{ } = word or expression can't be understood
{word} = hard to understand, might be this is a virtue to isolate the facts, and to begin with a minimum number--perhaps even only one--and deduce all the other facts from these first facts. And that's what you have learned, what you call "logic." But he goes on to say, "In all human affairs, and in politics, in everything human, the art of the understanding is to balance as many units, as many independent impressions and units at the same time, carefully, and never try to reduce one to the other."

Anything, gentlemen--what you have today in American psychology and sociology is -- therefore deserves this term, "reductionism." That is, it is taken for granted that it is better to have two courses than three. It is better to have three courses than four. It is better to have five courses than 12. Gentlemen, that's simply not true in politics. There are innumerable reasons why New Hampshire should have two senators. As soon as there would only go one reason, probably we will cease to have two senators in the United States, you see, because we are such a small state. But there are innumerable reasons. Historical, you see, emotional, you s- -- for the balance of power, that some people still have ride -- time to read the mail. The other senators of New York just don't have the time, and so on. Now you can never logically prove why at this moment New Hampshire still has two senators in the Senate. It's no -- don't make any attempt. You will go astray. It's a complicated matter. And be glad that all life is so complicated. You don't love your father because he gives you the money to go to college. You don't love your father because he married your mother. You don't love your father because he is a very severe man or a very clever man. You see, no use red- -- reducing your relation to your father to any- -- one number of details. Be glad that it is so complex that you will never be any -- able to reduce it to some smaller unit.

But you won't -- you don't wish to do it. At your age, gentlemen, you are all transferring the method of mathematics or geometry to life. And that's why your mind is so -- ugly. Ugly. It is ugly for a human mind, gentlemen, to treat life like death, and to treat therefore the plurality, the wealth of facts by the logical method of reducing it to one, to nature. Ridiculous. If everything is natural, gentlemen, we don't understand anything, obviously. How can you understand speech, or -- or Egypt if it's all natural? That stops in understanding, because you have finally reduce everything to one. That's stupid. It is however not stupid to say that these are three dead postal cards, and if you have one, you can duplicate and re-duplicate them.

Life can never be produced by mass production. Dead things can. The -- the British Listener--or was it the Literary Times?--has a quote from a dean of the

-- MIT, that very soon we would be able to control man's thoughts with precision. The man is insane. And his thought doesn't deserve to be controlled, you see. It's just worthless. Absolutely worthless, this idea, because to control a man's mind with precision means to have it reduced. Whereas any bubbling, every creative mind is inexhaustible. That's why the end of the New Testament, gentlemen, is a very strange ending. Have you ever -- does anybody know what the last word of the Gospel of St. John is? That's the last Gospel of the four. And it has a very strange statement. Something you would not think of ever thinking up. It -- it is an attack on mathematical thinking in reality, in history.

And I claim that my "360 and 5," poorly wri- -- written as a paper may be, is an example of what is really interesting, the calendar: the variety of facts, and not what you think today, that the calendar measures 365 days in astronomy, you see, abs- -- in the abstract, which nobody experiences. It's a good example, because in the calendar, you are quite sure that you can just deal with it mathematically, and unemotionally, and uncreatively.

What -- was I starting with? Oh, what's the end of the Gospel of St. John?

("And the Word became man"?)

That's the beginning.

Oh, by the way, a wonderful story. Because you said, "The Word became man." It isn't; the Word became flesh. But one of you had the great kindness of saying -- of writing of God in his report--it's a classic, you see--that we created God. Thank you very much. He will be delighted to know this.

I prefer any atheist to this nonsense, gentlemen.

No, but the end of St. John is a very queer, methodical statement. It says that because Jesus was everlasting and has eternal life, that the library of books which can be written about this man c- -- would fill the whole earth. That's a tremendous statement, gentlemen, of method, that one life, one real life, which is fully alive and which knows of no death, is so rich that it is inexhaustible. That's the characteris- -- significance of life, gentlemen, that it is inexhaustible, and that you do not deserve to live, if you try to reduce life to mathematics or to logic. They aren't worthy as salt, these people, this dean of the -- MIT. Slaughter him. He's dead. He doesn't even have to be slaughtered, just. He is already dead. Just buy a big tin can for him.

It's very serious, gentlemen. You are all taken in by this absolute nonsense, that it is an advantage to reduce living things to less components. It is only

an advantage to reduce things which can be manufactured to such units. But the manufactured things are accordingly of very poor quality. And it is still better to have one painting than 10,000 copies of a photograph for this reason, because a picture cannot be redup- -- duplicated. It stands higher; it rates simply higher. That's why you pay $500,000 to this day for a Titian, and you pay 25 cents at {Emil Rubes}, at the camera shop for your -- for your copy of a -- of a photograph. It's absolutely reasonable that this should be so.

Now you will not believe this at this moment, because you are absolutely on the other side in your whole upbringing, and your -- all imagination. But everything I try -- say, I stand on the opposite side. And perhaps some years from now some of you will discover in real life that's very important, that it is wrong to think it is an advantage to reduce everything to its few components, that it is -- makes you free only as soon as you come to know that life is much more wa- -- buried than you ever dare to imagine that it is. That even yourself can be much less boring than you assume you have to be. And -- the well-adjusted man in -- in gray flannel diapers, as you know, is -- is reduced to very few items, you see. Two cocktails and -- and -- some orange juice, et cetera. That's all about him. Wonderful digestion. All the vitamins. But he's absolutely in- -- uninteresting.

"After 10 minutes," a European came to our house the other day and said, "I -- they're wonderful people, these boys, and the college professors I meet, and t- -- all the businessmen, but after 10 minutes, there is absolutely nothing we have to say to each other." The only chance one has then, to be -- introduced to somebody else, and go again through the 10 minutes. Then everything that has been said, can be said, is said.

Reductionism, gentlemen. We are all today living on this -- on this principle that the fewer components, the greater the -- the -- the order of things. But there is less life. As you know, there haven't been found two people who have the same fingerprints. Isn't that -- doesn't this tell you something?

That -- which I'm trying to -- to say at the end, gentlemen: our mind lags behind reality, and everything geometrical is less real than the real. Everything you -- our mind can figure out in 1, 2, 3, or in straight lines or --.

Now we come from an age--and that's quite important I think for now for going on--where it was thought a great achievement of the mind to say that a point -- has no extension. But these poor points here on the -- on the -- on the board, you see, this has extension. Therefore the mathematical point is much better than this poor point in reality. Yes, that's the -- what we are taught. The same is with the line. This line, you see, is not just -- has not one extension. As you can see, it has quite some width. But oh, the mind can think up a line which

is infinitely, you see -- only has one extension. And has no width, no breadth. And so we learn from youth on that it is better what the mind can think than what reali- -- exists in reality.

Turn it all around, gentlemen. That's all nonsense. I mean, the -- the real line is the real life. And it -- you get into trouble when you draw a line in -- right through Berlin, or on the 38th degree of latitude--as we have done in Korea--and kill a living body of a society by thinking that a -- that a frontier can be a line. A frontier must be a land, a territory, gentlemen. That's a frontier. The desert can be a frontier, but not the line in mathematics. And we have -- are in great trouble today, all -- everywhere all over the world. Just look at this Gaza Strip business. The -- frontier of Egypt and -- and Israel is untenable, because it's a -- a mathematical idea that doesn't exist. So -- now try to invent a frontier by policing it on both sides, you see, having it at least enlarged to -- to a -- to a -- to a mile, or 550 yards, I read, on both sides, or something so ridiculous.

Gentlemen, it is -- we -- we are at an end of our wits, because we have tried to create a human society which can be measured by geometry. That's impossible. The -- the 38th degree of latitude is a crime against Korea. Why could we have it, the 54th degree of latitude in -- between Canada and here? Well, because nobody lives there on the other side of the 54th. And in the North, as you know, we -- we have a different frontier in the -- in the West. It isn't j- -- just a degree of latitude. There other reasons prevail. Think of the Columbia River that's -- which is divided, you see, into lower and upper part. According to geometry, it is non- -- nonsense. You would have to find the line, you see, just alongside the Columbia River, or something, in the abstract.

We are everywhere in politics today in trouble, because this country has distributed the lines and frontiers in Europe with the yardstick of geometry, and has thought that between France and Germany, or between Spain and Portugal, or between Italy and France, there can be a line. There are marches -- Vermont was a real frontier, you know. It wasn't popu- -- peopled before 1763, because it was the frontier between the -- the French-Canadian settlements and the British settlements. And therefore nobody lived in Vermont. It was a no-man's land. That was a peaceful frontier, you see, because it was never thought to be a line. The last American settlement was in Charleston, and the first French -- settlement was on the other side of the Richelieu River.

Go on.

(How can you settle the dis- -- the dispute between the Israeli and the Arab without some sort of an arbitrary line?)

Ja, you live in the time of arbitrariness, you see. I not -- don't. I live in the time of necessity. Just the difference. Well, that's not my business. That's his -- the man's business on the spot there. But certainly it is not done -- and not even understood by our state department. They have done something which is impossible. And they know it now. I mean, just read the papers. It's -- they are -- they're betraying the Israelis; they are cheating everybody, because there is no solution. They have lied. They have cheated. We have lost our word of honor, everything. Because we have undertaken something absolutely impossible. But a great power cannot afford this very often, you see. Just we're -- we're -- no, I won't.

Now -- but it has to do with your imagination that it is better to have a line than extension -- extended area for a frontier. It just -- logic says, "How wonderful! Just a straight line."

So the -- will the gentlemen of today then perv- -- forgive me because I got going, that I shall not have them read their wonderful report?

Today I want to conclude the story of the empires by giving you the contrasts once more between a tribal organization, as in a family or a clan to- -- still today, or in the red Indian tribe, and the life of an empire, gentlemen.

If you think of the pyramids, you see that the stones, the imperishable material, plays a tremendous part in the imagination of builders. As a remnant, we had the gold standard for the empire state, and empire-building, and the great empires of the last century. That we are off the gold standard is -- is very striking. It's not accidental, gentlemen. Metal, jewels, gems, ruby -- ruby and sapphire, and diamonds form the great -- as you may remember the great song of glory for the golden Jerusalem. Now I told you that the golden Jerusalem in the Apocalypse, in the Revelation of St. John, is written as a refutation of the earthly empires. It is the City of God in which there is no temple. And you know already that all empires have a temple which is centered and oriented. It is no accident, then, that all these wonderful metals and stones, jade, and {agate}--they also play a great role in China; you know jade is the most precious thing for a China vessel--that all these things have to do with man's wish to escape from the perishable.

The stars are called the imperishables in -- in Egypt. And all the fantasy about gold, silver--that our women want to have necklaces, and sto- -- precious stones, that you wear rings--all this comes from this tradition that by linking ourselves up with the imperishable, dead material, we can circumvent our own mortality. Pharaoh can be kept alive forever and forever in the eternal presence of the heavens if he is lifted up. And the only thing we need is the eye of Horus

to connect him with the living. Otherwise he is imperishable. Now since all our women-folks, and all our ornaments, and all our dresses today still were--or remain, so to speak--indebted to this old imperial tradition, I thought I should mention to you that the tribal -- civilization, gentlemen, is animistic. It is wedded to everything that breathes, that is alive, that has a wind: the clouds in the sky, the rustling of the leaves in the woods--that's what interests the tribesman, because he feels that there is a song in the leaves, in the foliage, and that -- this tree has a soul, as his ancestor has. And so the big oak tree is his ancestor, perhaps. He -- isn't surprised.

When -- when the -- one of the republics in the midst of Siberia went Bolshevik, they organized, and they sent a man to -- to Moscow--it was already in the days of Stalin, by the way--and he came back and said they had to set up a soviet. Well, it was not much more than a town meeting, a clan meeting, you see, just the people convey -- convening there under the big oak tree.

And he said, "Now we have to have presidents, that's the new system." So they appointed the big oak tree the first president.

Perhaps it was much better than to have a living president, you know. No harm done. We have such an oak tree, too. You just have to have a symbol of -- of -- of everlasting life. That for the tribe, gentlemen, then, the soul is in every living being, and plants and animals are treated as though they were brothers and sisters of man.

The opposite is true of Egypt. In Egypt, you deal for the first time with what -- the material order--what we call "material," matter--the dead things out of which the living comes. And the stars are the great model of the imperishable material. And therefore the -- the -- the gold which you -- the king puts on his crown -- on his head is imperishable, you see. And he is mummified so that he can't smell, and -- is -- doesn't breathe anymore. It's not necessary. They take out the lungs, out of his -- out of his mo- -- body, because the main thing is that he is mummified, the he doesn't perish. And as you know, these mummies, because the intestines are taken out, they do not perish. We have found them. I told you the story--didn't I?--of the 19 mummies that were found in -- in -- in -- in Thebes, and then sent down to Phar- -- Cairo? I told you the story. Very important, you see, that Egyptians -- were already all undertakers with embalming, you see, of -- compulsory.

And these are two different worlds. I still prefer the tribal way of burial -- burning, or -- so that only my "I," so to speak, is left over, and I -- I go into the earth. The Egyptians built tremendous mausoleums, stone buildings, which -- because that's -- rests there on the spot. I am very anxious tha- -- that you should

understand why then in the animistic tribe, all the animals are included in the tribal society. You know this under the word "totem," don't you? But people always say, "That's some superstition that man comes from the bear," or from the eagle, or from the crow. You read this, that there is a clan called "Raven," wo- -- wouldn't you, or "Eagle." Some of you must have heard this in anthropology. The brothers and sisters of the tribesmen are that which can breathe. And the gratitude for the big animals in a tribe comes from their having moved through the world first. The totem, gentlemen, is owed to the pioneering animal which paves the road through the thicket, through the bush; the trailblazer. The ancestor is the trailblazer through the avenue of time. The big animals are the trailblazers, the -- the pathfinders through the thicket.

If you have ever been in a -- in a real thicket, alders or what-not, underbrush, and you have discovered the path of a elk or moose, you are infinitely grateful, because climbing over those windfalls, you know, may take you for one mile five hours. It has me, once, and I know what I'm talking about. And we discovered finally the path of a moose, or probably several mooses, who had hollowed, you see, out a possible path over these windfalls.

And the totem is therefore the rel- -- the relation of man with regard to his movement through space, as a living being, and not -- the totem is not ancestorworship. The animal is not rated to be the -- the ancestor, but it is the -- the older brother who has, with its thick skin, and its horns the power to move where the poor, weak, naked savage couldn't possibly go alone.

And as to the dancing-ground of the tribe, it was necessary to invite all the people in order to be effective, you see. These wild animal paths, were of first-rate--and still are, by the way--first-rate importance. Because they took the machinery from the men. The men didn't have to have a bulldozer. The big bull was the bulldozer. The elephant, and all these -- these big animals of the -- of the wilds, of the bush.

Now you come to Egypt, and you find the worship of the golden calf. That is, the bull itself, this wild animal, is transformed into something of metal. And -- because the imperishable character of this famous bull, the golden calf, is the important thing.

I was witness myself, in Trier, in the Rhineland of Germany, which is a very old Roman city, and dates back to the first century befo- -- before Christ, when they excavated a pagan temple of Isis, Egyptian goddess. And -- an old farmer was hanging around, and he said, "Oh, we knew this all the time, that here had been a temple of the golden calf."

Now we gave this temple, the excavators, a very highfalutin name, the technical name of the god in Egypt--Osiris, and Isis, and so forth. This man had still lived by the living tradition that of course the Jews had turned against the golden calf of Egypt, and that they had worshiped, in the Roman days, you see, before Christianity had come to Trier, that they had worshiped the golden bull. That is, something in marble and stone, and the people -- knew still that this was that way of life against which Israel had turned when it threw down the golden calf.

To you, all this is just nonsense. But gentlemen, if you look at the Empire State Building, and George Washington Bridge, you must know that in every civilization, there is a great possibility of worshiping metal. You just have to look at -- think of our Cadillacs and their speed, and you just have to think of these big buildings, and you just have to think of everything you read in the papers. You really are made to believe that the metal in itself is -- has a value, that it is better than life. Man is already today called with a -- such a dehumanizing name. You think of the Iron Man, for the machine. And man's "mechanism" is just a standard equipment for us now. "My mechanism has to be investigated." Gentlemen, I am not a mechanism, but they say so, because they only believe in golden calves.

We are much further advanced again into the Egyptian theory, gentlemen, that the dead is better than the living, than you know. And I call this -- this attitude, gentlemen, an attempt of circumventing death. The tribes say that the old man is still alive. They deny death, because they have the mask.

So the animistic civilization, gentlemen, tries to keep the breath of life unfloggingly, unf- -- -haltingly, blowing, so to speak, or they live by spirit. Didn't we say that? The Egyptian, or the imperial civilization, and ours as -- as far as it is interested in empire, and in economic power, and in standard of living, and in -- in specialization, and in effective production. Every part of this way of life in us is bound to follow this same logic: that the imperishable is better than the perishable. You know that for this reason, we -- we eat worthless bread. It is imperishable. The miller can store away this flour, because the kernel is -- taken out. The only value of the bread. What you eat is paper, not even -- it has no worth, no value. But you eat it obediently, because this whole country is geared to imperishable food, you see. That's an advantage for the dealer, for the grocer. And therefore, you s- -- he sells you something that has lost its life. But it's imperishable. You eat it. It's white, you see. White is the color of death. -- White bread is more popular than dark bread. Why? Because it has nothing to do with life anymore. You are per- -- feel perfectly safe in an environment where nothing can happen anymore. It's all geometry and white. Very interesting.

But this -- the bread is just an example of this imperishable nature of -- of your worship of the golden calf today. Look around -- whatever you eat, cheese that must not mold is now -- they have now invented something, I read the other day, well, that is no cheese. It is dead. The wonderful thing about a cheese is that it does mold. If you don't want to have it, don't eat cheese. No -- but they give you cheese, the imitation of something alive, and of course it's completely dead. Kraft cheese, because it's -- you know, "Kraft" means power, but I always think this {whole man} Kraft should be called weakness. This -- this -- "process cheese" as they call. The word "process" meaning the life has been chased out of the cheese.

And so the whole food there has -- must be a great revolution very soon come, gentlemen, or we'll die from nervous exhaustion, because we don't eat living food. We eat tin-can food. The only thing about it is -- important for Bolivia, the tin.

Well, this is -- you have to discover, gentlemen, that these ways of life of the ancient people, of thousands of years back are still represented right under us. We have only to take the choice where we mix them in. Any one of them is an acquired faculty. And the Egyptian tradition is at work in your mind. You think in these terms, that a crown or a diamond necklace is something wonderful. And I'm not against it, but you must know what you are doing. You are thereby enhancing the imperishable over the perishable.

Now you and I, however, gentlemen, are no good as pyramid builders. I think we are much nicer, because we are very perishable. A rare baby had to come into the world in Jer- -- in -- in Bethlehem to prove that the Egyptians were wrong, that it wasn't good to worship Pharaoh and a pyramid. But that it is much more interesting to have a tiny little baby, because it was so frail, that everybody had to run and help it, because otherwise it would perish. For society, gentlemen, the binding power is much greater when you -- every- -- all -- everybody trembles that the little flicker of life might be extinguished. You'll do much more for life, wouldn't you, than if you were perfectly sure that nothing can happen.

So these big dreadnoughts of the empires, gentlemen, they make you empty -- they empty you of your own contribution to life, because you think it's all -- it can -- nothing can happen. There everything is imperishable. And we live at a moment, gentlemen, when this is the decisive factor. The atom bomb is an -- a proof of this. The atom bomb is the outcome of man's feeling of -- of these physicists' feeling of security that they can produce what they want; the civilization is safe, anyway. They don't have to contribute to its -- becoming vital. So some of these poor physicists -- now taking off to monasteries, in their great

fright, because they discover that life is perishable, that you cannot add to a machine some more machines, because the machine is not life.

The last thing I still have time to say, before leaving this tremendous topic, is the evolution of the Egyptian empire. I can only be very brief, but -- Egypt and all empires have a history. And a necessary history, an inevitable history. That is, there are phases through which any empire has to run.

And to explain this, again this wonderful super-example of Egypt may help. You remember that's the general picture of the Nile Valley. And here is the big center of government. On the east side is the residence of Memphis. And on the west side, when the sun sets, and the people therefore who are dead go, because they die with the sun, with the setting sun. And transported across the river are the -- is the great field of the -- of the pyramids of Gizeh, near Cairo. I also tried to tell you that the king, and his entourage, the followers of Horus are the north-south, the south-north people. They are the unifiers of the country. They move. They carry the sun and the moon on their wings through the whole country. And therefore, they are constantly making progress in this unexpected direction from the South to the North.

If you then take the bulk of the people living in Egypt, gentlemen, they have not this experience. Because they, except perhaps when they -- during the flood, they are shipping up the Nile for stones into Libya, to get the -- the -- to quarry -- the -- quarry the obelisk and such things, in nine months of the year, they -- they sit. And they only go across the Nile from the east bank to the west bank, because that's their natural -- their natural road of -- communication.

So you have a prevailing interest in the first era of Egypt in Horus. And the -- Chapter 1 of Egyptian history, the oldest layer of history, is concerned with the position of Horus, the man-god, or god-man--however you call him--this priest-king who can unite Heaven and earth. And all our ritual of thrones, coronation, enthronization goes back to this first chapter of Egyptian history. However, when the people, after some hundred years, have been governed, their own way of life impresses itself, of course. As in this country, we have now democracy after we had the British crown, first.

Now a settler in Egypt, a fellahim, has only the experience of the rising and the setting sun over his hills. North, south -- yes, that's government. But that's not his own participation. He can't do anything about Horus. He has to stay put. And therefore, the Egyptian kings very soon began to talk business to these local people by claiming that they were the sons of the sun.

And I give you a great secret. Again, it is in no book. In the oldest lit- --

chapter of Egyptian history, Horus was more than the sun-god, because the sun only rises every day. But the flood only comes once a year. And the problem of Egypt is the flood. And that's the -- sun is a daily thing, it has nothing divine in it. And you read in all the books that the Egyptians were sun-worshipers. It is utter nonsense, gentlemen. They were no sun-worshipers. They weren't that stupid. Nobody has ever worshiped the sun except modern professors. It can't be worshiped, because it's a daily event. And we live, after all, 70 years; how can we worship the sun? In the South, the sun is a terror. You -- you would worship perhaps the moon, or the shade, or the stars. But you wouldn't worship the sun, because it kills all life. And here, we have to live without the sun for the whole -- great length of time. We needs roofs; we need other orders. It's not the sun we cre- -- can worship.

Again, it's a purely academic tradition that there has been sun-worship. No. What was important was that Horus took upon himself also the functions of the east-west movement. That is, that he talked democratic language to these people, and said, "I'm a fellow like you." And so you get in addition to his movement from south to north, his becoming the son of Ra. Ra being the sungod in Egypt. And all this nonsense about Heli- -- He- -- Heliopolis and the priesthood of Heliopolis, which modern men write, is all absolutely no -- no textual evidence. It's a belated compromise with democracy so that the people in the village could feel that they knew something about Pharaoh's way of life. So they had him rise every day, with the -- as the sun -- the living sun, and then go south, and then go -- go west. And the funeral of course was on the west side, and all the cemeteries on the western bank of the Nile River. But these are already the second -- is -- that's already the second chapter.

Then comes the third chapter. The third chapter is Osiris. Because although there had to be one pharaoh of Egypt, there was no reason why you shouldn't reconcile your subjects by allowing everything -- everybody to become a little bit of an Osiris after death. And so the third chapter of Egyptian history is this vast, Osirian fantasy, that with the certain ritual of the Book of the Dead--you have heard of the Book of the Dead, perhaps, some of you--you could talk into every dead man the feeling that he was Osiris, and that the sun could give him the eye of Horus didn't amount to much, you see. It was in the other -- in the beyond. So you find in all the coffins of Egypt -- in the third period, you find the judgment of the -- of the dead by the living, you see. And Osiris as having received the delegated power by Horus, judges then also a civilian, a {plebegian}, a fellahim. You can say that Osiris is already the -- what we would call the mo- -- the universal vote, the -- the--how do you call it? the -- no, you have ano- -- the franchise given to the 18-year-old in this country would correspond to this way out. The dead received the franchise in Heaven as little Osirises.

And you get therefore, gentlemen, in the third chapter of Egyptian history, this great attempt--which you also have in China, and you have in all empires--of universalizing the relation of Heaven and earth, of making man feel that after death, he is one of the immortal souls, not only the pharaoh, but every -- first the noblemen, and then the merchant men, and then the soldiers, and finally even the last peasant bought his Osirian coffin, painted, in which he followed the ritual of the emperor.

Now gentlemen, this is that chapter which you still touch upon when you read astrology in your newspapers. Because in order to democratize Egypt, it was of course necessary to break up the one, united Heaven and to give every man his own horoscope, his own astrological place. But you see how absolutely meaningless it is. -- There was a political move to assure every man that Heaven had a special place for him, you see, too, that it was a pure imitation of the one horoscope for the whole of Egypt, and the constellations of the 36 {Dekans}, you see. That was the one, original creative thing in Egypt, whereas what you read about--the stars, constellation on July 24 -- from July 24 to August 23rd, you see, to -- you will take a fall on the round staircase, et cetera--that is taken from this already-disintegrating order of Egypt, when everybody tried to be -- have -- be an Osiris in the sky.

And the last step is a very intricate one, and a tragic one. That is the cult of the golden bull. That is the Apis cult, as which the Egyptian religion migrated through the world. I told you about this excavation in the north of the Rhineland in the Mosel valley in Trier. And I think this word "Trier," you may use it--tow- -- city in which Constantine, the first Christian emperor, was born. And so it has some relationship to the transition from Egyptian religion to Christianity. In 395, the mighty temple of the bull, of the Apis bull in Egypt, was closed in Alexandria. I may have told you this. In the Apis bull, the old tribal totems were made accessible to the local people of Egypt in a -- in an intricate manner. There was an animal. They hadn't to be like Pharaoh. They hadn't to be like the gods. They hadn't to be like -- you see, and the emperor didn't have to be like the sun. Everybody could understand that his own working oxen--you see, yoke of oxen--was the divine partner of his work, that this was the machinery, that was the -- the -- which allowed him the standard of living, which allowed him the wheat, and the fruit-fields, and the gardens to raise in such a short time these rich crops on the soil of the Nile. And therefore, in -- the last phase, gentlemen, the bull-worship is exceedingly stronger than in the beginning.

Now I don't want to prove to you know--it's not necessary--why this strange story is -- is -- repeats itself. But if you -- can understand that pharaoh is first a Horus, then in order to be understood by the people under him, he becomes the son of the sun, the son of Ra--in -- China, the son of Heaven, same

thing--then in the third phase, he becomes Osiris, which corresponds in China to the ancestor-worship of the family, you see, where every family claims to have an ancestor which can be -- to which you can make sacrifices in his tomb. And that it finally simplifies matters by worshiping that animal, specifically, by which the animistic world of these old tribesmen is reconnected with the machinery of the division of labor, you see that in -- there is no progress, but there is regress, gentlemen. The true story of man is that if he has a new principle, he builds it into the old order. In 395, you may say that Egypt was more tribal than 3000 B.C. In 3000 B.C., all the taboos had to be broken. The -- the sister had to marry the brother. The tattoo had to go from -- from the skin. The -- settlement had to be given. You couldn't migrate anymore. All the things had to be done on purpose to break the tribal order. In 395 A.D., the difference between the tribal order and the Egyptian order is beginning to be obliterated. And you now look at the Egyptian story as though it was -- contained both elements--the tribal and the imperial.

I remind you--to have a point of comparison, gentlemen--that the Israelites first lived in the desert. Then they occupied the country. And after 400 years, they only were allowed to build a temple, as in Egypt. Because it took them 400 years before it became necessary, you see, to build back the old order into the new. Therefore, the history of Egypt is a very exciting story. It is not something from which you can learn. It's a necessary story. The order always jumps first as far away from the old order as it possibly can, when it is a new order. A newly acquired faculty, gentlemen, is most remote from the old quality, in order to assert itself. And later comes -- much later do the compromises appear. And at the end of an empire, you can hardly distinguish it from a tribal order.

This is very difficult to understand for you, gentlemen. But it's the opposite from what you think of evolution in history. But that's the true story, gentlemen. Christ is absolutely original, a break with everybody who has lived. But if you think today of a -- of a modern -- Unitarian minister, he's not more than a -- than a Greek Stoic, because Christianity now has adapted itself to the whole pre-Christian rigmarole and order. But this Unitarian thinks he's more modern than Christ. He's far behind Him, you see. He's just still of the ancient description, because Christianity is now so wide open to any compromise with a world that had gone on before it. Just as the Apis bull is the compromise of Egypt with the tribal order.

Thank you.

Mr. Weiss -- is he here? Mr. {Michelsen}, and Mr. Cooper. Cooper. You're {Michelsen}. { }? Mr. Wood. Who are you?

({ }.)

Yours is the worst.

(I missed the preceding six lectures to that one when I was supposed to report on.)

Were you sick? Why don't you write another report?

(May I do that?)

Sure. { }.

[tape interruption]