bestow titles. I -- I haven't found in a long search over the years any word in English which may wake you up to the fact that language is dynamite, and it is dangerous, and it is creative. And it is true that before God said, "Let there be light," there was no light. And it is true that before you say to a girl, "Be my wife," she doe- -- cannot become your wife. She -- you -- she cannot become your wife, when -- when she answers at the altar, "He does."

But that's your attitude to language. You leave it to her to say, "She" -- "He does." You -- she -- "He does" for your cultural choices, for the books you read, for the -- women's club, for everything, she knows what -- what your faith is. She speaks for you. In all the cultural affairs in this country, the women have the sayso.

We entitle and we are entitled, gentlemen. When you say, "Father," you give him his righteous title. If you could wake up to the fact that "Father" is a title, just as -- as "Doctor of Medicine," you would understand that a title is white magic. That is, it is the power that moves mountains. Because if you give a person the name he wants to hear, and you believe it, too, you can get this person to a higher pitch of achievement than in any other way. Men will only be themselves, gentlemen, in the true sense of history, if they are not treated as selves who know themselves, but then -- when they wake up to the title of -- for which they have waited.

In the Bible, gentlemen, as you know, there is a story told in the first chapter, how God created the universe. And then there is a second chapter in which it is told how Jesus -- how Adam was created out of clay. But our readers of the last century were -- had -- such terrible -- were in such a hurry that they never read beyond the second chapter. But Adam was only finished as a finished product, as a creature, in the fifth chapter of Genesis. I recommend it -- perhaps you still find an old Bible somewhere in your -- in your parents' room. Look at it. You could even reprint it in a readable edition without -- without cuts. And there

is, in the fifth chapter, de- -- Adam is finished. You know in which way God -- fulfills the creation of Adam? Does anybody know what is said in the fifth chapter of Genesis? Not one of you. I'm sure you have all graduated from Sunday school. But the most important things in the Bible nobody seems to know. Does nobody know what's in the fifth chapter of {Genesis}, gentlemen? Never got over the second chapter?

Gentlemen, the title is bestowed on Adam in this fifth chapter. It is -- says, "God called Adam man." That is, he received his self-consciousness by being given the -- his righteous name, that he was the ancestor of all mankind, that he was to begin the human race. And man who has not been named, gentlemen, has not been created.

It is very funny that our liberals and our orthodox, the fundamentalists and the biblical critics, gentlemen, have overlooked this little fact that man is not created out of clay and out of the living breath only, but out of the name which another person faithfully, and believingly, and lovingly bestows on him. That's why the medicine man in the tribe has to tell the children of Adam that they are the sons of Adam. Allow me to sa- -- tell you that the Bible is not a book of the Jews, and it is not the book of the Israelites, and it is not a book of the Christians. It's a book of mankind. And therefore very dutifully has, as you know, a genealogy in which it makes it perfectly clear that the Semites are very little part of the human race indeed, and the Jews are very little part of the Semites. And they are just in a corner in Palestine. The Bible is a very ambitious book. It's as ambitious as Philosophy 58, gentlemen. It's the universal history of mankind. And the universal history of mankind begins with the creation of man's consciousness by hearing his name called out.

And the first way in which God has entered the scene of history is by people hearing their bygone ancestor brought to life again in loyalty, and calling them his children.

This is not childish, gentlemen, when a tribesman speaks of his ancestors and himself as the children of these ancestors. It is the same way -- as we can only put ourselves under God's mercy and say, "We are his children." We abbreviate this all, and do not count all the generations for -- since Adam which have produced us finally. But there is no difference, gentlemen. The power to name is the divine power, gentlemen. And the power to give -- bestow the right title of us comes always to any human being as a revelation. If I can get you out of your rut so that you forget that you are just your father's son in New Jersey, and -- I can provoke you into becoming what God expects you to be, I have given you the right name, have I not? I have suddenly gi- -- gone beyond the -- the legality of your civil name, of the just-inherited, accidental, sheriff's list, in which you are

fingerprinted and what-not, and numbered. And you suddenly begin to understand that your name waits to be fulfilled, that you have to fill it with meaning, yourself.

At this very moment, the difference between being your father's son and your God -- Father's Son, is -- is -- is mini- -- is minimized. Your father put you into this world as a child of the world. But in naming you, he acted in God's place. All parents, gentlemen, all parents in the old tribal order--and today just the same, it's absolutely no difference--when you -- they give you your name, they don't give the name if they are in their righteous mind, but they act in God's stead. They act so that you know that you also have to give a name to your children. It's a -- universal duty of man, you see, to give the children a name so that they can enter the story from Adam's fall to the last judgment day. That is, what does -- do a fa- -- does a father, gentlemen? He has -- is entitled to play for a moment the vicar of God, to speak.

To speak, gentlemen, is to make use of the magistrate, the office, the authority, the kingship which is in our creator, and of which we all hold crowns, so to speak, as participants. Anybody who en- -- entitles another man to do something, gentlemen, plays God. If I -- a -- if the doc- -- the medical profession bestows on a doctor the degree of doctor of medicine, you see, they empower this man. Very dangerous procedure. Think of -- if a man then kills people by his -- by his inabilities. They are responsible, are they not? They have taken upon themselves an office of a divine nature, that is, of a superhuman nature.

And we all live by this tradition, gentlemen. And the simplest way in which God enters history is by inspiring parents to give names to their children. And I told you that the simplest way of expressing this faith in God on the part of parents is that they give the name of their own parents to their children, that grandchildren and grandparents share the name. So that the father, by giving the name to the child entitles this child to rely on his own divine status, because he again has the authority which at one time was exercised over his own father. And perhaps you understand why the Greeks and the Romans called their children "the free." "{Liberi}," in -- "{liberta}" -- "liberty," you see, is the same word for "children" and for "liberty." And in Greek it's "{elytheros}," "{elutheros}," which means "the free." The -- ent- -- also -- -so -- the up-and-coming, as we say in -- in English. The children were the up-and-coming, because the parents instituted them into the authority of being like the ancestors.

Think of what it means when -- when any -- a father says to his child, "I give you my father's name, because I want you to understand that at one time you will be as strong as the man who gave orders to me." Can you see this tremendous thing? That in three generations, you have the whole problem of

government, of Church--and not just of the family--in these original times. The tremendous faith -- act of faith of the living generation was that they wanted to entitle the child to become as strong as the dead man around whose totem pole they were dancing, and around whose grave and funeral they exercised their religious ritual.

The mystery--I tell you again, gentlemen--of sons and fathers { }, that the fathers love their sons so much that they want to have father-fathers made of them. That is, not just their own dignity, you see, but the strength of the man who prec- -- made me, ordered me. That's much more.

If you marry at 20, and you have a child born to yourself--I suppose normally in -- when you are 21--the -- and you give this child the name of your father, you must be very strong indeed, because you are not afraid that this man will, when you are 60, or when you are 40--how is it? it goes so fast now--that he will have the potency, and the authority, and the virility, you see, way -- under which you suffered when you were your father's son.

And it is -- also expresses, gentlemen, another feature of man's relation to his creator, to the power that makes us speak. God is the power that makes men speak. We know nothing else of God. You can explain nature by nature. By -- electrons by neutrons, and neutrons by protons, et cetera. You can explain the world without God. You cannot explain your own power to make a declaration of love, and a declaration of war by anything but the divine power to speak. There must be, in speech, the power to give direction. It is, because you give direction. If you are not a bloody tyrant, and if you are not silly, gentlemen, and insane, you know very well that every word you speak has consequences in time. And these consequences go far beyond your own lifetime, and they originate from time immemorial in the words you use. You can only enter these avenues of time if you are quite sure that they are true. Therefore God must be power and truth, because to speak must be meaningful. And you -- are quite sure that some people can understand you. I can't teach here without believing that, despite all your prejudices and despite all your insanity, and in your immaturity, and your complete heresy, and your lack of orthodoxy, that you can understand me somehow. You can. Because we are all children of one father, gentlemen. And we know it, too. We -- you know much more about this than you ever admit to yourself.

Well, if we are children of -- all of one father, then your own father is only a vicar of God. And it is a small thing for the pope to be the vicar of Christ, as long as you do not understand that your father is the -- vicar of God. All these modern, ecclesiastical terms are so very dangerous in your mouth, gentlemen, they are so stilted, because what -- does it mean that our -- the pope in Rome is

the vicar of Christ if you do not -- compare to the older truth, which was known before the coming of Christ, that every father is the vicar of God? You understand. That's meaningless. You have to put the two together.

Every man who speaks to anybody else and gives him a title, you see, creates the universe of human society, of mankind. By calling a man names, you make the man or you break him, don't you? We say "calling names" in an evil sense, you see, because it destroys a man's self-confidence if you call him names. You can't call the Jews in the -- Brooklyn "Christ-killers" without the most terrible consequences. It's -- funny that the people who give the wrong names always do the same themselves which they -- they complain of in others. Of course, all the people who call the Jews "Christ-killers" are at that very moment Christ-killers themselves. They kill the spirit.

So I -- I have to wake you up to the fact, gentlemen, that to speak is either to undo God's work or to continue it. You cannot say one word in earnest which isn't creative or destructive. There is no other way of speaking. To speak means to create, or it means to deny creation.

And now this is the connection--and this is what I wanted to -- bring -- le- -- lead up to this -- at this moment, gentlemen--this is the connection between the law and speech. Between righteousness and justice on the one-hand side, and speech. To speak is an attempt to put everything in its righteous place. And therefore, every word is a legal term. Anybody -- who is going to study the law? For you, the most important thing is, gentlemen, is to re-conquer your relation to language, because it is not the silly thing of the doggerel and of the crossword puzzle, which it appears to be to you, language. Language is an attempt to be right. That's all it is. And That's why the law has so -- funny words, you see, such old words, and keeps them very carefully, and is so cautious about destroying any one expression, because all the words of serious men are -- have been said to give title to the land, to give title to the man, to give title and authority to this and that, you see, to entitle people. That's the real speech.

Therefore the language of the law, gentlemen, is the real language. And it is always the decision of right and wrong. You can give a wrong name to a man, and you can give a right name to a man. But you can't give a meaningless name to a man, you see. It has always some meaning. If you can -- if you can call the king, as it is in The Apple Cart of -- of Bernard Shaw--he has a masseuse, the king there, the ki- -- the emperor of America. And -- and this young lady mis- -- mis- -- confuses her duty to keep him in good spirits, and his majesty's higher aims in life. And she thinks she can take liberties. And the very moment she is put in her place, when she tries to give him a nickname, he's through with her. He has only one name, gentlemen. He's the king. And she has no -- there is no "Jimmy."

You are so split, you are so schizophrenic, that you think that every man has still behind his real name a nickname, gentlemen. A man who leads a good life leads his whole life as his office under God. You can't give the old Whittier any other name but Whittier. Does anybody know his first two names?

(John Greenleaf.)

John Greenleaf Whittier. And I think he's a good example of a man who is -- cannot be quoted as "Johnny" and he cannot be quoted as "Leaf," and cannot be quoted as "Green," and he has -- is just John Greenleaf Whittier, gentlemen. I warn you to take this for one moment very seriously. Robert Frost is Robert Frost. Don't take liberties, and don't call him "Robbie." He is Robert Frost, and he has earned this in a long life. That's his -- his title. And he has no other name. Robert Frost is a star in the sky in America, because he has been able, and allowed by his creator to write his name into the -- our Heaven, as a title. It's a great -- he -- he holds title to a part of our spiritual realm, you see. He is a constellation in the sky quite literally, gentlemen. You can't call Moses with -- another name but Moses. You can't call Jesus Christ with any other name, but this name. You of course have innumerable names, because you have aliases, you know, so that you can commit more crimes. The alias is an attempt of the devil.

And so the New Testament, you know what -- what the New Testament says of the man who has many names? They call him --? How do they call him? How is the man with the many names, who -- here is he Johnny, and there is he Jimmy, and there is he something else. You know how he is called? Oh, I thought, because you hadn't read more than two chapters of Genesis, you might have read the New Testament. Is it all unknown, the Bible, to you? It's quite an important book, you see. Everything that's in your head at this moment is written -- is said and thought of you against the Bible, because the devil fills you. All Dartmouth is one living protest against Christianity. Every word in the Bible has here been turned into -- into the opposite. And so you think that to have synonyms, you see, is a -- is your right. Gentlemen, anybody who can use for his mother the name, "Old Dame," or "Madam," instead of "Mother," is in a wrong way. She's either your mother, or she has lost her standing with you. If you call her "My old la-" -- "The Old Lady," I'm sorry. There's something destructive about it, because of the devil, Jesus says, "His name is legion." Have you never heard that? "His name is legion."

Gentlemen, anybody who lies, thinks that he can use weasel-words and thinks he can say the opposite, just as well. Like these two gentlemen who went to Norwich in the name of Dartmouth College and produced these two election speeches, you see. They could be Democrats and Republicans at -- at random.

"His name is legion," gentlemen. The right name is always one. The poem is -- a poet is today a man who works so hard until he has found the one right verse to set -- the thing, you see. There is no other word. It's just that. You can't express it in any other way. And you have the idea that anything can be expressed in many ways. And that's why you have no power of speech. The great speaker in the Gettysburg Address, or in the Second Inaugural is in Abraham Lincoln the man who couldn't say it in any other way, because he gave title to this affair of -- between the states. We quote him for this reason. What is a quotation, gentlemen? A quotation is a way by which we recognize that the thing has received its righteous name. You can't give it another. It has just to be called that way.

That's very far from your own experience at this moment, but I have to warn you, gentlemen: I have to tell you that the tribal s- -- tradition of the real speech, the -- tradition of Adam, and his sons, and his wife, is the re-elevation of speech to the level of title. We receive title to our heritage, when we learn to speak. And you don't learn to speak. You learn to prattle. You talk. But that isn't the same. That doesn't entitle you to be citizens of this country, or to vote, or to go to war for this country, or to do anything else creative, you see. Then a man and his word are the same.

There's an old proverb in Anglo-Saxon law, gentlemen, that the bulls one has to take by the horns. The man at his word. The man has to be taken at his word. Which means that the man is that what he has said. The people, gentlemen, in life become that which they have said. They -- they mean. You identify yourself with the word which you throw before you, gentlemen. If you found the Republican Party in 1858, you see, the Civil War is the consequence, and the 14th Amendment is the consequence, you see; and you become more and more what you have said. You see, you meant what you thought was right, what you stood for, as we say, with a very -- word that never strikes you as very serious, gentlemen, is a tremendous word. The tribesmen created speech because they had stood for what they had said. Very simple.

A man who stands for what he says, gentlemen, creates a present. And you have not warned me that my time is up. You have not stood for what you should stand. Five minutes. Open the windows, please.

[tape interruption]

...of their ancestors and receive title to their place in time by being called -- by their naming na- -- knowing the heretofore and the hereafter. It is a -- simply a fact, gentlemen, that all language was created on the wavelength of three generations. There would be no language if we only would then live here to-

gether in this room for five minutes, gentlemen. We could get along with signs. But all language has by the naturalists been explained as being nothing but a sign, token. It isn't true. Language was created to represent the dead among the living, and the unborn among the living. That's the character of language. Language is the bridge from the time under our control to the times not under our control. And the miracle of speech is that despite the fact that we have no control over the past and the future, you still speak a little bit of English.

[tape interruption]

...{ } 7,000 years one and the same word, "Father" is still...

[tape interruption]

...of the dead--ephemeral beings as we all are--we still are filled and fulfilling the hopes of the founders of language that all men would one day speak one language.

I'm always puzzled by these Berlitz School idealists, or Esperantists, or -- you may call them, or these United Nations {Johnnies} who tell you that all men should be one, one day. Gentlemen, they can only be one, if all -- the men of all times can be -- in some way be one. Otherwise, all our ancestors, you see, would very definitely rebel in our blood against this artificial unity and { } success. Mr. Ben-Gurion has to think of the grandchildren in Palestine, and he cannot come around to a resolution of the United Nations without any guarantees. He cannot, because government is not the government of the day, gentlemen. It is keeping together three generations in a common enterprise. If you can now ship Moroccan Jews to Palestine by the thousands every month, you can only do this if there is some hope that...

[tape interruption]

...gentlemen, you have people who seem to be born mentally in 1830. You know it in your difficulties with your fraternities. That is, even a fraternity there is not just the living generation present, but they are...

[tape interruption]

...the fact that they born long, long ago.

Gentlemen, politics is three generations or it's nothing. Poland and Czechoslovakia were no states after the First -- World War. Some friends of Mr. Wilson founded Czechoslovakia. It was a crime for Europe -- to Europe. It was

hailed here as a great thing, because you think that you can make a child -- a state in one generation, and for one generation. Well, it lasted one g- -- 20 years, and it was all over. It's now a colony of -- of Russia, and the worst of all. There's not in -- as in Poland and Hungary, a separate nation, but they drove out half of their people, the German part, so the Czechs are just nothing, dirt. They are absolutely nothing. And the same is true, of course, of Poland. Poland overtook itself and had a -- independence for 20 years, and it hadn't. And that's its tragedy.

Gentlemen, ge- -- politics are not questions of one generation. And that's what -- why the real language appears, for example, in the United States in the Constitution. Laws in this country do no longer say what is right and wrong. They are come to pass under political pressure. But the Constitution, gentlemen, is a document which is now valid in this country and can be understood in seven generations. Why, gentlemen? Because it uses -- it's the only -- American document, I dare say, which uses language for its real purpose. All right, to say what is right. And how do you know what is right, gentlemen? When people have died for this document, for the -- the words that have been said. The Declaration of Independence comes first, then people -- are killed seven years. The people who don't agree with { } go to Montreal -- to -- to Canada, the 300,000 Loyalists. And in 1787, the Federalists get together and write down once more the experience. And that's why we have this Constitution which was born in 50 years of toil. And it speaks the truth. And it is right. And if you want to know what language is, gentlemen, you have this one solid proof that language is an attempt to give direction to us, to give direction to us, to say something that is valid for fathers and grandchildren.

[tape interruption]

...a language to be sp- -- real human speech and make you into humans must be valid. And it is valid when it expresses the right, and detests the wrong. We testify by what we say to what is right, gentlemen, and we detest--that is, we abolish as testimony--what is wrong. Right and wrong, gentlemen, are not like things here and there. But when we speak, we make way for the right. And we detest, we reject, we invalidate the wrong. It's one and the same act, gentlemen. While I say something, I obviously don't say certain other things. If I say that words give title, I reject the assumption that words are mere words. And you cannot have it otherwise, gentlemen. To -- right and wrong is the action of speech.

Now in a tribe, this can never be forgotten. We are -- of course we have this playground in this school, where words do not matter, where we just -- you just play with words. In a tribe, that's impossible. Any wrong word said, gentlemen, is detestable in a tribe. That is, it throws a man out of his time. When in the

Germanic Thing, Germanic court in 700, let us say, of our era, in -- in Great Britain, a Saxon would plead for his property. And while he was speaking, he would cough or sneeze. He lost his -- he lost his judgment. You laugh and say that's a superstition. It was the helplessness of the people that they felt that the word had to be said with such clarity, and such purity, and such decision that if he was prevented from pronouncing it rightly, you see, he lost his case. A man was as good as his word, and the word was as good as the man.

So gentlemen, that's why I mean to say, you can only -- instill yourself with some respect and understanding of primitive men, of beginner men--primordial men I should call them perhaps better--if you come to -- around to the fact that only words had meaning in those days who were dangerous. And I call them "who were dangerous," because they seem to be living substances. Why shouldn't they? Our spirit is alive. Our breath is alive. Words seem to fly through the air. They were the birds -- what we -- what you give to a plane today, the honor of flying. They were winged words in Homer, as you know, because they seemed to be like birds; they seemed to be alive.

The first impression, gentlemen, that had -- people had when they spoke was that the words were more alive than they themselves, and they were creative, and they were life-giving. And you -- I -- think I told you in this class, I'm not quite sure--that there are two things. In the beginning, man is a living soul. At the end, man is also -- has become a life-giving spirit. Now to speak is an attempt of makers -- givers of life, imparters of life, because we can increase that what's right, and can decrease that's -- what's wrong.

In the tribe, they had this great power to feel the exaltation. That if they really were in earnest, they could cut out avenues through all times. As you know, they were right. We still speak their words. The terrible corruption is that you think you can speak these words without truth. You can lie. That you can speak them as doggerels. You can pun. That you can speak them as jokes only. If I -- take them up, word by word, it's -- and tell you what they mean, you shudder, because it's so terribly serious. But you eat up the capital, perhaps, the substance of speech. But all speech -- in the beginning is dangerous. And it cuts out a path for the right, and it detests -- it abolishes the wrong by what it tries to say.

And this is the order of the story, gentlemen. Every tribe has -- creates a present. And it is formed by four corners. The fu- -- the grave, or the remembrance of the dead is necessary for the existence of a tribe. That gives it its name. A tribe is named in honor of the ancestor. There may be several ancestors. There may be an ancestor and an ancestress, a woman. Or there may be -- an animal, a puma. Or there may be four animals, you see, all getting together as clans and

totems in the tribe. But every tribe can only exist as long as it has a totem pole. As long as it has a -- a post on whose crown the eyes of the ancestor are looking down on the living, and entitle the living to quote the ancestors.

The present gen- -- gentlemen, is to quote the ancestors. If you have the respective atti- -- aspect of the tribe in mind, you will say -- say that a tribe is the power to evoke the spirit of the dead, to evoke -- to re-evoke them.

Inside the tribe, gentlemen, you must be able to convene the tribe, to convoke it. There is convocation necessary. Every tribe must -- after the funeral, come back, and come back, and come back to the center place where you can convoke all the people who gather in the name of the ancient hero, of the ancient ancestors, of the totem pole, or whatever it is.

So gentlemen, when a tribe has no totem pole to gather under, it is destroyed. When the Iroquois in this country--you know perhaps, that when the Five Nations made war in 1756, and '57, '58, that they succeeded in taking away the totem posts -- poles of the Mohawks. That was the end of the tribe. If you destroy the totem poles of a tribe, you have destroyed the tribe, because it's the basis, you see, of its existence, of its speech, of the --. All the names only make sense, if you can relate the people of the living generation to the ancestor in their relationship. One being the grandson, and one being the uncle, et cetera, et cetera.

The third thing, gentlemen, which every tribe then must have is that he reacts against provocation. Every tribe must be able to feel provoked by defending the -- its -- his memories. That is, war and warpath is eternal in a tribe as an external possibility. It is in -- one of our great questions today: how much is war necessary? In America, you have the fact that this is the most belligerent nation of the last 150 years. It has gone to more wars than any other nation. But it is the most peace-loving nation of the little schoolhouse that exists in the world, and all Americans are born pacifists.

Nobody can arbitrate the schizophrenia in this country. I don't understand it. You are always for both: the most powerful and the most weak nation, and the most belligerent and the bloodthirsty, and the most -- brutal nation and the most sweet, and the most peace-loving nation. And nobody seems to know what's what, I mean. You elect a president because he kept the country out of war. Eight days later he is at war; everybody is enthusiastic. And -- that was Woodrow Wilson, as you know. And so on it goes. I mean, the -- we live by these contrasts. And it is very hard to arbitrate bet- -- in the American character.

But I would say, gentlemen, that a nation or a tribe who that cannot go to

war has ceased to be a nation or a tribe. They are part of something else. If you say that the United Nat- -- States can never go to war, you simply say that somebody else is governing. Perhaps Mr. Hammarskj”ld. But certainly it is part of any political group that it can feel provoked. And if it can feel provoked, gentlemen, then that means war. Wars are results of provocation from an outer threat, an external threat.

I'm very insistent, gentlemen, on this, that we are provoked. Most people think that we go into nature and do something to nature. And when we go to war, we go against the Turks, or against the Mexicans from our part. I don't think the old tribesmen liked war at all. But they felt provoked. They felt the danger that their way of life was threatened. The warpath, gentlemen, is not in the -- in your sense of the word a wanton aggression.

All people, at all times through the ages, have thought that their wars were legitimate, that is, they were outcomes of their search for righteousness. What is legitimate, gentlemen? To be within the law. Now if you have to defend an order, gentlemen, and somebody provokes you and tells your children not to obey your laws, you feel provoked. You go to do something about this man. That's the origin of war, gentlemen, and the eternal origin of war. If the Communists destroy our order, then even the Cath- -- Roman Catholic hierarchy in this country goes to see President Truman and says, "Please throw a bomb on Moscow. We have no -- nothing against it. It's a preventive war. It's necessary. Otherwise Communism will win." That happened in 1948.

Provocation is the reason for war, gentlemen. It is the opposite from evoking the spirits of the past. We feel provoked by outside danger. And the way the simple American mind thinks of itself as being ca- -- as being unable to be provoked de- -- deserves a closer analysis. I think from your play experience, you are very generous people, and you will not be provoked for no good reason. You -- you are afraid that this would be stupid. And I think there is a lesson to be learned by all other nations from the Americans that you cannot easily be provoked.

I shall never forget my own instruction in this matter in the year 1936. At that time, a gunboat on the Yangtze River, an American, was forced to -- to pull out and to take down its flag. It was the most gruesome provocation under international law that any great nation could be exposed to. You haven't even -- hardly hard -- hardly heard of the {Pannay} accident. Who has heard of it? Well, one-third of the class. And gentlemen, in any other time, and in any other climate, we would have gone to war against Japan. The American people didn't. They slept, and thought they didn't have to go to war.

Now gentlemen, it's most deba- -- very debatable whether it wouldn't have been better for us to go to war in 1936. You see, we can't argue this point at this moment. But what is important, gentlemen, that I lived through those days in agony, because I thought a great nation could not do anything but feel provoked. And this nation didn't. It didn't spare -- save the -- this United States from -- from the war, and in Pearl Harbor. After all, that was nothing more but a provocation. And I can remember the December 8, 1941, in this -- in this college. It was Monday. Pearl Harbor had been attacked on Sunday. And yet the students in my class tried to debate whether we should go to war or not. They continued the attitude after the {Pannay} accident, and they held to the conviction that it was up to them to decide whether they were provoked, you see, or not.

What I'm -- driving -- is, gentlemen: why do I use these terms? Can you give me this piece of chalk which fell down there?

We re-evoke the past in order to be in politics. Nobody can evoke any order in society in this country if he doesn't speak in the name of the Constitution, or of the United States, or of George Washington, or of something that has gone before you, my dear people, you see. There is no law of your own generation. Everything you stand on is a title given to you by the dead. You may like it or not, but all your status in this country depends on dead people, and their doings, and their way of righteousness, who now -- as an avenue through time, and reaching you, and embracing you, and entitling you to be called citizens of the United States. Who would you be if you weren't citizens of the United States? And what are the United States? Something founded in 1776. That's all there is to it. And you think that you are, because you are -- li- -- lived, you are right. Gentlemen, nobody can be right because he lives. He can only live because he's right. You see? Yes, Sir, don't -- don't { }. Because if you -- you live because you are right, because you have a right, you are entitled to life. Because otherwise at your birth, your mother might have felt that you were a weakling, and might have thrown you into the abyss. And in older days, she was entitled to that. Children had no title, except by the will of their parents. The tribal law originally placed them in the hands of the parents to decide whether the child should live or not. I mean literally, Sir. You live by right, and you have no right because you live. But you don't believe this. You are a naturalist. You think that your physical existence, you see, entitles you to life.

Ask all the wild animals in this country whether the American pioneer {thought -- the} animals, because they lived -- had a right to live. They didn't. They were all -- extirpated, and annihilated. We didn't give them title to { }.

Gentlemen, I -- I must -- ask for the -- your permission to go on with this for one second. Any order which we have inherited is based on the use of vocali-

ty, of the voice, of speech. Order exists because we can re-evoke the spirits of the dead. We can feel provoked. We can convoke -- have a convocation of all that bow to this old spirit. And finally--and that's will be -- the task of Thursday, to deal -- go over more detail--we can revoke events which try to deviate from this path of righteousness through time.

I have here put something that you found nowhere, which may help you to recover the original creative power of speech, gentlemen, by using this word which is connected with our word "voice." All action of the lawyer, of the priest, of the poet, of the historian, of the legislator is contained in these four terms. We evoke the spirit. That -- of the times that have gone on before us. We convoke the people who will live by the spirit. The convocation therefore de- -- de- -- de- -- delineates the extension of the order. Where you can convene a meeting--obviously, you see, the convocation--you know who is member, who is not. The convocation, whether it is a small tribe or a big empire means in my terminology at this moment, you see, all those who listen to the call. Today the convocation of the United States would be -- go as far as people will not dodge the draft, because the others feel convoked to report to their draft board. If you take to the hills, you -- you destroy the order of convocation.

I know today the word "convocation" is used in a special sense for the -- religious matters. But that, you understand is -- I'm not doing this. I'm trying to bring back the full meaning of "convocation" as meaning people who listen to the voice that calls them in the name of the old spirits, of the old order, of the United States of America, for example. Follow? Sir, you look a little doubtful.

(I am doubtful { } follow.)

You don't. All right. So don't follow me. On Thursday, I'll try to make you { }.