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The wor- -- world moves forward, we said, while men are looking backward. And without the rebirth of the past, gentlemen, the Christian era could never ful- -- have fulfilled, and can never fulfill in the future, its task to draw all history--from the first day to the last--into one, big, divine present, to make available to you and me kingship, and priesthood, and poetry, and science, and prophecy. Obviously, nothing must be forgotten that has happened before. And yet at any one moment, we will have to select the one thing--just as the master of the Christian era did--that was necessary, the one thing that at this moment is indispensable. And I tried to fix your attention to the very marvelous fact that at this moment it is indispensable to go before the revival of Israel, and Greek -- Greece--called "the Renaissance"--and to discover the loyalties of the tribes, of primitive men, because our modern society is for sale, and where everything is for sale, there are no loyalties. We can lie today in advertising and propaganda shamelessly, with impunity; but with one terrible result, gentlemen: that you are all terribly lonely. You all have nervous breakdowns, and you are all not integrated. And you all, being alone, have to develop, so to speak, inside yourself a dialogue. And so you -- you are many men in one, and you -- go schizophrenic. And this is no accident that this society in this country produces, at a higher rate than any other civilization, schizophrenia.

In -- in the Philippines, that is unknown. You may call these people -- "primitive," but they are healthy. You are not primitive, but you are not healthy, mentally. You have big bodies, gentlemen, and no mind. Because you think you must have a mind of your own, gentlemen. That doesn't exist.

The end of the era of world science, and of world discovery, this year of the Lord, 1957--or roughly speaking, the year 2000--to which you all are running and rushing, gentlemen, has left man with a spectacular knowledge of all the its and all the things. But with a total impotency with regard to passion and white heat. Every one of you is scared to death to commit himself or to stick his neck out, because that would seem ridiculous, gentlemen.

Now one thing the tribesmen have--that's why we have to go back to that today--they are not afraid of looking ridiculous, because they still live in this preGreek state where there is no public who could look on you. In a tribe--in the orgies of the dancing-ground of a tribe, gentlemen, in the war-dances or sworddances of the Navajo Indians--there is no onlooker, except American tourists, of course, because the -- the tribe is alive only in as far as all the members are in it, and dancing, and are wearing masks, or are excited, or are willing to -- to -- to ensla- -- inflict terrible hardships on their -- on their legs and arms by incisions,

and tattoos, and pinpricks, and -- winding snakes around their neck, or whatever they do, because there is no onlooker, gentlemen.

You all -- and we'll have to devote today to this problem of the Greek mind, gentlemen, you -- the -- the -- Israel, the empires, and the tribes are all without onlookers, without an audience, without a public. And you are killed by your constant mirroring yourself before a mirror and saying, "What will the other people say?" or "What would they say if they knew who I was and what I did?" You are constantly reflecting upon "keeping up with the Joneses," or adjusting to something that doesn't exist. What is -- this famous stock-phrase which you have to -- of adjustment, gentlemen? You adjust to something that doesn't exist. There are a hundred people in a room; they all adjust to each other. When you ask them to what they adjust, they say, "Well, I don't know. I do what the others do." Now the other 99 do the same, so you can imagine the result.

You -- this is insanity, because not one of the hundred meant to do this, but he's adjusting all the time to zero, to minus, to a mirror. Because he thinks that 99 people are looking at him. And so always the most stupid thing happens in our society, because everybody is living under the eyes of a public.

Now if you are in a good square-dance, gentlemen, you don't look, but you try to get -- get on with the dance. And then you'll have a hard time to be -- fast enough. And you have no time to look around to the other people, how they dance, or what they think of you. And I assure you, they don't think of you at all. And that's -- comes as quite a novelty to a Dartmouth student, because a -- Dartmouth student always thinks that the other people think something of him. I assure you, we don't think of you at all. We want to be left alone, and you want to be left alone. If you would live without the idea of this keeping up with the Joneses, or adjustment, or anything -- of conformacy, you would begin to live. But now you always live under the eyes of allegedly somebody. And so you don't live at all. Frozen out. Completely paralyzed. Not one of your -- movements is your own.

Now the tribes, gentlemen, today, these primitive men with their strange behavior ha- -- hold this promise for us, that they were hot-tempered and passionate. And today passion is at a premium, because you have been weaned of passion. I told you this, boys -- the -- the class's verdict that they stopped writing poetry at 12. Well, in my mind, they stopped living at 12, then. A man who doesn't write poetry, gentlemen, at your age has very little prospects of leading a good life at 70. Where are -- where will you be when your heart is already so cold, and so empty, and so blas‚ that you can't write poetry now? You have nothing in it.

So the whole society--and that's all over the world, of course--has become so world-minded, that the rest of the world outside of your own mind looks just like objects. Now nobody can get excited over objects, gentlemen. Objects are not interesting. Cadillacs are not interesting. Things are not interesting. They aren't interesting, gentlemen. The Cadillac is only important if you can impress your sweetheart with it, obviously. Then it is very important, you see, but not because it is a Cadillac, but because she falls for you. That's quite a different reason, is it not? Or because society gives you higher rating, I mean. You have to pay a -- more for your room at the hotel when you drive up with a Cadillac. { } very pleasing.

So gentlemen, things are indifferent. And what I -- have tried to build up to today, yesterday--in the last two meetings--was that when we -- transform everybody, including ourselves, into things, into objects, and we become totally indiffer- -- objective, we also have to become totally indifferent. Because things make no difference. There are -- we are -- what we call the world, gentlemen, is that which is not "we." And we are only afraid, and fearful, and excited, and happy, and glad, and -- and joyful when we are meant. All those parts of the universe, gentlemen, with whom you can identify yourself--your family, your friends, your country--are on your side, and they are not things. Because you cannot remain indifferent to the fate of the United States or to the fate of the human race. If you can, gentlemen, if you have objectified the human race, then you are very much on the way into a lunatic asylum. In the lunatic asylum there sit -- 80 percent of the people--I would guess--in a lunatic asylum are people who haven't wept enough, had not enough sympathy with themselves or other people, have been objective. And then they break down, and they make up in their strait-jacket in the lunatic asylum for all the suppressed feelings, which they didn't care to have, when it would have been very healthy to have them.

Suppressed tears, gentlemen, drive people crazy. And this is the reason then that we -- shift today from the objective outlook, gentlemen, to the outlook which the social sciences represent. The problem of the good life, of the good society, the problem of society is today the problem of the future. And I think the good men go into this field, that they don't go into plumbing.

If you would -- would hear the grass grow, gentlemen, you would be today on the side of the angels. If you would go into something connected with the social sciences--be it ministry, or be it teaching, or be it politics, or be it -- whatever that is -- it can -- has many forms; it isn't yet clear what the forms will -- be--but it will be the end of a philosophy of the world, gentlemen. And I want to give you some slogans by which you can find out about this in the next 50 years. If you will look around, gentlemen, you will find that the Church is represented to the laity by so-called theologians. Ministers. And then you will know that

these people try to uphold the Christian era in its roots, in its beginnings: Christ. And the title for this first millennium would be then, Christ Himself, and all we have to know about Him. When you come to the second group in our society, gentlemen--business, and engineers, and MITs, and bridge-builders--then you will see that these people are -- have some philosophy or the other, and they are building up nature, or what I call the "world," out of many.

But when you come to the problem of human loyalty, and human heat, and human passion, and human sense of wonder, and human growth, when you speak of the real problem of becoming an educated man--not in the sense of Dartmouth College, but I mean real education--then I would say that the word -- the people whom you want to find would be the people somehow connected with the term in which this syllable "socio-" -- "social" would occur. You can call it "the social sciences." And best of all, we would have as a noun, the word "society." Under the one, strict rule, gentlemen: that society has nothing to do with nature, just as little as nature has to do with the Church. Society is the temporal grouping of people by loyalty and hate, by love and hate. And that is something very different from nature.

Don't mistake society for nature, and don't mistake nature for society. Otherwise you will not be able to live in the next 50 years a good life. Society is not natural. Society has two qualities which it has inherited from the tribes, gentlemen. It has a short-range scope. Three generations, four generations, seven generations. You can't talk in society, as with the Church, of "eternity." Society is not eternal in the conscience of the members. The tribe wants to worship people still it's connected with. The names of the ancestors are still known. It's a small group. It's intense. It's close-knit. That's lacking today in our big cities. Therefore, since we want to have the tribe as a repristination, our society is troubled in order to discover the intimacy of the tribe. Intimacy of the tribe and intensity of the tribe. These are the two qualities for which society in the next thousand years will have to strive. Intensity and intimacy, which makes it small numbers, gentlemen, and heat, warmth.

This much we can say, gentlemen, because in nature everything is big, and everything is indifferent. Now the opposite is a tribe in which everything is small--you know each other--and it is very intense. More I cannot prophesy, gentlemen. We'll have to live this. That's the future. But I can assure you that in 200 years, people will decipher the masks, and the skulls, and the graves, and the arrows of primitive man with the same hot-headedness as they now have dug out the Acropolis in Athens, you see. It will be the same amount of life-and-death question, as it is now, you see, to be -- to revive the orders of an ancient city, or of an ancient empire. Why that is so, I hope I have explained to you. The very creation of a one world has put all of us, you see, into -- in a vacuum, in -- in an indif-

ferent { }. And therefore, you and I cannot live in this open space called "the world." Man wasn't meant to be in the world. You and I are too small for this, too { }.

But now the second point I wish to stress--I'm happy very happy to stress--is that when such a -- world of the past--here, in the most primitive man of original men, beginning of our history--is revived, not everything can be revived. That which condemned this -- ancient world as doomed, as only the first step which will be necessary for the Christian era to replace, we cannot bring back.

Now therefore I invite you now for a second round. When we have this strange walking backward--I have perhaps to state the whole story once more. Tribes, empires, Israel; the Church, the world, and society. And when it is understood, that what was last in antiquity was the first in our era, and what was second in antiquity was the second in our era; and what was the first in antiquity is the third, to be.

If you see this strange rigmarole, this strange circle which we are { }, we have now to find out what, under no circumstances must be revived of antiquity, when we now plunge into this primitivism of intensity, and intimacy, of group dynamics. Any -- who has taken a course in sociology? Well, you all know that the word "group" there is now abounding, isn't it? And "group dynamics" was the craze of the last 10 years. It was an invention. Everybody was put in Maine in a camp, and -- he was told beforehand that in the next four weeks, he would live in a group, and he would go through all the commotions and the emotions--you remember? have you gone through this, you see?--you would hate the men in the group, and then you love them, you see, and then would hate them again. And of course at the end, he would hate all group dynamics.

But they're talking about this, because they must. We all have to. Let us now -- going by exclusion, and you will perhaps, by this very fact that I now explain to you that what cannot be revived, be a little bit more convinced that we are marching into our future by gathering the fruits of the past, and by looking backward, by re-evocation.

Gentlemen, when the Church took over the Psalms of the old Israel--and the Passover, and the holidays, more or less, you see--and built Easter, and Christmas, and Pentecost on top of the Israelitic festivals, the law could not be received. And the Church is -- Israel -- the New Israel is without the law, the fence of the law, because the Jews were, in antiquity, separate from the others, allegedly { }. And the Church is the Gentiles themselves -- having become the New Israelite -- Israel. Therefore, the law, which separates Gentiles and Jews,

had to go.

And you know from the very beginning, in St. Paul, there is this great problem: does a Christian have to be circumcised before he's baptism -- baptized? And St. Paul says, "No. That would deny the unity for which the Church stands."

So we say, first rule, gentlemen: in -- in our era, oneness, unity is the goal. The Church is one for all believers. Therefore, the wall between Gentiles and Jews has to break down. The wall was the law of the Old Testament, you see. The 600 -- how many? -- 608 rules of the law, isn't it, or 607? I've forgotten, now. Who knows the figure? Wie?

(Six hundred thirteen.)

Six hundred thirteen sounds better. And the 613 rules were given up, because, gentlemen, our era wants to unite the quadrilateral, the four -- the four quarters separate before.

With the empires, gentlemen, the empires -- the pyramids were built with slaves. Therefore, gentlemen, the temptation of the empires of our era were -- was a new slavery. As you well know, there was no slavery in the western world in Europe in the 13th century. But there was slavery in the colonies after 1600. You don't know this, but the slavery in America was an -- a temptation, an atavism of the empire-builders late in the game. Whereas in 1100, 1200, 1300 there was no slave. There was slavery in 1600 in Russia and in America; and it was abolished in both countries who were not -- who were at the periphery of Europe in 1861. And you never must forget, gentlemen, that serfdom was abolished at the same time in America and in Russia, because it makes, you see, that America and Russia are in the same boat.

You share the story of -- of Russia: wide prairies; we have the wild West, they have Siberia. It's all very similar. And the sympathy we should feel for the Russians is: they had the same difficulty of building the -- the trans-Siberia railway that people had here to buil- -- in building the -- the continental railroad, the -- the Union Pacific, and the Canadian, and so.

It is very strange how you read history, gentlemen. It is never mentioned that the abolition of slavery in America is not an American invention, but is a worldwide re-evocation of the condition of the world makers. In the Christian era, you could only transpose, or transform, and supersede the empires, if you omitted slavery. Because what is -- who is a slave, gentlemen? A slave is a man in the empires from elsewhere. And the empire is not responsible for the order

outside its own boundaries. You can import slaves, because who -- who are these poor Babylonians or whoever the slaves were, you see? They come from elsewhere. An empire of antiquity can speak of the world outside as nonexistent, as nature. We can't. If you have one world, then every human being born from a woman, you see, is your brother, although he lives in a different political entity. Can you see this?

So the greatness of our era consists in the fact that you and I cannot have slaves, because a slave is a man for whose origin -- lack of origin I am not responsible, and for whose fate I'm not responsible, because he comes like manna from heaven, you see, as my labor force, from somewhere. "Well, they were vanquished," you see, "The state collapsed. There were slave-traders hunting them up." And so the white man in this country soothed his conscience and said, "I'm not responsible for these slave-traders in Africa, you see. Well, I mean. I -- I perhaps wouldn't be a slave hunter myself, but if the slave arrives here in -- in Boston --." You know, many fights have -- many legal fights were fought over this: can a slave be landed in Boston? And you may have heard these great legal cases, where finally the court in Boston said, "No. Here you can't land a slave, because -- there is no nature outside the United States. That's one world. That's one earth. And the earth is the Lord's."

Gentlemen, it all comes down to a very simple principle when you think of this problem of slavery. It is most fascinating to study the fact that the further the period goes forward, the greater becomes the danger that it forgets the distinction between the Christian era and the past. I would think that the Church in 900 of our era was more inclined to fall back, to relapse into legalism, and into the 613 -- rules of the Book of Leviticus, than in the first hundred years of the Apostles. The Church under Charlemagne was a terrible legalistic affair, I assure you. And they -- you wouldn't have liked it. It was too close to Israel. I could give you chapter and verse on this. This -- the period of Charlemagne has been my -- my special -- period of studies, and it is remarkable how close the Church then came to representing again a legalistic religion. And not only you had to go to confession. but every crime and every thing was -- was punished by -- by punishments of the Church, not the state.

Well, I can't go into detail of this. But the same is true about the slavery question and the empires, gentlemen. In 1100, the Normans were more human to their captives, I think, than the slave-traders in Africa in 1700. And there was, in 1914, when the World War broke out, gentlemen, more ruthless indifference of one empire against the other. Then in the last minute, so to speak, one world would have predicated, you see. The people held up -- off in the world wars this feeling of identity and solidarity for one world, which already was, so to speak, necessary in their world trade, in our literature, in our books, in our press, in our

railroads, in our --. In all our movements over the earth, we already had formed one world. But the nations here didn't want to have it that way.

And I think American slavery is the great example of the gradual weakening of the Christian era, in view of its theme. The reception of the old empires was the theme for 900 years. Transform these empires into one world. And the more this reception--this renaissance--went on, the more glibly, gentlemen -- the United States thought that slavery was quite a good thing, that it could take over the -- the bad with the good from antiquity. Can you see the strange story, that slavery increased from 1700 to 19- -- 1850 in this country? It's after all very strange.

But the reason is that if you have a task to fulfill, you fall in love with the task. The task was to become as efficient as the ancient empires for the whole world. World trade, and production, everything. And the discernment of the spirits, gentlemen, of which the New Testament speaks very wisely, was vanishing. You discern the spirits if you know what can be reborn, and what must be omitted, what must not be revitalized. In Israel, the law must not be revitalized, the 613 law -- precepts of the law, because otherwise the Church is not for the Gentiles. In the empires, of the empires, from the empires, the slavery cannot be represented. That's why the labor question became the burning question in the last hundred years, because labor was a form of inside slavery, was it not? Exploitation. And when Mr. Hoover said people who were unemployed couldn't be fed, they couldn't pay -- be paid a dole, he was collapsed. I mean, the era was collapsing. And it took the world wars -- and all these unemployed had to -- had to be soldiers again, to drive out this -- hok- -- hoax of the old Republican guard, that a man who was unemployed could just as well be left to starvation. I don't think you would stand for this today. If your brother was hungry, you would know that he had to be fed.

But in Mr. Hoover's days--one of our friends who is present today, reminded me of this yesterday evening, that Hoover called the unemployed "loafers," because he said they don't want to work. Now 11 million unemployed are not loafers, as you well know.

So I think it's very dramatic, gentlemen. The reception of antiquity in the form of the imperial efficiency was {imperiled}. It was -- more or less here a great abyss of a social revolution, because the slavery issue was not eliminated here. People did not know that you could have a one world, instead of the old empires, only under the condition that there could be no slaves. Can you see this reasoning? The law and slavery.

Now we come to the tribes. Gentlemen, the tribes are wedded to warpath.

No tribe without war possible, because the -- { } -- the pride and the coherence of the group is -- is -- need these taboos. The breaking of this small group, you see, by anybody outside would make it impossible to pass on the law and the speech of the tribes, this special { } to the future. And it is the sanctity of your speech, the sacrament of speech which has driven people always to war. When somebody speaks differently, he has to be crushed, you see. The same with -- I mean, what is -- Mr. McCarthy? He -- you don't speak his tongue, therefore out you go. You can't teach in an American college, or such things.

Gentlemen, this -- it is hard for you, but if you recall what I tried to tell you about speech, you may understand what I mean by the sacrament of speech as a cause for war. All wars are in this sense religious wars, that any deviation from the trend of the group is punished with excommunication. Excluded. And where such another group speaks differently, you want to get rid of them by clubbing them down, via the war. War is the elimination of a danger to your own law. War is never the same as a murder, or a -- a struggle -- a fight, personal fight. War is always something higher, because it always tries to protect the way to speak, your spirit. You can't wage war, gentlemen, except for your spirit against a foreign spirit.

Now we know from the bomb, gentlemen, and from this great turn of events during which I am delivering these lectures to you, that there can be no war in the future. And the condition of one great society is revival of the tribes, but without their war. We have a third elimination now coming to us. It is -- as difficult as the elimination of slavery as the elimination of legality. The Church nearly collapsed in -- under the -- under the Carolingians and under the Islam. The Islam is law again. The whole Moslem world gave up free grace, you see, and still, as you know, Islam is the new legalistic religion. So that is -- comes from the end of the first thousand years such a -- such a collapse. And we had slavery in this country. And you have slave camps of labor -- forced labor in Vorkuta in -- in -- in Siberia today. And that was the temptation of the last thousand years.

Now the temptation of the -- of the coming time is war. And it is obvious that we can only in- -- inherit the intensity and intimacy of the group if this little group does not insist that it can kill everybody who has a different passion and a different speech. You understand?

So we can became tribesmen under the condition that our tribe is open to all other tribes, remains open to all other tribes. As soon as we arm so much to the teeth, like these Zionist-nationalists who say, "Let's have war -- more war everyday," you see, "we only live by war," they are mistaking the prob- -- process. In Zionism, you can study the problem very intimately, because they want to have an intimate and intense group on the one-hand side. But they also are

driven by necessity to still waging war. And the Americans feel that the society is already too much around us. And no one group can go to war, you see, against its neighbor without inflaming the -- the whole world. That's the issue today.

And so what I'm telling you in general terms -- you can read in the papers every day. That's the whole issue in the Near East at this moment, you see: the small war, which is perfectly natural under the old -- in the old dispensation, so to speak. Of the last -- first 2,000 years of the Christian era, this was still natural. War wasn't yet baptized. The society hadn't yet come about. But we begin now to wake up to the fact that probably the third vice of antiquity has to go. So the first was the law, the second was slavery, and the third is war; all three dealing with a part of mankind, or the rest of the world as nonexistent. In antiquity, people lived in a reality which was smaller than God's world, than God Himself, and God's mankind. And we have to live in a world of all men, of the whole globe, you see, and of one God and not many different gods.

And therefore we have to eliminate, with regard to God, a law which separates His religious worshipers, the Israelites, and -- the poor Gentiles in their benightedness, because there are now no Jews and Gentiles. We have to -- also to give up the difference between China and the rest of the world, or Boston and the rest of the world. Whatever it is, you see. Because there are no privileged places, anymore, no localities, no Vatican in Rome who has it, and the rest of the world is -- is the desert.

And now we come to the third proposition, gentlemen. Your family isn't any better than any other family, and yet it has to be your family. And you have to keep up this tremendous tension that you can't read up in a textbook on your family. It doesn't help you at all, when you read all explanations of the psychology of your parents.

I have a friend in Woodstock. And he came from a house -- people very unhappily married. And he was a little bit its -- the victim. So he flunked at Harvard, and accordingly went to psychoanalyst. And concluded a wonderful Woodstockian and Harvardian contract that -- since his father was a rich man, the father would pay $8,000 a year to the psychoanalyst, and he would pay a quarter of his income, weekly earnings, which amounted to the stately sum of $30. So on it went for two years. And the boy was successfully analyzed--I mean successful for the analyst. And then he went to Woodstock and -- and continued analysis by first insisting that his father had to be analyzed, and secondly, the mother. And now they have first -- he was down on his father, thought he was the culprit. And now he's down on his mother, { }.

So one member of the family after the other is found to be guilty for the

dissolution of the family. And that doesn't help very much for the -- family life, you know. If you can treat this -- your own family scientifically, that's just as bad if -- as if you treat the whole world as your own family. I mean, both cannot be done. The world is not your family, but your family is not your world. And -- and I think the -- the poor mother in this case is the victim of this boy's drive to get rid of his own family in terms of intimacy and intensity. You see, he wants to become indifferent. It's a terrible price. He had better get married instead of persecuting his mother.

Well, it's very serious, gentlemen. The problem of your future is: can you, with all your knowledge of the things of the world, still live in a group which you treat intimately and passionately? And you are not helped by telling yourself all the time that this is only one family out of 60 million families. Doesn't help. The problem is this is your family, you see. Therefore, the 59,999,999 other families don't matter. And all your scientific knowledge cannot prevail against this decision that you have to make, that it is your family, you see. And you have to stand by -- inside this family and remain with it, because otherwise you have nothing, although it's a very poor family, and a very awful family, and how awful it must be, you can imagine, because you are a member of it. { } know yourself. So -- I mean, you are of course the deteriorating element in it. That doesn't help, gentlemen.

In the society of the future, the little group inside of which we ourselves move, has to live passionately and intimately, gentlemen, with the limitation that we cannot go to war against other families, or other tribes, or other nations, or other groups, you see. War is out. Now that has tremendous consequences, gentlemen. And I may point out to you that as soon as we try to inherit from the first man, the original tribesman, the -- his loyalty, his warmth, his heat, his hardiness, his willingness to s- -- be sacrificed for the good of the group, and yet exclude war, a whole new world opens up. Because gentlemen, the consequence is a very strange one, and unexpected one, and you will never have thought of it. All the tribes of the future will be temporary, all the groupings of the future. We cannot -- it may be { } that the Apaches or the Sioux will return in the way in which they have existed for 7- -- 8,000 years without a change. Why? Why can there be in the future not 8,000 separate groups established as -- as today on the earth, where there still are 10,000 different languages? Why is the abolition of war immediately telling us, or giving away the new secret of the good society in the future, gentlemen, that although you will belong to your own family, you cannot bow eternally to its existence? This is the corollary to the abolition of war, gentlemen. All groups in the future society will be transient. The society does not consist of churches that are forever. It does not consist of natural mountains and rivers that last forever. It consists of -- groups that are transient.

Of course, a great example is our family. The good family is -- the more a good family, the more it's transient. The family that wants to cling to you forever is a dead family. If you have to worship your great, great, great-grandfather, it becomes an obsession. And you degenerate. A family lasts three, four, perhaps five generations in its strength; but then it must go. It must give way to new families.

I have called these groups, gentlemen, "transient sacramental groups." It's a poor expression. I don't know yet any better. The future will teach us some better expression. It means that the sacramental character is there, as though it was a sacred thing. But if it is transient, you see, it cannot claim eternity. It must be allowed to pass. What you do with your wife and your children, gentlemen, must be perfect in itself. But you -- cannot incorporate it, and you mustn't try to. If you try to do it with the trust fund and so, you usually make a -- make a mistake. Don't try to eternalize family life, you see. The better it is lived, the more passing it must remain. It is good now. And that's our power: to make it as best as possible. But all the illusions of grandeur, that you want to fix the dynasty, so to speak, you see--that's overstepping the mark of society. Because gentlemen, eternity of any part of mankind leads to war.

If you try to keep one branch of the human race in a certain state of aggregate, in a certain form, you see, you condemn it finally to a separation from the rest of your tree. There has to be a revamping, a repruning, a regrafting of all the branches of all the human race in the future, I'm sure. And there will be -- many horrors will be tried, because many groups will not follow my argument. That's too logical and too clever, you see. And they just will try just the same for a hundred years -- hundreds of years to come, to establish themselves, you see, as the -- like the white man in Southern Af- -- South Africa. It's a definite attempt there to -- to say, "I -- we -- we rest, no change." Very tempting, by the way, and I -- I think there are very noble souls in this African -- Afrikaaner movement. But the future is not with these people. I think they will be a kind of stumbling block, a landmark, and perhaps a -- a signpost. These Afrikaaners at this moment, with their separation and segregation, are very remarkable people. Don't be betrayed. They are remarkable people. Every mis- -- every phase of human history is always represented by one group who must make the attempt not to go into the future, but to repristinate the past only. And this will be repeated, gentlemen. Many of you will be tempted to do just the same with your own family, or with your own state. Who is from the South? Well, you aren't very representative. Oh, you aren't?

(Originally, yes.)

Oh, yes. So we have, I think, established a number of important rules. The

future, gentlemen, will be a very genuine future, not just a discovery of more space, but it will be the discovery of the temporality of the groups which we must form. And these groups will be formed by the dilemma, by the contradiction. But they must be intimate and intense, and they must not be allowed to be eternal and go to war. And it isn't so simple to connect the two things, gentlemen. Because you can have peaceful life without war, but it can be lackadasiacal, and degenerate, you see -- and don't-care, and indifferent, and so-what people are not -- don't deserve to live. And you will -- can be sure that all the people who say, "So what?" will be wiped off the surface of the earth. God had not -- has not created indifferent people. I mean, for the reason that you have a good metabolism, and a low blood count -- high blood count and a low blood pressure, you have no right to live. That's -- health is not a good reason for living in -- as one part of the human race, gentlemen. Your contribution must be more. The {condition} for it is love...

[tape interruption]

...politicians' attempts to bring back to you the necessity of having it. Without it, you are lice, but not human beings. The abolition of war, however, makes it impossible for these eager and intense individuals to claim immortality. They must be willing to sacrifice their -- their passion into a group as of today.

The medicine man, gentlemen, of the tribe, will have to come back. That is, the leader of society who help create these intimate groups, who shout people into their awareness that now is the time to lead the intense and passionate life. And the first man who tried to live as a new medicine man, gentlemen--and not as a philosopher, and not as a theologian--was a man called Friedrich Nietzsche. And he is so misunderstood by the modern philosophers and ministers, because they all try to interpret him as a -- either a theologian of the Church, or a minis- -- or a philosopher of the world. He's neither. He's a medicine man of society, and that's why he went insane. Because the -- that's part of the medicine man. They were partly insane. With their masks, you see, and their talking for the dead.

That's a very -- last consideration which I would like to add: the whole problem of the mental health, gentlemen, is connected with the health of the group. There are two ways, gentlemen, of having the right or the wrong spirit. If a group is diseased, and is as indifferent as you are, gentlemen, then somebody in the community goes insane, because he's healthy. He still realizes that this community is sick. I have cases here on this town, gentlemen, of a very pathetic nature, where the brides -- the women were too sensitive to the in- -- indifference of this place, and its -- its whole racket of education in which you excel. And they fell insane. And they were the much better people than you, gentlemen. I assure you. They fell insane, because they couldn't stand the sickness of your souls.

Your coldness; your indifference; your individual, atomistic nonexistence; your don't-care-for-anything; your running around just from one hill to the other, or to one sport to another. In an animal kingdom, gentlemen, the one human being falls sick.

So insanity, gentlemen, in the future will have two aspects. You will always have to ask: is the individual insane, or is the group insane? Where the group is insane, the healthy person will seem to be insane. Because the group will never admit that it is insane. It doesn't help me to declare that you are insane, gentlemen. You just laugh me out of court, and you put me into the straitjacket. You are the majority, you see.

So in a group, it is very difficult. But you must -- you can watch it. You will find groups outside of you, and that will open your eyes to the fact that in an unhealthy group, the most healthy person will go -- fall sick, because she had -- or he have -- has still the power to fall sick, to -- to -- to react, and to respond to the danger for this group and its health. And please give up this idea that the individual is insane, gentlemen. Insanity is something that befalls the spirit of the tribe, the spirit of society. And mental sicknesses are social sicknesses. They take their toll out of individuals, it is true. But in alternation. The group falls sick, the "I" falls sick; I get well, group gets well. And that's just the way it works. And the whole problem, gentlemen, of mental health is not a problem of an individual, but it is a -- problem of sensitivity. -- The most sensitized members of a group fall sick, if the group is not functioning right, is not intimate and not intense.

And that's why today, as you well know, mental health is -- has become such a tremendous proposition. It is not a question of mental health, gentlemen; it's a question of social sanctity, sanctification. If your transient sacramental group is functioning, then you are well, obviously. And if your group is disintegrating, then you become a public danger, so to speak, because you spell disaster with your faith, and you can't sleep, and so on. But only because you feel expelled and dismissed from this integrating community to which you should belong.

Let's have a break.

[tape interruption]

...we had space and time. The Church covers our vocation through all times as original members of the -- {creation}. Space deals with our many-ness, our plura- -- -ality of -- in -- at one time and one space, and has to have a {unifying} space. And society is going to limit everyone's own contribution to a transient contribution. Not one of us can hope to remain eternal in the world of

society in the future. Otherwise it would lead to war. And the abolition of war is certainly prophesied with the coming of Christ. And now it seems -- the time to have come that it is possible to see it realized that there are sacrifices. And the sacrifice of the individual group is the -- is the self-will of this group to last forever.

So we have eternity, space, and time as the topic of the three millenniums. And we are -- most of you are space people. Most of you, without getting you personally { } Americans are sunk in space. You go west, when you want to have excitement. And you go to Europe; that's space. The man who really leads an exciting life doesn't have to change from one place to another for his { }. He just enters a new epoch in his life.

With these words--eternity, space, and time--I hope I have convinced you that I'm talking straight fact, because all of you are bound up in these three {species}. Of eternity, the eternal {meaning} of your existence which {exists in a certain state}, with a certain part of the globe. And the {time} given to you -- as for your own {temporary existence}, within this eternity, and within this { }. Can you see this? It is very miraculous that these three millennia in a certain way can be distinguished, although at any moment, of course, you and I are eternal beings, spatial beings, and temporal. All of us are all three all together. Everybody belongs to -- to a family, which is transient; to a certain world -- part of the world, of nature, { } the spatial world, you see, {which we feel} around us; and { } the meaningful { } of the whole of creation in which he tries not to break the eggs, so to speak, and spoil God's plan. { }.

I have however now to tell you, that you and I are outside any of these three millennia of the Christian era, and the history of the {past}, because we { }. {As students and} professors {in a} college, we are Greeks. We have inherited the meditation and leisure { } {unreality} { } of the ancient Greek world. We compare all these things. I compared the Church and society { }. In order to wake you up to the fact that there are several { }. I am teaching. You are learning something, gentlemen. That's Greek. And you can ask, if you must ask yourself, gentlemen, where does this fourth order belong? of which I have been challenged these last weeks. I have talked about the reception of Israel by the new Israel, called the Church. I have talked to you about the transformation of all the empires all over the globe into one world, and I have talked of the coming society which must -- integrate all the tribes of mankind. But all the time, gentlemen, there have been students and teachers. Ever since Paul tried to teach {these damned} Athenians, and it didn't work, and he had to go to Corinth because he { } in Athens -- there have been attempts to -- integrate, to prune, to graft { } the Greek spirit into this era, and to make the best use of the powers of the Greek spirit to fill our leisure, to enhance our leisure, to prepare

ourselves for life, to enrich, you see, our -- our insight into the workings of all these orders by comparing notes, by {pointing before life} in preparing you for the future of your own life, you see, for all these {duties} that are expected { } terrors that are waiting for you. And so, gentlemen, you live really outside any of the real historical forces, because you live in { }. And I do, too. And my whole endeavor has been to -- not to -- not to enhance our situation here in this college into a situation {of superiority}. Why -- why have I exposed you {to all these things}? Why have I tried to take you { } Dartmouth? I want to warn you, gentlemen, that a student and a teacher are not enveloped {in powers} whom they serve in education and their thinking. We are { }. We are {people of God}. But the family and the { } of production, and of war, and of worship are above us, and we have tried to -- to { }. We cannot, because we are so clever, and read so many books, assume that our { }.

The profligacy of the intellectuals in this country is very terrible today. because the intellectuals still form a group who think they know better. They may know better, you see, but they don't live better. And the problem of history is not the problem of knowing, but the problem of living.

Therefore let us devote ourselves -- a moment to the -- to the real contribution of the Greek mind in the last 2,000 years { }. From the very beginning, St. Paul and the Gospel writers were willing to have their Gospel written in Greek, and to write their letters in Greek. { }. They were perfectly willing to take the { } out of Greek poetry, and Greek philosophy, and Greek tragedy. Paul himself has quoted Greek tragedy with { } in the conversion at Damascus is {a conspiracy} { }. And that's -- has been the honor of the Christians who, straight forward as they were, were not willing to let anything be destroyed that genius had been -- had created. Christ Himself was genius, Paul was a genius. They could not deny that God also spoke to Moses and the prophets, { }. Genius is the power of God in a single man outside of the { }. Empires, { }, and Church, {have} the spirit {of} at once speaking from eternity to eternity, from country to country, from father to son. So the problem of the Greek spirit, gentlemen, of the schools is the case of individual { }, the case of individual {genius}. You can see this. It is in those great realms of which we have spoken not interesting that a man has individual genius. You can't produce motor cars by genius. You have { }. And if one man leaves the place, the other has to come in, you see, {replacement is essential to production. It's the same in the army. One man is killed, you have to have another { }. You have to have { }.

In the {field} of the Greeks, gentlemen, every man mentally can be irreplaceable, because his kind is not like any other. A great philosopher or great artist cannot be replaced. In as far as your mind is original and creative, you must not be afraid that { }. You are irreplaceable. The army has spared artists for

this reason. They were members of { }. They had respect for his original talent.

So the Greeks, gentlemen, are that element which is not hereditary. {Spirit} in the Greek sense of genius cannot be inherited. Gentlemen, sometimes people { } in this country { } strange idea of the New York { }.

That's a very good example, gentlemen, where { } the Greek spirit {lies}. The Greek spirit is not found { } world. { }. You can never say that because a father was a -- had a { }. But we live through { }. So you love your { }. The hereditary successor {in a} society has nothing to do with the { }. { } you can be very grateful that your father was not a { }. The whole -- the whole power of this family {exploded then in one individual}, and the rest was mere {dross}.

So the Greeks are not {fertile}, gentlemen. The {intelligence} of genius, gentlemen, is--I wouldn't say sterile; that wouldn't be { }. But it doesn't enter the next generation. I don't know quite how to express it. { }. But it is not in- -- inheritable. There are no heirs to the mantle of -- of the genius, as little as to the mantle of the prophet, by the way.

Therefore gentlemen, our education has faced, since the days of St. Paul, the great task of bringing you in touch with the works of genius, without {heredity}. That is, in antiquity, there were schools of { } the Homeric { } by inheritance. They had copyright { } within the family. And in India and China, you get these ancestors, { } father {gives} son { } same song { }. And that's how all these old poetry -- poems have come down to us: by inheritance, physically, bodily. { }.

Now any school, gentlemen, in the last 2,000 years has tried to build on the principle of the Old Testament, that flesh and blood shall not inherit. That's the spirit. And what we have today, as you know, is a system in which the classics and the { } works of genius are accessible to anybody, regardless of...

[tape interruption]

...regardless of faith, color, and creed. That's Greek.

In as far as this principle works, the Greek element of genius is able to choose its followers' creed. Here you are. Ten of you will be enthused by this course, and the others will not. You go to Shakespeare -- a play; five, or 10, or 20 will be -- inflame on the plays, and the others will not. That is, genius, gentlemen, looks for company. And I built this up already in the first half of this meeting, gentlemen, that the Greeks' -- spirit can only be made available to the world

at large by a public. That is, an unforeseen gathering of unknown elements out of which an unknown percentage will be kindled by this flame. Genius is, like the spirit of the New Testament, exactly the same. What's the saying of Jesus about the spirit? "The spirit" -- you don't know -- this -- this word? -- That you cannot foretell where the spirit moves. Don't look at me. Say it.

"It blows where it listeth," or "It listeth where it blows"?

("It blows where it listeth.")

Yes. But it has also meaning, the sentence, Sir. You would be -- should be able to quote it yourself. It's not -- doesn't help me if you have only heard it. It's a very important sentence, gentlemen. There has to be in every structure of society one element of a fresh grouping of people so that we find out who is akin to this spiritual gem, or this spiritual {spark}. That's called this { } fresh formation of a public. That's not a people, gentlemen. That's not a congregation. That's not the body of Christ. And that -- are not the inhabitants of any one country or -- or of the whole globe, you see. It's a regrouping by which we invite people -- so that they might be exposed experimentally, so to speak. Who is -- has affinity, who has kinship with this kind of spirit?

And this I -- it seems to me is the problem of the liberal arts college, gentlemen. The -- our selection, our selectivity would, if genuinely working and operating, lead you to find out in these four years where you find spiritual kinship should be found. If this is done in { } the liberal arts college has functioned well. And then you have a way of enhancing your real task in society and in nature, business { } and family life, in politics and religion. There you have kindling wood, so to speak, out of which to draw the -- the eloquence, the sources, the quotations, the material by which you can then be a more -- much more effective { }. You burn, and you are a stove.

So the problem of heat and intensity, gentlemen, and of importance, and of weight in your own life is strangely enough, connected with your power of selection. You have to find those geniuses of the world that have pre- -- had preceded you, in which you find already the expression of your deepest desires, of your dreams. You have to have this contact with genius. It is -- sorely lacking in this college, gentlemen. I've always inquired why you are so anti-artistic. Why are -- are only football coaches your ideals? Or football captains, or ski-team captains? You cannot live by ski-team captains into the future of your life. Any {cast in} society, you must find heroes from Greek tragedy, or from Shakespeare, or from Goethe, or from Dostoevski to work with. And it won't be Mr. Kafka, either. But you are in such an all-time low, gentlemen, that you are no longer--{it seems}--to -- able to -- to feel this electrifying power of this great privil- -- of

yours to be exposed to somebody like Dante. You think it's a bore, it's a chore. You {weren't going} to read it; it's assigned reading. And if you ever get on the school board, gentlemen, of your community, abolish all assigned reading, because otherwise the children in your town will loathe reading. Assigned reading is hated. And of course, the Greek spirit can only be kept alive { }. You must read under the table, in secrecy. You must have books which you are not allowed to read. These are the good books for you. Because if you don't make it a secret this contact with genius, gentlemen, it won't be important in your life.

And I come back then to connecting up this Greek story with the other great story. This -- the story of schools looks rather drab. And in this country, it has been very drab. { } and the liberal arts colleges.

I had a friend, a famous teacher in Harvard, who wrote a book in which he proved to his own satisfaction that his grandfather, and his father, and he himself had all three learned the same Latin words on November 7th, in their generations, in their classrooms. So the school in Am- -- Amherst was so conservative, you see, that the same vocabulary was there in 1846, and 1876, and in 18- -- 1906. Quite an achievement, gentlemen, but very boring.

This is, by and large, the -- the -- the mere school is {non-Greek}, pure mechanics of teaching. The Greek element is genius, gentlemen. This same man, Perry, who wrote this book, And Gladly Teach, about his experience at Amherst, was one of the most brilliant teachers at Harvard, because the genius of the poems he could convey to the young--in English literature he taught--was allowing him to look intensely and intimately into every new classroom with the hope to find some, you see, mystical group that would be called, evoked, construed, glued together by the passion for this great -- the greatness of this one genius and spirit.

And so the Greeks, gentlemen, bridge--as always--the gap created by boredom, by indifference in society. And therefore, today we have -- schools have become part of the world, where you try to live at school here, objectively. The Greeks are not represented very well in a -- in a liberal arts college, the Greek geniuses. But they have to be. And therefore I've come around -- I have criticized the Greeks. I have put them below. I have tried to throw them out of the stream of history, in your eyes. And I think I had to, because we can't have slavery, and we can't have eternal war, and we can't have homosexuality, and we can't have petty- -- petty gover- -- city government -- sovereign states--158 in Greece alone. On the other hand, gentlemen, when you come to the state of affairs of teaching in this country--the grammar school, and high school, and colleges--you suddenly feel that without the Greeks and their genius, we are lost.

Take away the Greek tradition in our colleges, and you couldn't last four years here. Just { }. It is just impossible. -- The genius is a necessity for refreshing in every generation the human mind. Your intelligence is just abstract, gentlemen, and perfectly uncreative, because you haven't been exposed to the -- to Greek genius. There is no Greek tragedy which you can quote by heart, except for {David Rattray's}. And you are very poor. And you are not in a liberal arts college at all, gentlemen. You are just in a school. This is the world in the Christian era without the Greeks.

And therefore, I plead now -- I reverse the charges, so to speak, and I -- at this moment--with my last, dying minutes--I want to plead with you, that you are responsible for this decision which is now going on under your noses--you can read it in The Dartmouth if you don't understand it--is Dartmouth to be a threetrimestrial school, with visits at Wellesley at -- and -- and Smith? Or is it to be a liberal arts college? I don't think you understand that the liberal arts school at this moment more or less has ceased to exist. It is just by name, I mean. It's just as bad as the Catholics coming in 1500, where { } says the Christian Church just consisted of temporal princes. Today you live in a school. There's nothing "liberal" or "arts" about it. I don't see any arts. I don't see any -- any liberal geniuses who in -- kindle in you a fire, that you run around and say, "I have heard something so great, I must never forget it." You try to forget everything you learn. That's just the opposite. After the exam -- why, you took the course last year, you tell me you took French for two years, but that's long ago, so of course you don't know French. The "of course" is always so wonderful.

The Greek spirit means, gentlemen, a -- a loyalty to genius. You cannot understand genius, gentlemen, without the followers. A man is only -- Shakespeare is only Shakespeare if there are people who cannot be without Shakespeare. Otherwise { }. And gentlemen, you can be very well without Shakespeare. I assure you. I am convinced of this. It's just purely accidental if Shakespeare's drama is standing out the shelf of your books -- on your bookshelf. Purely accidental. There are perhaps three in this group who cannot live in a -- who will survive in a concentration camp in a -- in Siberia--as pilots there, being shot down in the next war--because they have Homer or the Bible with them. The others would do without the book just as well.

This is very serious, gentlemen, because genius is just as nourishing in -- within the man's life, as law is nourishing for the -- community to the generations. Just as you need property, to leave something for the education of your children, or to sustain your widow when you die--buy life insurance or whatnot, or a house { }--so your mind needs something more than schooling.

As you know, it is called today here unfortunately "general education"

against professional education. But if it was only general, it wouldn't be education. Education is always personal, is always warm, is always direction, is always specific. There is no general education. But there is an education that includes the meeting with genius, the exaltation of something -- it was the nightingale and not the lark, the herald of the day. And that if you heard it once, you are very lucky, because you can quote it to your girl in a correspondence situation, And it means that you are reminded that you should be a poet. And anything you read in Greek tragedy reminds you that you should be a priest. And anything -- that you read in the Old Testament as great literature, and the -- reminds you that you should be a prophet. And anything you read in the Constitution of the United States reminds you that you should be a king. And therefore, the Greek task in this strange march of mankind to its appointed goal is to make you forget -- for the -- to -- to make you aware of the completeness of your royal claims, of your acquisitions. Without genius, not one of the achievements of the pre-Christian world would warm your heart, and would wake you up to who you really are.

You remember, three weeks ago, I think--or four weeks ago--when we embarked on this -- stepped out of antiquity into the Christian era, you agreed with me--at least the reports agreed with me--that most people today didn't give a damn to be kings, or prophets, or -- or priests. They -- would be very anxious if somebody said they couldn't be; they would be very angry. But they didn't care to be. The universal priesthood of Luther, we said, doesn't meet with any response in your heart, because you don't feel that you ever will be priests. And the same with kings in -- in -- in the days of the Revolution. Everybody here wanted to be a king. You don't want to be a king. Gentlemen, why? Because the Greek spirit of poetry has not re-evoked in you the original forces of life. That's the best definition of { }. A genius is -- is all -- is independent of history, because at any moment of the march of history, he can re-evoke the original fiber, the original passion, you see, of the first day of creation. When you read -- when you look -- listen to the music of Wagner--the -- the -- how is it called? the fire, magic fire in "The Valkyrie"? Wie?

("The fire { }.")

No, not -- no, not { }. Around Brunnhilde the flames are -- are leaping, and the music plays this tremendous -- who? Well, anybody with any feeling of imagination there feels the magic of the original discovery of how to make fire. How to master fire. The Promethean myth is there valiantly represented by the act of genius in the music. That's not the Fire Dance, my dear man. Nobody's dancing there. She's sleeping.

So I'm sorry. I've made it all wrong. Ja. Why didn't you call me? I have to

stand on this side, now.

In this long march through thousands of years, gentlemen. The tasks have been very precise, and very difficult. And you can see now that the march of mankind is nothing accidental. From the speech- -- -king group to the writing group to the prophetic group, there has been a constant conquest of the fullness of man's task. He can now -- you and I can now cover the past, and the future, and the present in solidarity--we love each other--and cooperate. The myster- -- mysterious place of the Greek genius i- -- has been to re-evoke at any moment all the times outside this hour of decision which you have to face when you choose your profession. Any man who now becomes a physicist is obsolete. And any man who becomes a social scientist could be a pioneer in this college. But you are told that it is important to become a physicist, because we need them. Gentlemen, it's very tempting. Obsolete jobs always pay better than pioneering jobs. So when you become a physicist, you can always betray yourself, because you can tell yourself that you get 10 times as much money. And you will of course betray yourself, and you will become an engineer.

The mystery of the Greek spirit then is this -- this semination, this intersemination of an immediate contact with any phase of life. And don't forget that the great text of antiquity--Homer, and the tragedy, or Shakespeare, by the way, and Dante for our own last thousand years, or the fathers of the Church for the heroic deeds of the saints of the Church--that they are given you so that you cannot for one -- moment pretend that you are under battle fatigue. The battle fatigue comes when we are only at one point of the historical situation. And the relaxation of a good soldier comes when he is put in contact with the whole home life and family of mankind.

And please, as long as you are in this college, forget your examinations, gentlemen, and forget us, and forget your assignments. And -- think of the fact that for the rest of your life, you must have acquired this Greek faculty of being electrified by genius. That's what the college stands for. And that makes this strange intertwining possible between the real powers of history, and this second world of human- -- humanistic idealism. I have tried to reconcile the two in your minds, gentlemen. And I failed.

[thundering applause]