{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this

...we today separate what you so glibly call "poetry," all law, all religion, all talk, that at the layer of speech which we try to unearth, and which should make you feel that the people of primitive stature -- have done something for us which in this moment in us is dying, and in great danger therefore of making us into the blonde beast of Mr. Nietzsche, or of the concentration camps of Ka- --what is it called? in {Vakoutka} in Siberia--that this is what is dying in you, gentlemen, the power to speak, originally, and not glibly, and not just talk, and not just listen to these clich‚s. Your inability to say anything unusual or original, that can only be overcome if you recapture the sense of the first layer of speech--the creative layer--in which the same word, gentlemen, is religious, legal, poetical, and familiar. It's one and the same word that has all these capacities.

If words mean to pave roads, to blaze trails through time, then it shouldn't be too difficult for you to compare these actions of speech to what you all know as trailblazing. That much in Boy Scouts you have done yourself; but only you are, of course, as little pagans, limited to space. It's one thing to blaze a trail in a wood, gentlemen. It's a very different thing of blazing a trail into centuries. That's what did -- the Indians have done, these red -- red men, what you cannot do. You cannot think over the next 24 hours, practically. Perhaps for the next three years, when you say you have to finish college. All the rest, gentlemen, for you is in the lap of the gods. And you -- if you die, you have done nothing ever to extend anything over the moment. You have become impotent with regard to speech. And you even say -- you are -- we are noncommittal, you won't stick your neck out. You'll never say anything which you cannot withdraw. You begin every sentence, "I may be wrong, but --."

Now gentlemen, if a -- if a tribesman had always -- began all his sentences with this silly -- remark, "I may be wrong," which is only hiding your arrogance and your conviction that you are right, they wouldn't have achieved anything. A man's word is a man's word. And it isn't helped by always -- like a salesman, I mean, just to get -- you see, recon- -- reconciling and soothing over all the ladies in the kitchen so that they buy your -- your Fuller brushes.

Now this is then essential for your understand- -- that as long as nothing else was created, and man began his career on this earth, every word had the connotation of being a religious utterance, because it was inspired. And a man was tied to his word. And the very word "religion" means that the word remained a power over him. I have s- -- called my -- this ancestor "my ancestor." "Once an Indian, always an Indian." That's why these people could, because of this tie-back to what they had said--that's the original meaning of "religio,"

gentlemen, to bind back. But to what? To what I myself have said, or have been called. If you are called an "American," in primitive times, there was no way of getting out of it. You were, as long as you spoke -- spoke and invoked the name of these tribal heroes, you were that what been said over you. Once, you -- didn't even have to say it yourself. "Once this name," as it is called in the old scriptures, was called out over your head, it remained standing over it, and you were tied back. The word "respect," gentlemen, and the word "religion" therefore means that you have to look back--respect, you see--that to which you have been tied. So perhaps you put it down in this manner, that respect is the subjective response to "religio." And "religio" is the objective fact that some name has tied your future back to this state.

You will perhaps now understand why for such an Indian, or such a -- such a wild man, it was perfectly normal to cry out the name of his tribe until he was -- killed by the arrows of his ene- -- their enemies at the fire. Now at the -- at the -- you -- all have played, I suppose, as children, and have been a little bit tortured by your enemies who try to -- to get you to cry, or to give in, or to lament, and to show signs of weakness. Well, it is very hard for you to understand why this event or -- that happened at every warpath among the Mohawk, here, the Five Nations, or wherever this stuff goes on--everywhere, in Africa, the same today--that it was a part of the war waged -- could the name be shaken off this follower of this name. Would he deny, you see, his religion?

That's why they tortured these people, and that's why it was the pride of the warrior that he wouldn't renege, you see, that he could not be forced to lament or to cry. He would -- laugh at the -- and scorn his enemies to the bitter end to show that he respected this immersion, gentlemen, from animal -- from beastliness.

For the bri- -- for the primitive man, gentlemen, of course, the abyss between him and the animal was much more to be emphasized than you like to admit. For you, he is merely en- -- akin to an animal. You see there a caveman, a primitive, not much more than an animal, just another animal. For him, of course, he was already as far as you in his own self-consciousness. He had found ways of identifying himself with a whole era, with thousands of years, with a long time to come, with his grandchildren, with his descendants. That gave him the glory, you see, which no animal has. Life everlasting. He was responsible for life's return on earth. That's a man's religion. You have no religion if you think of yourself. Pietism is not a religion. To be pious -- I mean, to think of -- your own salvation. A man who thinks of his own salvation has no religion. The condition of re- -- thinking of salvation is that you save others, and the primitive man wanted to save his descendants. He wanted to be -- become their ancestor.

This ridiculous personal Christianity, or personal religion which -- that goes in round -- going around here on this campus, gentlemen, that's no religion whatsoever. God is not interested in single souls. He is interested whether a man finds his path into the whole of His creation. And God didn't create millions of men. Don't be betrayed. He created us, as a unit. And anybody who thinks that he has a private religion, gentlemen, has denied religion. Religion is public. All religion is more public law than the Constitution of the United States. It is the most publicized, the most cosmic, the most selective, the most universal fact of your existence, that you are God's creature. That's not a private conviction. And of course, it was a very -- sensible way in this country to murder religion by declaring it pri- -- a private business. If you declare private -- religion to be a private affair, gentlemen, it has ceased to exist. And that's why you have no religion, because you think it is a private affair. It's only your own business. That's no religion. That's a philosophy. That's a thought. That's an opinion. That's a whim. It has nothing to do with religion. Religion is your acknowledgement, publicly, that you stand under a tradition which you cannot break without reneging on your humanity -- and your willingness to die at the stake for this, which every tribesman did. But you don't -- mustn't take this torture at the warpath as something purely political, or purely legal. It's religious. The spirits of the tribe demand it.

So we get first, gentlemen, the mixture -- in every word a tribesman invokes or evokes, it's a mixture of religio and respect. The religio propelling him to follow out what has been said, and the respect, of course--his response--looking back to this -- to { } and acknowledging it. If you could recover, gentlemen, the correspondence of respect and religio, you would perhaps know what reverence is. Reverence is this immersion into this twofold atmosphere of respect and religio -- religion. You have no reverence, and that's your poverty, gentlemen. People who have to call old people "boys" or "folks" have no reverence. And this -- is a great lack in this country, as you know. Without reverence, there is no -- there is no re-creation. Because reverence is the feeling that at this moment God is creating the universe. And how can you create yourself without reverence?

Reverence is the atmosphere created by the constant electricity from the totem pole to the descendants and from the descendants to the totem pole. We revere, and for this -- we are revered.

You have here in this -- in this whole realm, you see, you have this double -- double stream, of two influences, constantly strengthening each other. You must think of -- of reverence, gentlemen, as a higher power of electricity. Perhaps that comes nearest to the fact. As long as you think of "mind," and think that words as instruments of thinking, or expressing what you think, you are stupid.

Because you don't think unless you first let the words which you have heard come to life in you. Don't believe -- I have not -- still to find a Dartmouth student who can think. You have all a wrong relation to your language. Instead of being satisfied that the great words of Shakespeare and the Bible can come to resound in you, and come to life in you, you have the real idea that you think and then you express what you think. And that's why what you think is so stupid. Do you think that it won't take you { } 30 years to rethink all the great thoughts that have been thought? You don't even make an attempt. So you never reach the state of being thinking; and so you always preface your words rightly: "I'm a little," you see, "foggy. And I" -- you are very foggy, you see. And you are a little uncertain, and you are quite -- uncert- -- -sure. Of course you are unsure.

[tape interruption]

...gentlemen, for which this course is given, and all my courses are given is that man begins spiritually and mentally him- -- with himself. You cannot. You st- -- begin in this atmosphere of reverence, because people who love you look upon you, your parents, your -- the -- the citizenry of this country who give you this chance here of being students here. And you pay them back by respect. And in this constant give-and-take of your -- the religion which has -- is making you, pushing you forward then, and hoping for you, waiting for you to fulfill what we need --. You have an office in this community, gentlemen. You have no right to think of yourself. If you try to think of yourself, you've cease to think. Thinking is a public action. Religion is a public action. This is not private -- are note your private affairs. There is no privacy in the creation of the universe, gentlemen. Where has God created you as a private being?

This is your illusion. And you live as illusionists. You call this "idealists," with your head in the fog, because you believe that your thoughts are your personal affair. Gentlemen, the thoughts which -- are in your hair -- in your head, they are the most universal traditions of the human race. They have somehow reached you in some shadowy way, through words, through traditions, through opposition, which you have made your other -- arou- -- has been aroused in you against others. If you contradict somebody, do you think that this is more than an electric repercussion, so to speak, a recalcitrancy of your material, against some truth that is hitting on your wall and knocking there? Would you call resistance that is fed into the electric stream -- would you call this original thought? Is resistance not -- not completely dependent on the electric power that is sent in? Resistance may enhance the current, you see, but it isn't itself anything now. The only thing you do offer, and you really offer it, is resistance. You re- -- offer resistance to thought. And that can be very fruitful, because the longer you resist, the higher the voltage may -- may grow by which finally then in you there is a transformation of the electric current. Something very much to

be desired.

This is to be learned from the tribes. The second thing, gentlemen, is: every word is legal. That is, if this reverence is changed into irreverence, the word that has been spoken declares that something has gone wrong. The opposite direction, of course, is the crime.

If I invoke the name of the ancestor, and he has left behind a certain order in which the various clans know how to marry, and how to mingle, who is whose cousin, and who is whose brother, and who is whose sister, if peace has been -- streams and -- and radiates from this living relation between the dead who speak through the person of the mask-bearing medicine man and the living--when this power is weakened, some of these boys will become a straggler. He'll go astray. He'll break loose, instead of going, as the -- the language says, the straight...

[tape interruption]

...Righteousness and straight line means a continuation of -- from the past. That is, effect of the word and names first spoken. If you break this -- this -- away from the righteous path--here, you break outside the tribe--you break the community. Every violation, gentlemen, of the continuity between ancestors and descendants in an old group is immediately slated to meet with a violent reaction of excommunication and expiation.

What is excommunication? Very simple, you -- this man who has murdered a brother of the tribe, you see, or his own brother, perhaps--Cain and Abel; the Bible says it very simply--has to leave. The -- so that's a curse that's spoken over him, in the -- in the Old Testament, in -- in Genesis. Cain must err around the world; he has lost his home, his belonging, his membership in the tribe.

So here you see the limitations of the group. The group has to eliminate, to excommunicate anybody who breaks the law. And that is the meaning today still in the Catholic Church of excommunication. And in excommunication from the Church, you can study the original meaning of all punishment. All punishment was a violent convulsion -- revulsion of the group against a splinter, a wrong body, a somebody who didn't belong. I mean, who showed by his actions that his reverence was not effective, that respect and religion did not keep him in line, as we say. All these words are perfectly literally -- "keep in line" means in the line of descendancy, in the line of progress, in the line of tradition.

So gentlemen, the -- the most universal punishment is excommunication. What you have today--capital punishment, and prison, and probation, and -- and

reformatory houses--are all pure, second thoughts about punishment. The first radical punishment of any community is exclusion, sending him into the wilderness. The scapegoat is then the -- well, I'll come to this a little later. -- Excommunication is very important for us at this moment, gentlemen, because the excommunicant, the excommunicado is the founder of the next tribe. The -- the hundred thousands of tribal languages, gentlemen, which have been created, mean that a man who was sent out into the jungle, or into the bush, who had left his community because of some deviation, just as a -- from the party line, exactly as -- the Communists talk the same way again. They are primitive groups who have no answer except excommunication from the party line. Now you see Tito makes up his own branch, and creates a new brand of Communism, because he can no longer swear by the words of his religion.

Now Tito is a very good example, gentlemen, of the ramifications of new -- political groups in antiquity. You must think that every year in ancient days--5000 B.C.--a new tribe would be created by somebody who would not stick by the totem of his tribe, and would not repeat the sing-song, so to speak, of the tribal dances at the proper time, and therefore would be held incommunicado, and -- had to leave in a great hurry--perhaps stealing one of his nice girls in the neighborhood so that he can found a family and a tribe of his own. There have been innumerable tribes, and every tribe had to speak its own language, because the essence of the tribe is the same language. And therefore the ancient layer of tradition, gentlemen, where irreverence breaks in is: "A new speech must be created." "I must have new totems." "I must have -- make a new beginning." Any so-called werewolf--you may have heard of this strange word in -- in the -- Nazi times, "the werewolf"--that's a man-wolf, a wol- -- man who becomes a wolf again, who enters the bush--that is the origin of all the Indian tribes in this country. That is the excommunicado, the man who is thrown out. And many of the languages -- if you study the Ind- -- Indian languages in this country, you will -- can see that they are inventions, that they are invented in contrast to the language from which the man, you see, had lost membership. Language was membership. Therefore, where membership ceases, a new language is -- is necessary.

Antiquity was haunted by this pluralism, by this -- necessity of innovating constantly the ties of loyalty. You can see that in the original unity of religion, and law, and poetry, and familiarity, a word could no longer be -- make the rounds between a man who had lost his old totem pole, and the people who still stuck to it. The break in the tribe is the speech itself, the language. If the totem is not effective, and if the tribe feels that somebody has gone astray, the result is that the man becomes his own ancestor, has to pull himself out--like Mnchhausen, by his own bootstraps. That is, he has to start from scratch.

In the story of Oedipus, you have a real story. It's not the Oedipus complex of Mr. Freud, gentlemen. That's -- there is no complex in this. But in this -- that he is a -- a man without ancestors; he doesn't know who he is. And he begins therefore a new career.

Innumerable languages have been -- must have been created. As we have businesses springing up every -- every month in this country, and they register, so you must think that all over the earth, the lawless ones, the people who had broken away from the law of the jungle, had to begin from scratch. Innumerable people of course perished, were unable, you see, impotent to have such a new offspring, and such a new line of -- of descendants. But innumerable -- also succeeded. And if we have today traces of perhaps 100,000 languages on this earth, you can see what effort went into the making of them. And we have no reason. I -- at least don't see any reason to find a contradiction in the incredible number of languages, and in the fact that the origin of language is identical. That is, man spoke from that moment on where he remembered his dead, where the dead were, through the mask of the -- medicine man, remained alive. That is language everywhere. But the inner weakness of our human race of course, consists -- that we can break the law. And it breaks constantly. You break it every night. Just ask your janitor.

And so if you say -- see how many laws are broken by you--and me, by the way, too--then you can imagine that at a time when every break of the law seemed fatal, you see, that at such a time, a new grouping was necessary.

What we can say then, gentlemen, as a distinction between us and those tribesman is that any break in the law in those days was fatal. That is -- it ended the effectiveness of the tribe for certain members. We live by the grace of God, you see, in a mo- -- much more elastic society. We think it will never break. You forgive the tenfold murderer and embrace him, and think he can be improved. He cannot be improved. But we feed him to the rest of his days, and he is pardoned, and we all love him dearly, and forget all the nine people killed in the process. This the o- -- ancients couldn't afford. The -- the law there had no elasticity. Once the law was broken, the man had to leave, you see. That's very definite.

So we come here to a very important point in our relation to antiquity. We will never be able to go back to the austerity of the ancients. They had no way out. Once one left the narrow and straight path of righteousness. This tribe had no room for this member. And therefore, you get the whole story of mankind as this tremendous profusion of political groups. To this day, we are haunted by the diversity of speech, and by the manifoldness of the ways of men. But don't be betrayed. If we -- you had lived in those days, you would have had -- have to be equally harsh. Because the question of survival came first. And the only way in

which this group could make headway and survive to this day is of course that the law meant to be -- kept, held. So we can learn from them the -- ferocity, or the austerity--or the "majesty" is perhaps the best word--of the law. The -- that is the reason you have no reverence, gentlemen, because you don't fear; you don't revere. You break the law a thousand times, and you think the governor will pardon you. And there will always be some lobby will -- which will say, "Forgive this man."

Now the ancients, gentlemen, had to think the other way around: how do we save the community? Every one break could jeopardize the whole existence of any grouping. This you do not feel. You have never the idea that it is in your power to destroy the Church and the state. Gentlemen, I'm afraid to say, it is in your power. It is in your power. Although you do- -- deny it, gentlemen, every one of you can destroy the Church and every one of you can destroy the Church -- the state. Very effectively. Just as you can destroy the family. You can. But you have this illusion that you are just a human being, that nothing depends on you; what can happen? The mighty United States and you, little -- person: you can do what you please, waste your time, eat up your substance, learn nothing -- cut classes, get drunk, pet girls, what-not. It doesn't make a difference.

Gentlemen, the old tribes were very far from this illusion. They had much greater ideas of men. They thought that any one human being, as seated here in this class, was able to affect the community like explosive dynamite. He -- you can destroy this community, gentlemen, every one of you. And you do it, because you don't know that you can do it. That's so tragic. But you are all ru- -- at this moment, the liberal arts colleges in this country are destroying themselves, because they think after all that they are playgrounds, and nothing serious can happen. As soon as you think this, gentlemen, you can always say -- know that civilization perishes. As soon as people think that they aren't destructive, and that it doesn't matter what they do, and that -- after all you are superfluous, and what -- what -- what does it matter what you do?--as soon as you think this, gentlemen, the whole order of society is over with. It is played out. And that is happening under your noses in these United States at this moment. Because you are all convinced that after all it makes absolutely no difference for the whole of society whether you break the law or not.

A law-abiding citizen is not a man who doesn't want to be found out, gentlemen. A law-abiding citizen is -- a citizen who has such reverence for the law, that he must speak of it day and night, and make converts to the law, as in the first Psalm. That's the content of the -- all the 150 Psalms, gentlemen, that we must testify to the law of the Lord. Otherwise it cannot grow.

How does the first Psalm begin?

("Blessed is the man { }.)

Ja, go on.

({ }.)

..."and speaketh of the law of the Lord day and night. He is like a tree, planted at the rivers of water."

This then, gentlemen, we can learn from our confrontation with antiquity, gentlemen; the tremendous risk. Where you think it matt- -- doesn't matter, they felt every one step mattered, was final. So what would now the community have to do after the werewolf, or the excommunicate had left the tribe? They would have to expiate, they would have to purify, they would have to exorcise this terrible pollution of the purity of their tradition.

And therefore, I put here, as one line, gentlemen, the way out. And as the -- proper line which emphasizes the continuation, the way of expiation. It's an important word, gentlemen, because it contains two elements: punishment and repentance. You don't understand repentance, mostly. To you it's a -- again a pietistic, a thing of -- private salvation. Gentlemen, God is not interested in your repentance for private reasons, for your pleasure, or for your -- for your rebuilding. The community, God's mankind, can only find the right path by reasserting what is right.

What is expiation, gentlemen? After a murderer has left the group, and has gone -- taken to the bush, this old group must reassert the law. And therefore, we come now to the first building of the tribe after the funeral.

It belongs to every funeral that there is a grave. By the grave, the pe- ...

[tape interruption]

...the churchyard which {sees} more than one grave.

Now we have the same story in front of us when we speak of the altar. The word "altar" is not very popular today. Most people think it is a lecture table, or something, or --. The word "altar" unfortunately has fallen on evil days. We're all Unitarians today and -- think the Church consists of pious words. Gentlemen, the altar is the -- center of the church, because our wrongs have to be expiated. Those who have left the Church are not present at the altar. They have left it. And in this country, most people have left it. The few who stay there want to reassert the way of righteousness with the help of the altar. By reinstor- -- -insti-

tuting, for example, the Last Supper, which is using the altar for the reinstitution of the origin of the group, of the -- Christian fellowship.

It is something very simple, gentlemen, but something of tremendous importance, because today we are inclined to forget about the murder and say, "Well, I didn't commit it. The dentist committed it in Cleveland, so what's this -- my business?" That's why you have no criminal law that commands any respect in the rest of the world. You think it's the business of -- for the governor of pardoning a criminal. That's the whole problem -- or -- in being -- have a -- write a detective story and showing how the perfect crime can be committed.

Gentlemen, that's not of any interest. As long as people are so stupid of reading detective stories, they are lower than the animals. And a detective story to me is an unworthy occupation. And I'll tell you why. Because in the -- I any real crime, the problem is the restoration of the right way. You think of course the right way exists always, and it cannot be broken by a crime. But I assure you, when -- this boy in Mississippi--what was this boy's name?

({ }.)

--when he was murdered, it is Mississippi that needs expiation, you see. And the murderer needs the punishment. There are the two things that have to be considered in any -- in any crime. The community itself must become conscious of the right way. And that is the altar's meaning in any community, gentlemen. Whether you call it "altar," I don't care. The altar is the place to redirect the group which may otherwise say, "This exceptional crime is normal." In Mississippi we still don't know why not every white man will -- may think that every black boy of 14 can be murdered without consequence. They haven't said so; they haven't expiated the crime.

We have mixed this, gentlemen, because we have a -- a -- prosecuting attorney. We have a attorney general who prosecutes cases. The public prosecutor, gentlemen, mixes in our case, you see, private vengeance and public expiation. Why do we insist that a crime must be persecuted, you see? Because we feel this man affirms--this public agent--for you and me, that we think this was wrong. So that it isn't just an act of private vengeance, when somebody who has lost his child by kidnapping goes to the police and asks, you see, vindictively for some restitution. You and I have appointed a public agent who speaks for you and me, and reasserts what is right.

But you have forgotten this. To you, that's just all expediency, gentlemen. And that's why this society is so very flimsy, and so very unreal. This country doesn't know that it is polluted by crime. Polluted. We are all dirty because of

Mississippi, gentlemen. I'm ashamed of having to call Mississippi a state, and the people in Mississippi my co-nationals. I -- it is shameful. It's a scandal. I have nothing to do with these people, and I don't do anything about it, so I'm in -- in this same -- I'm with them. I have no right to declaim here anything if I do not admit that I am ashamed, because I am guilty with these people. I cannot shake this off. They haven't sent soldiers there. They haven't sent the militia there. We haven't -- the federal government hasn't intervened. So I haven't done anything. You haven't done -- even less. You haven't even gotten excited, because "For Heaven's sake, don't be carried away." "Don't get excited," I mean. "It's not your business. Oh, no."

If you do go on like this, as you all do--"I don't care," and "What" -- "Why should I care?"--you will look so dirty in the eyes of the world, gentlemen, that no daily bath will -- will wash you -- wash this off from you. Dirty, you are. Expiation means an attempt for cleanliness. And you are very concerned about the cleanliness of your body, gentlemen, but you are not at all interested in the cleanliness of your mind and your soul. And this is so unclean in this country--so dirty--that I don't give anything for the hygiene of your body, gentlemen. A little more dirt around your skin wouldn't do any harm. You care for the wrong kind of cleanliness. It's all a question of the -- of soap, or--what's -- Gamble and Proc- -- Procter & Gamble, ja--for you.

You mean really that purity and cleanliness is the same. The o- -- ancients didn't think so. They thought that purity was something quite different from cleanliness. You confuse two things. The real problem of purity is to have an open path into the future. How -- gentlemen, how can you if the old path is beset by murder, and theft, kidnapping, lying, stealing, rape, everything? You have no future, gentlemen, if -- if you do not clean the path of your group, that certain things cannot happen.

You remember the famous book title, It Cannot -- Can't Happen Here. That's exactly what I mean by purity.

Since you have all lost this sense, gentlemen, of the relation of religion and law, you become lawyers and think that's a -- way of winning cases. Gentlemen, that's not a lawyer. A lawyer is somebody who restores on his end the purity of the community. That's why a good lawyer will always be in politics, because politics is a way of course of -- of helping the law--if it is a real lawyer. But you mistake this, gentlemen. This is a terrible prejudice that a lawyer is a man who wins cases. He shouldn't win in unjust cases. He should only win the right cases. Of course, even a criminal must have a lawyer, but this is not the business of a lawyer of making an unjust man win his case.

So this is the relation of religion and the law. Now we come to two other aspects. If you want to keep the people within the boundaries of the tribe by the religion, by invoking the names of the totem -- on the totem pole, and by putting -- yourself into the shoes of the ancestor--which was at that time literally done; they put a young baby into the shoe of the ancestor, you see, so that he might always walk in the straight line of the ancestral spirits. When we say, "Put yourself in the shoes" of somebody, we just follow the old custom still verbatim.

So when they did this, gentlemen, they had of course to bring the greatest emotional pressure on the people to keep this law. Now what is the greatest temptation, gentlemen, to get -- go out of line? You know it very well. It's sex. The -- the -- the passion for the women will make you forget your father's rules, and your mother's -- example. And all young men at all times are of course rebels because of the women. They are made into rebels by women. Jealousy is the good reason for crime. From jealousy first -- the first murder has sprung. The Bible is very nice about A- -- Cain and Abel; it's jealousy for the love of God, which makes Cain kill Abel. You remember? The woman is eliminated in the Bible -- as in -- the whole Genesis, and instead, the love of God is put in its place. Well, it's the same -- the same feeling. Jealousy is the incentive for a young man. You call it "competition." I call it "jealousy." I mean, competition is exactly always based on jealousy.

And jealousy is the accompaniment of love. Jealousy is the negative side to love. He who is not jealous doesn't love. That's why mei- -- -ost of you are kind, because you aren't jealous. Kindness has no jealousy with it. Real love is fantastically jealous. God is jealous, because He loves you. He is not kind. You are kind; you don't love, so you need not be jealous. If a man invites three competitors to his wife's bedroom, he may be very kind, but he is not jealous. And he doesn't love, both.

The com- -- complete confusion again in this country. As between clean -- cleanliness and purity, gentlemen, you mistake today kindness and love. Love and jealousy are two sides of the same thing. You can purify love, and you can purify jealousy. But they still are integral parts of reality, gentlemen. A man who doesn't want to hold what he has, or -- would not hold anything. He would be hollow. I mean, if you have something in your hand, you have to close this hand. And you cannot open it, or it will fall out.

And that is -- therefore, jealousy is a very serious business. It is never talked about in this country. This -- are many talks of insecurity, and -- and all these things -- between children and parents, gentlemen. I find the great passion that rules the world is jealousy, the negative passion. Most acts are committed from jealousy. I don't know why this isn't so in- -- interesting. I -- it has always

intrigued me, how to -- how to pattern jealousy, that it is ennobled. First, it has to be admitted that it exists. In this country, jealousy just isn- -- doesn't exist. I have never seen so many impertinently jealous people as in this country, because they don't know that it exists. The women in this country -- when their husband has a friend, a man -- male friend, just a spiritual friend -- any relation to anything higher, the jealousy of the women, by which they try to snuff out this light which burns in the -- in their husband's heart or mind is incredible. They have the infamy of declaring that outside her, there should be no passion for truth, or glory, or anything. He has only to love this little woman.

Watch out, gentlemen. That's where you break down. Your marriages are all ruined by the jealousy. And it's not a jealousy of sex, gentlemen. It's a jealousy for anything that enters your life as a power. All these women are absolutely ridiculously jealous. And this is never mentioned that they are. They take it for granted that this is necessary, or that -- they haven't even a word for their own vice.

Find out before you marry whether you can convince your wife that she must give room for your noblest passion. And I mean by this, truth, or -- think of Martin Arrowsmith. Who has read the book? You re- -- you understand what I mean? Wie? Do you?

(Yeah. { }.)

Well, he's interested in -- in for-real research, for-real science, and the respect needed for this, you see. This is a religious situation, you see. And most women do not want to share the religion of their husband. They want their husband to share her -- their religion. They all want to convert you. And no oth- -- no other gods except they themselves.

It's very serious, gentlemen. You must fight for your own religion when you {strive} to be in love. You must speak about what is highest in you to your wife. And you must make con- -- a convert of her, or she will make a convert of you. And you will be so small, like a little, little, little, little, toad.

Let's have a break here.

[tape interruption]

...revere their community, and the unity in which they live. Po- -- poetry is doing something. Not in your case. You think poetry is doggerels. You think poetry is something -- again, something private. Gentlemen, without poetry, a nation cannot live. As long as you have no American poetry, you have to play

Shakespeare and to read English lyrics. And if you make all En- -- American poets into college professors, you will never get poetry. A poet is a wild man, gentlemen. In Ireland, the -- the poets were the judges, because they were high in politics.

To you, poetry again is something perfectly impotent, silly, and it's next to inebriation. But the inebriation, gentlemen, by liquor, by tox- -- by -- by spirits, by spiritual drinks, is an imitation of the power of the holy frenzy of the poet. Because what does a poet, gentlemen? He draws men and women together in holy enthusiasm, and what we call poetry today, is of course so terribly isolated -- but all the dances in the tribe, and all the songs are all of a poetical nature. And you can today classify them as literature, or as poetry, or as artistic, or as aesthetic. Unfortunately, that's all done. We have books on -- on primitive art. Well, of course it's a misnomer. There were not aesthetes. And they didn't -- they didn't buy pictures. And they didn't have cameras for photography. And they didn't have Life magazine. To them, poetry, gentlemen, was the power of drawing the descendants of the dead and the living in harmony and love together. It was the bridal song of the universe. It was the Midsummer Night Dream. If you look at the Midsummer Night Dream of Shakespeare, you have an idea what really poetry is. It is -- what is the -- the Midsummer Night's Dream? The Midsummer Night's Dream is a wedding poem. It was -- it was intoned, it was -- enacted, it was performed, it was sung in 19- -- 1595 at a wedding in -- not at Windsor Castle, but one of the other big castles around London--I now have forgotten which castle it was. But it was in a royal palace, where people very close to the queen got married. The daughter of the Earl of Oxford, and her next-of-kin, the Earl of Der- -- Derby. And for this wedding, the Midsummer Night Dream was just thrown out--like a necklace of diamonds, you see--to poeticize the event. And it's a wedding gown around the souls of men, so that they can orient themselves and be drawn together not in a rape, and not in a seduction, and not in an elopement, but in a public merriment and marriage.

Gentlemen, we are so wicked, and we are so passionate, and we are so jealous, and we are so easily deviating from the law, that poetry is assuaging us. It is the domestication of the wild animal man. But of course, you are so mildmannered and so dispassionate, and so absolutely indifferent to life that you don't need poetry. Poetry is only for dangerous people, gentlemen. That is, for people who know that they are dangerous, and -- and need the mor- -- Orphean power of music. Of course, poetry is music, and music is poetry. You separate the two, and think that -- music and poetry cannot be separated. Today the more you separate them, the more you forget that they are the same thing.

What is music, gentlemen? Your own power to become redundant with sound, to become sonorous. If you find sound inside of you, you are musical.

And you should lead a musical life. Most of you don't even know what that is. But we are full of music. "The man who has not music in himself" -- who says that?



(Merchant of Venice.)

Where do I quote this? I have an idea that this is an assignment.

("A man who has not music isn't -- he is not to be trusted.")

Yes, where -- what is the assignment which -- what did you have to read in this course?

("Time-bettering Days.")

What are the assignments, please? Oh, help me! Il- -- illiterates.

Gentlemen, it's the most beautiful paper I've ever written. It is musical. Has none of you read "Time-bettering Days"?


Well, isn't there something to -- said about The Merchant of Venice. And do I not quote at the end this whole -- this whole great dialogue, I mean? "This night, seven times --" does nobody remember this? Well, that's preceded directly with this famous song, "The man who hasn't music in himself." Ah.

Now gentlemen, we come to a -- however, to a real law. Gentlemen, the political grouping of mankind takes it upon himself to put love under death. To put love under death. You know, perhaps, that there is a famous place in the New Tes- -- in the Old Testament that love is as strong as death. It's in the Song of Songs. "Love is as strong as -- as death." As long as death, gentlemen, does not rule love, there is no time. Love is the passion of the moment: sex, now. Marriage, gentlemen, is the victory of death over -- over love, so that love will continue, that the dead will have their right. Perhaps it isn't right to say "the death," but "the dead," because you can have no marriage which is not performed in the name of the spirit of the ancestors who look down from both sides--bridegroom and bride, you see--and bless this couple as following in the footsteps of righteousness and of the law. That's the -- essence of a marriage, that it is legal. The

le- -- law can only bind if it binds back to something that has already started. Liberalism, that had no relation to the dead, would say that a free love affair is just as good as matrimony. Gentlemen, don't believe it for a minute. Your women-folks want to see this wedding blessed from time immemorial, with a great wedding song. You may be a barbarian and think it's nicer to elope. Gentlemen, because the man has no normal relation to the past, he has to acquire it by education. But the -- the Midsummer Night Dream, for example, is an example how poetry can create this atmosphere between old and new in which the -- the rebel man, you--because he writes the poem and shows his own creative power, so to speak--can be reconciled to -- transfiguring the or- -- existing order.

Poetry is a means, gentlemen, of taming -- not the shrew, but taming the rebel. That's why the poet became a judge in Ireland, gentlemen. That's why you sh- -- must write poetry or you're damned. And you must read poetry, gentlemen, and you must know that poetry is a power in your life, whether you call it "music," or you call it "art," or you call it "poetry." Don't call it "something nice." It is powerful.

The distinction, gentlemen, between an Englishman and an American is, that if you are alone, you turn on the radio, or some nois- -- some noisy thing. Or you go into a car and let the motor run. An Englishman will take out one line of -- from a poem and it will feed him all day.

I'm quite serious, that the English nation is so great because it has a relation to poetry which no -- other lang- -- nation I know has. Not the Germans, not the French, not the Americans, not the Russians. One line of real poetry will be the music that feeds an Englishman. An -- an Englishman is not musical. You know, they have no composers. They are all imported, like Handel. They have -- they -- because all their music is in their words. But what poetry they have! And how they -- it nourishes them. I assure you, one line of poetry for an Englishman is his nourishment at -- on an evil day. He can escape doing evil, or suffering evil by quoting a line of poetry.

You cannot understand this, but -- gentlemen, but you must learn to understand it. Because you will be very unhappy if you do not develop this power inside of you of restoring the reverence, gentlemen, of the law, and of quieting your eagerness to break the law by poetry. Poetry is that -- we call it "civilizing" or "pacifying" force which reconciles your passion with the existing order. Because all poetry -- must try to formulate a new feeling, a new impression in an existing medium, you see. That already is a step into order. You -- know very well that a passion that is articulate is no longer dangerous. The inarticulate passion is terribly dangerous. And therefore, gentlemen, articulation is nothing from the dictionary, is nothing that you can write in a course. It's your own

system that is vibrating in the universe. I'll show you, you are all born poets. But you have destroyed it in yourself. Rediscover it. Every man is -- is a poet in his great tension of having to live forward, and having to respect the past. We have to be poets. Whether you say at -- grace at table, or whether you sing a song, "Dartmouth Undying," you see, after it has died long ago, and so on --. What is it, gentlemen? It is an attempt to re-evoke the original power of the order which has -- civilizes.

So the poetry, gentlemen, is seated in the tribe around the dancingground of the young. And we have two great holidays that prove to me that beside the funeral day and beside the -- day in court, and beside -- the sacrifice at the altar, the dancing-ground sees--on Valentine Day and on Walpurgis Nacht Day--on May 1st, and on February 14th, an attempt to engage--this wonderful word, gentlemen--to engage the young in the movements of the tribe, in the rhythm of the tribe. What's an engagement? You don't know that. To get engaged is to get involved in the convolutions of the political group, because engagement is nothing just to fall in love. You know, it may not be any -- but you will then follow the line of peaceful descendants of the order as existed, as created.

On May 1st, gentlemen, on -- on Wal- -- has split. In the northern countries, it was May 1st. More to the south, it's February 14th. Since we have no winter in New Hampshire and Vermont, we celebrate it on February 14th--because that's already the warm weather, obviously. We are completely perverse -- perverted here. We should have May 1st as our holiday for this. Gentlemen, on these days, which are the same day, originally, the young were given away by the parents, in love. They would ral- -- dance around the Maypole, and they would select their -- their -- their sweetheart. And that was the engagement party for the whole tribe. That is -- officially, not -- not -- at that time engagements were not private affairs, but the tribe took care of his descendants. And anybody who was marriageable, you see, would at that time, you see, try to pay -- to find its cover. The -- { } has to find its cover.

That's Valentine Day, and May 1st. And the -- it is the oldest layer of holidays we have in the tradition of man. The funeral day depended on the real death of the -- of the hero, of the founder of the tribe. The -- May 1st could be universalized in the abstract. In responding to the peaceful order of the descendants, you see, they found a way within themselves in which murder could be avoided, in which jealousy would not go rampant, in which everyone could be satisfied with his own girl, you see, and there would not be this wild promiscuity, you see, by which everyone would be in everybody else's way.

So marriage is the recognition of the power of the dead over the living.

This is very hard for you to understand. You think it's a private affair, wedding. And you -- but you must begin to wonder: why is wedding the most ceremonious affair left in America? Why do we have bridesmaids? Why do we have a man to give away the bride? Why do you have all this rigmarole? Always this same "Hochzeitsmarsch"; this terrible wedding march should be forbidden by now. It's always the same. It always sounds like a funeral march, and mostly is.

Really, gentlemen, have you ever thought how funny it is that you people who sit here in your shirts, without a tie, and without a coat--and I wonder why you don't go barefoot--that you should suddenly at a wedding adore all kind of things you do -- never understand. You don't know what you're talking. The minister has to put these words in your mouth. You obediently repeat them. And why do you do this, gentlemen? Because by marriage the living generation recognize the authority of the dead. Very simple. And that's a poetical affair. It's the opposite from the crime. To break the law means to leave the tribe. To marry means to enter the tribe. Marriage is citizenship. Marriage is emancipation. Marriage is coming of age.

That's why, in a tribe, initiation rites, and wedding engagement are -- all go together. The dancing-ground is the s- -- place where this takes -- the spot where this takes place. Every tribe -- go to Olympia in Greece. Who has been there? Anybody? No guided tour, yet? There you have the funeral of {Pilox}, and the stadion for the chariot races, and the -- the dancing-ground for the Muses--already mentioned in Homer--and from there, the -- the -- the {condurati}--how -- how -- the -- the -- voteries, the people who have taken this vow of common Hellenism, would go out to war on the warpath, outside.

And so we have four spots by which a tribe will organize its existence on this earth in a visible fashion. The -- the grave; the maypole on the dancingground; the altar for expiation of the crime, with a court around it--and the court is only a derivation from the altar--and the warpath go -- leading into the bush, into the jungle, in -- the outside world. It is very important, gentlemen, that even the little -- most -- smallest tribe already has this order of life: connection with the past through the grave, the tomb, the mound; connection with the future through the altar; connection with the -- against the anarchy inside the covenant, the convocation, the convenience, the coming-together, emphasized by the emotional, poetic power, you see, of song, and the Muses, and the dances.

The Greek word for this is "orchestra." "Orchestra" you abuse, gentlemen. The poo- -- these poor people sitting between the stage and the spec- -- public you call "orchestra," don't you? Gentlemen, orchestra is something very beautiful. It's the center of everything. It's the dancing-ground. And we have no such popular word. I have to invent it, "dancing-ground." But you have to learn that

the grave, and the altar, and the dancing-ground, and the warpath are the four constituents of any group that has survived death, that has survived the -- the moment, and has created an avenue through time. Without the dancing-ground, there would be no Indian tribe today in this country. It would have lost their integrity, their identity, wouldn't they? And without the grave, there could be no speech, no common language, because in the name of the ancestor, the language is spoken. And without the warpath, there could be no verification of their religion, no testing. There would be anarchy. It would make no difference who was who. But it makes a difference, gentlemen, who is who. And without the dancing-ground, there could be no marriage. There could be no succession. There could be no peaceful succession. Every marriage there -- there would be a rumpus, either between the generations--because the father of the bride wouldn't -- would be jealous, you see, or because of two comrades in arms, who would -- one going to Troy, and the other going to Argos; and then you would have the Trojan War. And you had the Trojan War.

We have forgotten all these things, and let me close with -- with one -- remark, which is rather ticklish to make. But I think it's -- what time is it?

(It's a quarter to.)

Oh, wonderful. I have a quarter of an hour. That's a long time.

So -- gentlemen, even today wars break out like the war against Helen -- for Helen of Troy. This seems laughable, gentlemen. I told you already about the tribe in -- in the Amaz“nas region, which perishes, because the people no longer respect their women. The neighbors, who are stronger, go against this very Lilliputitian -- -putian tribe. And just when they feel like it, these hunters and -- and trappers just take one of these women. And in this way, the morality of the tribe disintegrates. And -- you just see that the question of the women is the question of the survival of the group. If they cannot protect their women against the -- against rape, and against stealing, the -- the society is at an end. It's as important as murder. It has to be, you see; you cannot have it.

When the Russians raped all the German women in their territory in the most gruesome way, they wanted to show that there was no German nation left. That was the -- that is the -- the lust that is -- they showed. They wanted to show they --: We are the victors, and there is no law. It is as brutal and as simple as this.

A political order breaks down, gentlemen, when the men can be murdered and the women can be raped. And the first two laws are that a woman is safe in the community. Without marriage, nobody can, you see, claim any right

over her body. And a man's life is saved among brothers and comrades; he cannot be killed without remedial action, without the murderer having to leave the community. There is no room for the murderer in a group. That's why I have complained bitterly about this country, because you people--young and strong people--tolerate this. And never do I hear in politics ever anything important mentioned. What you -- talking about are all the unimportant issues. What is desegregation compared to the murder in Mississippi, gentlemen? It is very easy to talk about desegregation in schools, for little children. That's an escape. It's cheap. The other thing, that -- might cost your life. That's dangerous. But that's worthwhile.

These are four laws of existence then, gentlemen. And -- I'm not quite sure that I -- ah, ja. The -- the -- the war the -- Hitler and his -- his gang waged against the existing order had very much to do with marriage problems, gentlemen. The anti-Semitism in Germany of these small artisans and little businessmen was very much a question of jealousy against the academic professions. There are innumerable songs in the German university towns about this rivalry between the people who finally married the girls in this little town and the students who had a good time with them before. And since we have this old tradition of Heidelberg and the universities, and you know a little bit of college towns, you can easily imagine that this is a tremendous rift between the so-called educated classes and the uneducated, in a country where the student would marry according to his social status, you see, but would of course have a good time in his youth with the girls around, and -- by the way, I don't mean anything much evil; they would just dance together, and kiss each other, and have a good time. But jealousy, of course, aggrandized these abuses and -- made -- the- -- these people just saw red. The whole story of Hitler cannot be understand -- I thought I should mention this to you; you-- you're old enough to know such things. It's not a political problem. It's not a problem of principles, or a problem of theory. What -- was behind this word "race" is a very, very positive problem of jealousy. A real jealousy, and a jealousy which is not -- not un-understandable. It is a problem of who -- who is on the marriage market, who competes.

Competes -- the competers, gentlemen -- competing suitors are very cruel to each other. One has to die. That's formerly in the duel, you see. If you competed for a girl, you -- you and your rival went before the -- let -- let the arms speak. That's the or- -- origin of the duel.

This all is hushed up here. You look down on duels, for example, as something ludicrous. Gentlemen, I -- it isn't ludicrous; a duel -- duel is a -- I think quite a -- quite a reasonable way of admitting a great passion and conquering it in some -- in some normalized way. It is better than have the Nazis kill 6 million Jews in a -- in gas chambers. And -- and so don't frown on small things like duels,

before you have understood them.

The -- the -- the rivalry--perhaps that's the common word between "competition" and "jealousy" which you may use, gentlemen--rivalry is real. It takes all the poetic powers of any community to -- to overcome rivalry. Poetry is the victory over rivalry. I -- let me repeat this once more. Then perhaps you will begin to understand why poetry is a political cement of the first order.

-- In the 19th century, we rece- -- we began to speak of national literature. That didn't exist before. Milton never thought of himself as a national poet. He was the singer of God in the English tongue. But -- Milton still is not a national poet. But today you all have courses in American literature, haven't you? And in English literature, and in Italian literature, Professor {Wood} -- and in French literature, of course. And in German grammar. And -- don't be betrayed, gentlemen. At that time, it seemed possible to overcome the rivalries within a nation with the ename- -- enamel, and the lubrication, and the anointment of -- of poetry. And in this sense, literature has a tremendous part in the political development of America or France, for example. France is nothing without Balzac, and Zola, and Proust, you see. It is. It's the country in which these great novels bring together--and the most jealous people in the world, the Eng- -- French, of course, are, because they worship Venus, and so they also have to worship the god of jealousy. And you have -- neither Venus nor jealousy. You have just human kindness, gentlemen. That's a different thing.

Is there any American great love story? Only the funny one, The Scarlet Letter, which I always thought was funny. You know The Scarlet Letter, ja? I mean, the man has no idea what love is. It's -- you know this -- here, The Scarlet Letter. Have you -- who has read The Scarlet Letter? What do you think of it? Is that a real story?

({ }.)

I -- I have to take it back. There is one great American love story, which I think is a very great story. That's Paradise, by Esther Forbes. I recommend it to all of you. It's a very wonderful story. That's a great love story. Esther Forbes. She lives here, not far away from us. Paradise. It's a love story of the 17th century, in puritanical New England. It's infinitely better than The Scarlet letter.

Gentlemen, jealousy can only be ber- -- -come as -- since it is the greatest ri- -- rivalry -- rift among the living by a greater passion, a nobler passion. The whole problem, gentlemen, of life is that the ignoble passions must be overcome by the noble passions. Not by the human mind. The mind never wins any victory over passions. The nobler passions must win out over the ignoble passions. The

stomach can be conquered by the heart. If you just are -- want to eat well, and you fall in love, you can go hungry for a long time, I assure you. But even love between the sexes has to be overcome by the nobler passion, you see, of peace and law.

A man -- a man may be love -- be very much in love with his -- with his fianc‚e. That's no reason why he shouldn't go to war when he is called. Now you may take this very un-pathetically and say, "I just go, compelled," but why do you go? Because you feel very well that this takes first seat. The con- -- the conj- -- the community in which you want to get married to this girl has first to be saved before you can marry inside of it. Can you see this?

So I hope I have shown you, gentlemen, that the tribe is something we all have in us; and if we don't, we bust, we explode, we perish.

A last word about the warpath, gentlemen. The warpath makes -- necessary for us to be undistinguishable. And that's the importance of the tattoo. In the tattoo, we say we won't deny our own group, because the tattoo is something that can -- we cannot wipe off. We cannot camouflage, you see, we cannot behave as though we were not members of this tribe. It's our ultimate testimony -- these are -- the -- the tattoo is our commitment. Again, you have lost this. You don't want to be committed; you don't want to be recognized. And -- but you are. Wherever you go you are recognized as an American. That's your tattoo. I mean, traveling anywhere in the rest of the world, you will always be found out. And it's very pleasant to be found out, as an American, except for tips.

So you can be proud of your country. But the tattoo means that it is not a ch- -- a matter of choice, whether we can be proud or not. If you are defeated, you still have the tattoo, you see, and it is still your country, your tribe, your order.

The warpath then, gentlemen, is the ultimate limitation and delineation--but also the ultimate commitment--of the members of the political group. And the warpath makes it necessary that there is this very painful way of history through the ages. Every group starts with this limitation, that it can only enthuse and incorporate--that's the right word, gentlemen--incorporate -- a limited number. And we haven't solved this problem. That's why you must understand that the United Nations are a blender and a blinder for you, if you think of them as a final order. They are not. They haven't -- can give you no tattoo. They can give you no poetry. They can give you no expiation, no altar. And they can give you no history. No tradition. They cannot invoke and reevoke any spirits. Today I think the United Nations are a public danger, because they com- -- push you into this idea that your highest relations to the divine are

private. And in a nation -- in the -- your own nation, they shouldn't -- they are not private. They are part and parcel of your existence. But the United Nations are such a cloak, I mean. It's -- it's -- it has nothing to do with your own body and embodiment.

The incorporation of the tribe, gentlemen, is limited. And so the founders of the first tribe have made for us this tragic path necessary into many, many steps for gro- -- slow growth. You always ask yourself in your mind, why all this rigmarole. Why is there English, and French, and German spoken? I know many abstract Americans who think: wouldn't it be much better to have just one anonymous share-holding company, and everybody has a share in the whole thing, and the whole globe is divided up, you see? Gentlemen, because you would not be able to enthuse and take in the next generation.

All your plans about political order are so childish, because you never think of the weight of the dead and of the unborn. You only think of yourself. You cannot organize the world -- yourself, because by the time you have succeeded, there is another generation, and they wa- -- will want to do the opposite.

The problem which I have posed before you, gentlemen, as the first order of creating speech is the order which is powerful enough to break your own -- the will of every generation. If you believe in dialectics in the sense that one generation does one thing, and the next generation does another thing, you can't have any order, any law, any marriage of mind. You can only have constant rebellion. And this country has been, more or less, perpetual rebellion. We don't need a revolution in perpetuity, as the Russians, because this country is -- has been founded and kept going by immigrants. They fo- -- all forgot always the previous generation, and they all started from scratch again. And -- and therefore it has appeared to you that you can think in politics and government as the -- the will of the living. Politics, gentlemen, is the harmony of the will of those who have gone before us, and ourselves. It is nothing else. It is never your own will. If you think of politics as your own will, you are ridiculous, and you are sterile. And -- just as the United states have been sterile for the last -- for 50 years, because they thought that they had to convince the electorate that they -- we were only de- -- doing the will of the people.

Gentlemen, people are many generations. You are not the people if you don't have your ancestors in your loins and your descendants in our loins. You are only the people if you speak in the name of many generations. You are not the people, and that's your illusion: that you never know -- one moment, you tell me that you are a -- a little grain of dust on the surface of the globe, or you are a -- "just a human being." The next time, you pose as democrats and say, "We are the people." It is -- both wrong, gentlemen. You are allowed to be the people if

you say nothing which you will not be religiously committed to. If you are willing to die on the battlefield, you can give a law. If you just write a statute for paternity, that's not binding to anybody. It's not a religious business. It's a secular business.

So this is the whole story today. I wanted to draw together: language of the law, the language of religion, the language of poetry, and the language of defiance, the language of martyrdom, the language of the prisoner of war. If you have the four languages together...

[tape interruption]